Volume 2, Number 2 (2016) pp 51-71 doi 10.20448/807.2.2.51.71 | Research Articles
The concept of training and employee development was vague in the minds of managers and employers in times past. Training and employee development is a scheme to catch the growth and development of modern management techniques. This research work was aimed at ascertaining the impact of training and employee development on organization and worker’s performance. Fifty questionnaires were distributed and retuned. Simple percentages techniques were used to analyze the data, while Regression Analysis was used to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that training improves productivity and that training and development of workers do improve productivity. Also training and employee development manifests in the following conditions; high productivity, low wastages, low accident rate; low union dispute etc. It was concluded that the government need to inject more fund in training and re-training of employees for optimum productivity. It was finally recommended that techniques that would be easily understood by trainees should be used and they should be exposed to different methods, and equipment. Similarly, all training and employee development should center on the achievement of the individual and organizational needs.
Keywords: Staff training, Development, Organisation, Performance, Workers.
Citation | Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu; Lazarus I. Okoroji; Onyemere Fineboy Ezewoko; Chima Allios Nwaobilor (2016). The Impact of Training and Development on Workers Performance in Imo State. Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 2(2): 51-71.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Funding : This study received no specific financial support.
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
History : Received: 4 June 2016/ Revised: 21 June 2016/ Accepted: 30 June 2016/ Published: 11 July 2016
Publisher: Online Science Publishing
The term training and development are often in the report of organizations by policy formulators in their bid to design, effective program eventual attainment of organizational goals. Policies are made in organization to further the achievements of the goals and objectives for which the organizations were established. There is apparently a general inclination of the organizational policy maker towards assuming a functional relationship between employee training and development of the prospective beneficiaries of such programme. Although there appears to be a universal acceptance of the idea that training and development enhance performance.
Training is an organized activity aimed at impacting information or instruction to improve the recipient
According to Porter et al. (2000) only a few of the many types of training programmes have been subjected to extensive type of research. Training and development is voluminous non-empirical, non-theoretical, poorly written and dull. He further noted that “it is faddish extreme”. The factor center around the introduction of few techniques appears on the horizon and develops a large stable of advocates are those who busy themselves trying out numerous modifications of the basic techniques, faced with lack of research into the relationship between training development performance (Campbelle (1990).
Staff training and development is a necessary tonic for effective and efficient services by staff, because with training, it enables the employees to acquire and possess the necessary skills, capabilities, and attitude needed for efficient performance of their job.
However, most organizational plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in vain.
Preliminary investigation into the activities of Imo State Ministry of Finance shows that training and development of staff have not been given the needed attention it deserves for the last 10 years. The advert effect of this scenario can be easily being observed in poor performance of staff in the ministry. The ministry has therefore recorded poor financial growth as a result of lack of training of staff. Also there is issue of poor turnover, low income generation by the ministry, poor motivation of employees resulting to worker’s inefficiency and general low productivity in the ministry.
Primarily, the purpose of this study is to ascertain the impact of training and development on workers performance. That is, the extent to which training and employee developments in organizations have reduced most of the problems encountered at the office to enhance performance and productivity.
Specifically, the objective of the study is as follows;
For the purpose of this study, the following research questions which will guide the researcher are adopted:
The hypotheses are in null forms;
H01: Training and development do not significantly effects worker’s productivity
H01:Training and development of workers do not significantly improve workers efficiency.
Workplace learning and improvement are considered essential for an organization to remain competitive (Salas & Cannon 2001).Thus, it is not surprising that employee training is now a multibillion dollar industry worldwide (Haccun & Sats 1998).
Training is defined as a systematic acquisition and development of the knowledge, skill and attitudes required by employees to adequately perform a task or job or to improve performance in the job environment Goldstern (1980).
Development on the other hand is defined as by business dictionary as a systematic use of scientific and technological knowledge to meet specific objectives. While training improves knowledge, development advances it, training leads to development and development in turn demands more training.
Lack of training results to low employee performance, low productivity, poor motivation of employee
Lawler et al. (1998)is of the opinion that when performance is being discussed in the context of/social situation, the research literature mentioned is made frequently of the classic formulation B=F, (P,E), that is the behaviour has some interactive function of both the person and his environment.
Although this formulation may be correct, is however deceptive. The formulation is capable of loading an investigator into thinking that he knows much about the causes of performance that is actually the case. This is learning on environmental interaction, as basic for predicting and for changing human performance in complex situations.
