Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies

Volume 2, Number 2 (2016) pp 51-71 doi 10.20448/807.2.2.51.71 | Research Articles

 

The Impact of Training and Development on Workers Performance in Imo State

Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu 1 Lazarus I. Okoroji 2Onyemere Fineboy Ezewoko 3 Chima Allios Nwaobilor 3 
1 Department of Maritime Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Transport Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
3 School of Management Technology, National Open University of Nigeria, Owerri Study Centre

Abstract

The concept of training and employee development was vague in the minds of managers and employers in times past. Training and employee development is a scheme to catch the growth and development of modern management techniques. This research work was aimed at ascertaining the impact of training and employee development on organization and worker’s performance. Fifty questionnaires were distributed and retuned. Simple percentages techniques were used to analyze the data, while Regression Analysis was used to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that training improves productivity and that training and development of workers do improve productivity. Also training and employee development manifests in the following conditions; high productivity, low wastages, low accident rate; low union dispute etc. It was concluded that the government need to inject more fund in training and re-training of employees for optimum productivity. It was finally recommended that techniques that would be easily understood by trainees should be used and they should be exposed to different methods, and equipment. Similarly, all training and employee development should center on the achievement of the individual and organizational needs.

Keywords: Staff training, Development, Organisation, Performance, Workers.

DOI:10.20448/807.2.2.51.71

Citation | Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu; Lazarus I. Okoroji; Onyemere  Fineboy Ezewoko; Chima Allios Nwaobilor (2016). The Impact of Training and Development on Workers Performance in Imo State. Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 2(2): 51-71.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 4 June 2016/ Revised: 21 June 2016/ Accepted: 30 June 2016/ Published: 11 July 2016

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

1. Introduction

The term training and development are often in the report of organizations by policy formulators in their bid to design, effective program eventual attainment of organizational goals. Policies are made in organization to further the achievements of the goals and objectives for which the organizations were established. There is apparently a general inclination of the organizational policy maker towards assuming a functional relationship between employee training and development of the prospective beneficiaries of such programme. Although there appears to be a universal acceptance of the idea that training and development enhance performance.

Training is an organized activity aimed at impacting information or instruction to improve the recipient

(Business Dictionary).

According to Porter et al. (2000) only a few of the many types of training programmes have been subjected to extensive type of research. Training and development is voluminous non-empirical, non-theoretical, poorly written and dull. He further noted that “it is faddish extreme”. The factor center around the introduction of few techniques appears on the horizon and develops a large stable of advocates are those who busy themselves trying out numerous modifications of the basic techniques, faced with lack of research into the relationship between training development performance (Campbelle (1990).

1.1. Problem Statement

Staff training and development is a necessary tonic for effective and efficient services by staff, because with training, it enables the employees to acquire and possess the necessary skills, capabilities, and attitude needed for efficient performance of their job.

However, most organizational plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in vain.

Preliminary investigation into the activities of Imo State Ministry of Finance shows that training and development of staff have not been given the needed attention it deserves for the last 10 years. The advert effect of this scenario can be easily being observed in poor performance of staff in the ministry. The ministry has therefore recorded poor financial growth as a result of lack of training of staff. Also there is issue of poor turnover, low income generation by the ministry, poor motivation of employees resulting to worker’s inefficiency and general low productivity in the ministry.

1.2. Objectives of the Study

Primarily, the purpose of this study is to ascertain the impact of training and development on workers performance. That is, the extent to which training and employee developments in organizations have reduced most of the problems encountered at the office to enhance performance and productivity.

Specifically, the objective of the study is as follows;

  1. To ascertain the extent to which training and development of workers impact on the organization.
  2. To determine the extent to which training and development improves worker’s efficiency

1.3. Research Questions

For the purpose of this study, the following research questions which will guide the researcher are adopted:

  1. To what extent has training and development of workers impact on the organization?
  2. To what extent has training and development of improves worker’s efficiency?

1.4. Research Hypotheses

The hypotheses are in null forms;

H01: Training and development do not significantly effects worker’s productivity

H01:Training and development of workers do not significantly improve workers efficiency.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Conceptual Framework

Workplace learning and improvement are considered essential for an organization to remain competitive (Salas & Cannon  2001).

Thus, it is not surprising that employee training is now a multibillion dollar industry worldwide (Haccun & Sats 1998).

2.2. Definition of Training and Development

Training is defined as a systematic acquisition and development of the knowledge, skill and attitudes required by employees to adequately perform a task or job or to improve performance in the job environment Goldstern (1980).

Development on the other hand is defined as  by business dictionary as a systematic use of scientific and technological knowledge to meet specific objectives. While training improves knowledge, development advances it, training leads to development and development in turn demands more training.

Lack of training results to low employee performance, low productivity, poor motivation of employee

2.3. Factors Which Affect the Performance of the Individual

Lawler et al. (1998)is of the opinion that when performance is being discussed in the context of/social situation, the research literature mentioned is made frequently of the classic formulation B=F, (P,E), that is the behaviour has some interactive function of both the person and his environment.

Although this formulation may be correct, is however deceptive. The formulation is capable of loading an investigator into thinking that he knows much about the causes of performance that is actually the case. This is learning on environmental interaction, as basic for predicting and for changing human performance in complex situations.

It is pertinent to specify in some details;

  1. These attitudes of the individuals which are relevant to the behaviour of interest.
  2. Attitudes of the organization and importantly.
  3. The way or ways in which these two sets of attribute interact.

Furthermore, Warri (2000) is of the view that effective performance of each employee in an organization is the function of the level of motivation and capability of that individual within the social environment in question. These factors which determine the performance of an employee must be studied within reference to each other, it is not possible to draw a general conclusion from a study of any one of the parts even if the time and situation are considered.

It is therefore, desirable in gathering information about employee performance for purposes of determining the impact of training and development on it illustrate in a nutshell the dynamism of the organization and individual interaction. The dynamic of the organization and individual interaction refers to the distinct contribution of the organization on one hand, and to individual organization member on the other hand towards the fulfillment of the organizational objectives.

Some theories have suggested that organizations could be seen as providing individuals in the organization with;

  1. Expectation and
  2. Resources that individual provides the organization with
  3. Needs and goals which can be viewed as their demand on the organizations.
  4. And skills and energies.

Warri (2000) indicated that “the separated demands of individuals and organizations serve to task the resources of others. He went further to explain that the communicated expectations of organizations place requirements on the skills and energies of individuals.

However, various formal mechanisms such as:

  1. Selection system which are intended to ensure that only individuals who can meet the expectations that the organizations places on them are permitted members.
  2. Socialization and training procedures to help members increase their understanding of organizational expectations and responded to them. Studies have shown that specific job satisfaction with company administration has little apparent relevance to working hard and positive attitude of colleagues who have established restrictive output quotes may well be accompanied by low work behaviour. Satisfaction has been examined with a group performance among graduate students by undertaking team project at three weekly intervals.

According to Warri (2000) “some attitude features whose contents suggest an overlap with job activities are those which cover personal expectations of reward as a result of hardworking”. According to another reviewed literature studies yielded correlation of 0.43 between supervision ratings of each employer’s expectation that in different rewards should follow good performance.

It might be expected therefore that here exist links between attitudes and performance whose content is matched to some moderate extent.

2.4. The Assumed Outcomes of Training and Development Change in Attitude and Knowledge

Apart from the motivational determination of performance, the performance of many task and jobs in organization are strongly attacked and affected by the individual who do the work, even if any employee has both high commitments towards accomplishing a particular piece of work and a well formed strategy about how to go about doing it. The implementation of that plan can be constrained or terminated if he does not know how to carry it out or if he knows how but he is incapable of doing so.

According to Ibekwe (2004) while ability is relevant to the performance of jobs at all level in an organization, its impact probably somewhat reduced for lower level jobs relevant knowledge and skills of employees. Through formal jobs training programmes and self-study programs, a good number of training and development program have been designed to affect each of the determinants of performance motivation and capability, it has been observed that a greater number of those programmes have been developed to influence the trainees response capabilities where as some exist and are designed to affect motivation.

2.5. Manpower Planning

Most writers have concerned themselves essentially within putting forward arguments for and against the very idea of manpower planning and development in organizations. Some other writers have emphasized the need for manpower planning and how to ensure inncreased efficiency and productivity through the use of manpower plans and development programmes.