It is pertinent to specify in some details;
Furthermore, Warri (2000) is of the view that effective performance of each employee in an organization is the function of the level of motivation and capability of that individual within the social environment in question. These factors which determine the performance of an employee must be studied within reference to each other, it is not possible to draw a general conclusion from a study of any one of the parts even if the time and situation are considered.
It is therefore, desirable in gathering information about employee performance for purposes of determining the impact of training and development on it illustrate in a nutshell the dynamism of the organization and individual interaction. The dynamic of the organization and individual interaction refers to the distinct contribution of the organization on one hand, and to individual organization member on the other hand towards the fulfillment of the organizational objectives.
Some theories have suggested that organizations could be seen as providing individuals in the organization with;
Warri (2000) indicated that “the separated demands of individuals and organizations serve to task the resources of others. He went further to explain that the communicated expectations of organizations place requirements on the skills and energies of individuals.
However, various formal mechanisms such as:
According to Warri (2000) “some attitude features whose contents suggest an overlap with job activities are those which cover personal expectations of reward as a result of hardworking”. According to another reviewed literature studies yielded correlation of 0.43 between supervision ratings of each employer’s expectation that in different rewards should follow good performance.
It might be expected therefore that here exist links between attitudes and performance whose content is matched to some moderate extent.
Apart from the motivational determination of performance, the performance of many task and jobs in organization are strongly attacked and affected by the individual who do the work, even if any employee has both high commitments towards accomplishing a particular piece of work and a well formed strategy about how to go about doing it. The implementation of that plan can be constrained or terminated if he does not know how to carry it out or if he knows how but he is incapable of doing so.
According to Ibekwe (2004) while ability is relevant to the performance of jobs at all level in an organization, its impact probably somewhat reduced for lower level jobs relevant knowledge and skills of employees. Through formal jobs training programmes and self-study programs, a good number of training and development program have been designed to affect each of the determinants of performance motivation and capability, it has been observed that a greater number of those programmes have been developed to influence the trainees response capabilities where as some exist and are designed to affect motivation.
Most writers have concerned themselves essentially within putting forward arguments for and against the very idea of manpower planning and development in organizations. Some other writers have emphasized the need for manpower planning and how to ensure inncreased efficiency and productivity through the use of manpower plans and development programmes.
Kempnet (2000)sees manpower planning as the name given to the drawing up of different types that the company will require over a period of years. He believes that once a company has developed a long-range strategy (corporate planning), it become possible to estimate the number of people of all types and categories that may be required over the following years.
Aina O. (2000) defined manpower planning or human resource planning as a possible for determining and assuring that an organization will have, adequate number of skilled and experienced person available at the right time and place performing jobs which meet the needs of the organization and which provides satisfaction for the workers involved. Manpower planning in providing adequate number of skilled workers is expected to provide job satisfaction to those workers in return.
Training according to Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary states that training is the process of preparing somebody or being prepared for job. In manpower development, training is therefore an indispensable element and at the same time, a vehicle for development and planning. Ibekwe (2004) emphasized the role of training in management activity especially in the area of human resources management. According to him, the training function is a management activity in which the personnel department provides the necessary specialist knowledge and usually carries out in addition to the administrative requirements so that the function operates effectively within the organization. He went further to state the basic stages in establishing training function with the view to improving on the manpower development.
These stages are:
A training need can be said to exist when there is a gap between the existing performance of an employee (or group of employees), and the desired performance to assess whether such a gap requires a skill analysis. The analysis has five stage:
Development generally means the process of causing somebody or something to grow or making something to become larger gradually. But in relation to manpower development can be seen as a process of increasing the quality or value or skill of an employee (personnel).
From the definition, it can be sent that training facilitates manpower development and consequently his performance. Manpower training and manpower development are two inter-related processes whose importance cannot be overemphasized in any decision of strategic human resource management. They are related to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve the quality of its managerial capacity. In this view of Armstrong (2000) manpower development refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in the employees as a result of educating and training programmes. “He says that development is managerial in nature and career focused”. To distinguish training and development, Chanokan has this today, “that unlike the training, the workers which improve technical and mechanical skills, development techniques are designed for work behaviour modification”.
The reason for manpower planning and development, it is important to say a little about development. As jobs are becoming more and more complex, it becomes imperative for employers of labour to train their workers unlike when jobs were simple and little technical knowledge was required from the workers.
Manpower training and development are two interrelated processes whose importance cannot be overemphasized in any discussion of strategic human resource management. This related to the series of activities, which an enterprise would need to embark upon to improve the quality of its managerial capital. Manpower development has been described as the systematic process which an organization has to go through to ensure that it has the effective managers it requires to meet its present and future needs.