Kempnet (2000)sees manpower planning as the name given to the drawing up of different types that the company will require over a period of years. He believes that once a company has developed a long-range strategy (corporate planning), it become possible to estimate the number of people of all types and categories that may be required over the following years.

Aina O. (2000) defined manpower planning or human resource planning as a possible for determining and assuring that an organization will have, adequate number of skilled and experienced person available at the right time and place performing jobs which meet the needs of the organization and which provides satisfaction for the workers involved. Manpower planning in providing adequate number of skilled workers is expected to provide job satisfaction to those workers in return.

2.6. Training

Training according to Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary states that training is the process of preparing somebody or being prepared for job. In manpower development, training is therefore an indispensable element and at the same time, a vehicle for development and planning. Ibekwe (2004) emphasized the role of training in management activity especially in the area of human resources management. According to him, the training function is a management activity in which the personnel department provides the necessary specialist knowledge and usually carries out in addition to the administrative requirements so that the function operates effectively within the organization. He went further to state the basic stages in establishing training function with the view to improving on the manpower development.

These stages are:

  1. To find out the training needs of the particular needs of the particular company at all levels.
  2. To formulate a training policy this will meet the needs of the organization.
  3. To evaluate the resources both financial and material this could be required.
  4. To provide the necessary specialist training officers who will be responsible for implementing both the training policy and the training plan.

A training need can be said to exist when there is a gap between the existing performance of an employee (or group of employees), and the desired performance to assess whether such a gap requires a skill analysis. The analysis has five stage:

  1. To analyze and determine the main requirements of the particular job.
  2. To identify they task required to be undertaken to meet the job requirements.
  3. To understand the procedures required to perform the task.
  4. To analyze the knowledge and skill required to perform the processes.
  5. To identify and specify problems of the job and to analyze any particular skill required to solve the problem.

2.7. Development

Development generally means the process of causing somebody or something to grow or making something to become larger gradually. But in relation to manpower development can be seen as a process of increasing the quality or value or skill of an employee (personnel).

From the definition, it can be sent that training facilitates manpower development and consequently his performance. Manpower training and manpower development are two inter-related processes whose importance cannot be overemphasized in any decision of strategic human resource management. They are related to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve the quality of its managerial capacity. In this view of Armstrong (2000) manpower development refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in the employees as a result of educating and training programmes. “He says that development is managerial in nature and career focused”. To distinguish training and development, Chanokan has this today, “that unlike the training, the workers which improve technical and mechanical skills, development techniques are designed for work behaviour modification”.

2.8. Development and Training

The reason for manpower planning and development, it is important to say a little about development. As jobs are becoming more and more complex, it becomes imperative for employers of labour to train their workers unlike when jobs were simple and little technical knowledge was required from the workers.

Manpower training and development are two interrelated processes whose importance cannot be overemphasized in any discussion of strategic human resource management. This related to the series of activities, which an enterprise would need to embark upon to improve the quality of its managerial capital. Manpower development has been described as the systematic process which an organization has to go through to ensure that it has the effective managers it requires to meet its present and future needs.

According to Delphilips et al (2002) training is a process when under company auspices seeks a planned, coordinated and conscious manner to develop in the employees those understanding skill and attitude, which will maximize individual’s present and future efficiency and effectiveness of the overall company operations.

2.8. Types of Training and Manpower Development Programmes

Various training and employee development techniques have been advanced for effective performance; these techniques are towards the same objectives of improving production and efficiency.  

The impact of training and development are manifested in the obvious contents of skills, knowledge and attitude. These are acquired after the employee have been trained and developed in relation to organization functional performance partners. One of the training techniques that help in ascertaining the impact of training on workers performance is the “game techniques”.

According to Kibbee et al (1961) game techniques are dynamic training experience utilizing a model of a business situation. The modification will enhance the relation changes in the individual attitude, skills and knowledge about his job activities. Furthermore, game techniques provides the participants with basic ideas of operating the policy decision as required in the real situation in the working place as it requires various teams being placed in a competitive condition with each other.

There are many types of training and manpower development programmes available. The particular method chosen by a company can be influenced by considering cost and time available, number of persons to be trained, depth of knowledge required, background of the trainee, etc.