According to Delphilips et al (2002) training is a process when under company auspices seeks a planned, coordinated and conscious manner to develop in the employees those understanding skill and attitude, which will maximize individual’s present and future efficiency and effectiveness of the overall company operations.
Various training and employee development techniques have been advanced for effective performance; these techniques are towards the same objectives of improving production and efficiency.
The impact of training and development are manifested in the obvious contents of skills, knowledge and attitude. These are acquired after the employee have been trained and developed in relation to organization functional performance partners. One of the training techniques that help in ascertaining the impact of training on workers performance is the “game techniques”.
According to Kibbee et al (1961) game techniques are dynamic training experience utilizing a model of a business situation. The modification will enhance the relation changes in the individual attitude, skills and knowledge about his job activities. Furthermore, game techniques provides the participants with basic ideas of operating the policy decision as required in the real situation in the working place as it requires various teams being placed in a competitive condition with each other.
There are many types of training and manpower development programmes available. The particular method chosen by a company can be influenced by considering cost and time available, number of persons to be trained, depth of knowledge required, background of the trainee, etc.
This is a widely accepted method of developing workers used by most organizations, old and experienced workmen perform much better in any organization when they undergo training and manpower development through on-the-job training programmes”. The advantage of this method is that it creates good working relationship because employees get to know each other better and the working environment. On the other side, this method is disadvantageous in the sense that it could result to unorganized supervision, monotonous work and also using unqualified personnel for supervision when the qualified are undergoing the training. On the job training could take the following forms:
· Training by experience workmen.
· Apprenticeship, which is the oldest method of training.
Apprenticeship training offers an integration of the, on the job training, that under normal conditions appears to be effective the main purpose of apprenticeship training is to prepare employees for a variety of skilled occupations. The trainees are placed under a supervisor for a specified number of years. At the end of each time he automatically becomes a journey man if done well, the programme offers the opportunity to move back and from the classroom instructions to supervise practice on the job. The apprentice agreed to work for an organization at a rate below. The rate paid to fully workers in return for a specific number of hours of training.
The aim is to impact the facts, theories, concepts, etc without actual practice. Examples of information presentation method are:
The conference method or techniques of training provides the participants opportunity to pool ideas and facts to test assumption and inferences and conclusion. The idea a trainee presents depicts his personal behaviour, it is therefore, the aim of the conference technique to improve job performance and personal development.
There are techniques and training and development of employees. The essence of seminars and workshops is to develop practicing and operative managers in an effort to achieve the organizational goals. Many seminars and workshop courses has been taken in Nigeria, all for the improvement of the workers.
This is used to help trainee acquire more skill usually in technical or commercial fields, where skills are acquired for performing a task. Vestibule training is a system of training sued when large number of people is to be trained on special machines or equipment.
Corroborating the views of Ubeku, (1975) believed that a ‘forward looking’ plan ensures that the necessary human efforts to make possible survival and growth is available and entails manpower forecasting, which means gathering of data in relation to labour, evaluating the data then making predictions on the future eon the basis of the data. Ubeku (1975) recognized two stages in manpower planning: Stage 1: This is concerned with the dictated manpower inventory of all types and level (unskilled, skilled, supervisory and managerial) employed throughout the period of the manpower plan. Stage 2: This also concerns with manpower supply resources. Consequently, Coleman (1974) views the process as being five (5) stages. First is determining the organizational objective and plan for the planning period. Secondly, is to determine the gross manpower requirement for the plan period. The third stage is taking manpower inventory or current in-house capability determination. The fourth stage defines the net manpower requirement for planning period. It is gotten from deducting the manpower inventory from the gross requirements. The fifth and final stage takes care of programming, meeting the next manpower requirement. This includes expansion contraction or internal adjustment of present workforce.
This study is based on human capital theory proposed by Schultz in 1961 and developed by Becker in1994. According to the theory, Human capital theory suggests that education or training raises the productivity of workers by imparting useful knowledge and skills, hence raising workers’ future income by increasing their lifetime earnings (Becker, 1994). The human capital model suggests that an individual's decision to invest in training is based upon an examination of the net present value of the costs and benefits of such an investment. Individuals are assumed to invest in training during an initial period and receive returns to the investment in subsequent periods.
According to the work carried out by Marios (2006) on improved port performance through training: The contribution of the International Labour Organization, the focus of the port sector has been mainly on technological advances that make productivity less dependent on human effort, knowledge and skills. But recent years have witnessed a growing acknowledgement by the port industry that appropriate attention must also turn to performance improvement through people. According to him, Ports should be seen as “socio-technical” systems because, in practice, operations in port terminals are carried out by a partnership between human beings and technology. This partnership, however, can only be successful if appropriate emphasis is given to Human Resource Management (HRM) and particularly the training component of HRM, an often over-looked area that can have a significant impact on port performance. He therefore recommended Codes of Practice, Guidelines and Manuals as well as training materials developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO), which aim in the improvement of cargo handling performance, the working conditions and practices and safety, status and welfare of women and men working in ports.
The research design used was the descriptive survey. The principal of proportionate sampling was also adopted for the study. Osuala, E.C. (2001) saw research methodology as the overall strategy used by the researcher in collecting and analyzing data for the purpose of investigation of problems. However, the method to be used by any researcher depends on the purpose of the study, the nature of problem to be investigated. This research is designed to be both descriptive and empirical in value.
Data was sourced through primary and secondary means. The data collected for the purpose of analysis were primary data. Primary data were collected using oral personal interviews and simple questionnaires administered to the employees of the organization.
The population consisted of all the staff of Ministry of Finance. The sample size which is a subset of the population was determined by simple random sampling. The researcher sampled to all the accounting and executive officers of the ministry which comprises of forty-two accounting cadre and eight executive cadres in the ministry of finance. A random sampling technique was used to ensure that each cadre of the population had an equal chance of being interviewed from the forty-two accounting cadre in the ministry of finance headquarters. Similarly, eight executive cadres were randomly selected from the fifty of the total number. Therefore sample consisted of forty-two accounting cadre and eight executive cadres.
In order to test the validation of the instrument of the study, the researcher recognized the need to pretest the questionnaire before actually administering them on the respondents. The rationale behind this work is to ascertain whether the questions were capable of eliciting the appropriate information or not.
The data were arranged in tables and the scores converted into simple percentages. The hypotheses were analyzed using Minitab software (Chi-Square) at 5% level of significance.
From the above table, 20 or 40% said they have work for 6 Months -2 years, 15 or 30% said is for 6-10 years while 5 or 10% said 11 years and above.
The table above shows that 50% found their work fascinating, 25% interesting, 15% uncertain while 10% said frustrating.
The above table indicates that 40 respondents or % said that they have received training while 10 respondent or 20% said they have not received any training.
From the above table, shows that 45% respondents said on the job training, 32% respondents said seminars, 17% said lectures while 6% of the respondents said workshop training.
From the analysis 60% of the respondent said that their training 1 month 21% respondents said 2.5 months 14% said 6 months – 1 year while 5% said 2 years and above.
From the above table, 80% of respondents agreed that the longer the training last, the more impact it will have on their performance while 20% disagreed.
The table above reveals that 40% respondents said salary/wage attracted them to the organization 30% respondents said training/employee development, 20% said no choice, while 10% respondent said fringe benefit.
The above shows that 30 or 50% worker: Do you suggest that you need training and employee development when output seems to be dwindling?
From the analysis, 64% of the respondents said yes indicating that there was favoritism while 36% said no.
The above shows 80% of the respondents agreed that training and development matter so much in their organization while 20% of them said no or disagreed.
The table above reveals that 90% of the respondents agreed that productivity will increase after an employee has been trained while 10% disagree with this view.
In the above table 41 respondents representing 82% agreed that training and developing employee contribute to achieving the organizational objectives while 18% disagreed with the facts.
The above table shows that 88% of the respondents suggested that they need training and development when output seems to be dwindling of the respondents disagreed with the view.
From the above, 70% respondents said that frequency of absenteeism in due to lack training while 30% said no.
The above table shows that 75% said yes while 25% respondents said no.
The table above shows that 90% of the respondents says yes while 10% of the respondents says no.
The analysis shows that 90% respondents agreed that training and development minimize labour turnover while 10% disagreed with the view.
The table above reveals that 86% of the respondents agreed that new skills and techniques should be introduced after while only 14% disagreed
In this table 90% of the respondents agreed while 10% of them disagreed.
The table above shows that 82% (percent) of the respondents agreed that employees accept move responsibilities after training while 18% says No.
The above table shows that 50% of the respondents said that trained employees result in high efficiency, 25% respondents said immoderate 15% respondents said low while 10% of the respondent said No efficiency,
In the above table, 84% of the respondents agreed while 16% disagreed.
The table above shows that 52% of the respondents agreed that training helps to contribute the organizations profitability when products are highly demanded while 48% disagreed.
Form the above table, 88% of the respondents agreed while 12% disagreed.
The table above shows that 76% of the respondents agreed that training of employee contributes to effective utilization of scarce raw materials while 24% disagreed with fact.
The hypotheses are in null forms;
Hypothesis one: Training and development do not significantly affect worker’s productivity
Expected outcomes are printed below observed counts
Chi-square contributions are printed below expected counts
Decision Rule: If Xcal > Xcrit reject H0, that is the null Hypothesis and accept HA, that is the alternative.
Decision: Since Xcal =120 > Xcrit (0.05,27)=49.645, also P-value is less than 5%, hence we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that training and development significantly effects worker’s productivity.
Hypothesis Two: Training and development of workers do not significantly improve workers efficiency.
Welcome to Minitab, press F1 for help.
Chi-Square Test Likerts; YES=1, NO=0
Expected outcomes are printed below observed counts
Chi-square contributions are printed below expected counts
Decision Rule: If Xcal > Xcrit reject H0, that is the null Hypothesis and accept HA, that is the alternative.
Decision: Since Xcal =30 > Xcrit (0.05,6)=18.51, also P-value is less than 5%, hence we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that Training and development of workers do not significantly improve workers efficiency.
These training opportunities to prepare their employees to expect change and to develop the right attitude to meet and adapt to changes taking place in the organization. It was discovered that 80% of the respondents have received training while 20% have not received any training. According to Campbell (1990) proved the above findings when he was articulating the need of qualified staff by saying that consequent upon the introduction of few techniques in caring out some of the office, work and able to understand and operate new adaptable office staff, aware of the latest technologies in office equipments and system was called for and more impact of it will make on job performance because of the constant training in the organization.
This is in agreement with hypothesis 2 that said training and development of workers has made any impact in the organization
From the analysis of the table three (iii), it was discovered that 64% of the respondents said that there was favouritism while 36% said that there was No. According to Warri (2000) indicate that organizations should not practice favoritism in the selection of trainees. In its place, standards should be set as the selection criterion for development of the ministry.
The study found out that the resultant outcome of the training schemes offered to their employees is favourable. Becker (1994) viewed that the purpose of this study is to ascertain the impact of training and employee development workers performance. These have reduced most of the problems encountered at the office to develop their skill and knowledge as a means of promoting the growth of the organization.
These confirm hypothesis 1 which said that the organization do train and develop their employees for productivity and that training and development do improve productivity respectively.
The study found out that training of employee development helps in the improvement in both the quality and quantity of products of the organization. This is confirmed right by the 90% positive response of the workers of the organization. Training of employee helps to increase production and never make mistake which makes the products to be high quality.
Based on the research questions that sought out the recent innovations that constitute modern office technology, these questions were answered with the growth and development of modern techniques and establishment, if training institution for the purpose of employee training and development. Becker et al (1998) sees training and employee development as a scheme to catch the growth and development of modern management techniques.
From the analysis of the table in Chapter four, it was discovered that 90% of the respondents agreed that efficiency acquired during training contribute to minimize accidents in the ministry while 10% disagreed. Ibekwe (2004) mentions that the impact of training and employee development on workers performance and manifested in the following conditions; high productivity, low wastage, low accident rate, high quality of product, more responsibility. Few customers’ complaint and minimization of cost of operations, more so, workers are of the opinion that training and development do not only improve efficiency but also boast high productivity.
The twenty two research question try to verify whether employees has more self-confidence to perform after training 84% of respondents agreed while 16 disagreed. If employees generally can find their ways into work activities for which they are qualified through training, the use of human talent and self-confidence will tend to be maximized in terms of society in general.
The twenty three research question tried to verify whether training and development contribute to the organization’s profitability when products are highly demanded. In the light of these, any parastatal that fails to train and develop its employee’s skills is ignoring one of the most important managerial functions that foster continual growth and profitability in the organization.
This research question tried to investigate whether training helps the employees in knowing the skills or machine handling. It was discovered that 44 or 88% respondents agreed on the fact while 6 or 12% disagreed.
The organization made the researcher to understand through oral interview that they make sure candidates are full qualified before being employed while some time employ unqualified ones and train them on the job to their test and office procedure.
The study found out that the training of an employee utilization of scare raw materials. Armstrong. M. (2000) says that the most lasting and meaningful development occurs when managers and employees actually use new approaches acquired through training in accomplishing specific performance improvement and success. A good manager should utilize all available resources or raw materials to help the organization find out the organizational conflict that may arise which will in turn affect production or services.
From the data analyzed above, the following findings emerged;
To minimize the effect of the above problems and be able to bring about significant improvement in training and employee development, will require the co-operation of the government, the employers, the employees and the entire public which in effect would be a greater extent improve performance and productivity.
Here are some of the recommendations given by the researchers towards the problems identified;
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