2.9. On-the-Job Training

This is a widely accepted method of developing workers used by most organizations, old and experienced workmen perform much better in any organization when they undergo training and manpower development through on-the-job training programmes”. The advantage of this method is that it creates good working relationship because employees get to know each other better and the working environment. On the other side, this method is disadvantageous in the sense that it could result to unorganized supervision, monotonous work and also using unqualified personnel for supervision when the qualified are undergoing the training. On the job training could take the following forms:

· Training by experience workmen.

· Apprenticeship, which is the oldest method of training.

2.10. Apprenticeship Training

Apprenticeship training offers an integration of the, on the job training, that under normal conditions appears to be effective the main purpose of apprenticeship training is to prepare employees for a variety of skilled occupations. The trainees are placed under a supervisor for a specified number of years. At the end of each time he automatically becomes a journey man if done well, the programme offers the opportunity to move back and from the classroom instructions to supervise practice on the job. The apprentice agreed to work for an organization at a rate below. The rate paid to fully workers in return for a specific number of hours of training.

.11. Information Presentation Method

The aim is to impact the facts, theories, concepts, etc without actual practice. Examples of information presentation method are:

  1. Conference method: This could be in form of a seminar programme where a small group are drawn from different organizations.
  2. Classroom method: It can be used to reach a large crowd and it is usually two-way communication, where questions are asked and answered are received.
  3. Programmed instruction: It is teaching aides such as cassettes, films, etc. This method is different from conventional form of training in which the trainer guides the process because the materials to be learned with is presented in a way the student can control
  4. Lecture method: This is a student institutional method used in colleges, polytechnics and universities. It is cheaper and has the ability to accommodate more students.
  5. Simulation approach: People are trained on real life experience, i.e. problem that present itself on real life. Simulation approach could take demonstration or role-playing method.
  6. Demonstration method: This explains to the trainee by teaching live with examples such as making displays. It is the actual showing matter than telling the trainee and that is why it is learning by seeing.

2.12. Conference Methods

The conference method or techniques of training provides the participants opportunity to pool ideas and facts to test assumption and inferences and conclusion. The idea a trainee presents depicts his personal behaviour, it is therefore, the aim of the conference technique to improve job performance and personal development.

2.13. Seminars and Workshop

There are techniques and training and development of employees. The essence of seminars and workshops is to develop practicing and operative managers in an effort to achieve the organizational goals. Many seminars and workshop courses has been taken in Nigeria, all for the improvement of the workers.

2.14. Professional Training

This is used to help trainee acquire more skill usually in technical or commercial fields, where skills are acquired for performing a task. Vestibule training is a system of training sued when large number of people is to be trained on special machines or equipment.

2.15. Meaning of Planning and Evolutionary Organization Structure

Corroborating the views of Ubeku, (1975) believed that a ‘forward looking’ plan ensures that the necessary human efforts to make possible survival and growth is available and entails manpower forecasting, which means gathering of data in relation to labour, evaluating the data then making predictions on the future eon the basis of the data. Ubeku (1975) recognized two stages in manpower planning: Stage 1: This is concerned with the dictated manpower inventory of all types and level (unskilled, skilled, supervisory and managerial) employed throughout the period of the manpower plan. Stage 2: This also concerns with manpower supply resources. Consequently, Coleman (1974) views the process as being five (5) stages. First is determining the organizational objective and plan for the planning period. Secondly, is to determine the gross manpower requirement for the plan period. The third stage is taking manpower inventory or current in-house capability determination. The fourth stage defines the net manpower requirement for planning period. It is gotten from deducting the manpower inventory from the gross requirements. The fifth and final stage takes care of programming, meeting the next manpower requirement. This includes expansion contraction or internal adjustment of present workforce.

2.16. Theoretical Framework

This study is based on human capital theory proposed by Schultz in 1961 and developed by Becker in1994. According to the theory, Human capital theory suggests that education or training raises the productivity of workers by imparting useful knowledge and skills, hence raising workers’ future income by increasing their lifetime earnings (Becker, 1994). The human capital model suggests that an individual's decision to invest in training is based upon an examination of the net present value of the costs and benefits of such an investment. Individuals are assumed to invest in training during an initial period and receive returns to the investment in subsequent periods.

2.17. Empirical Framework

According to the work carried out by Marios (2006) on improved port performance through training: The contribution of the International Labour Organization, the focus of the port sector has been mainly on technological advances that make productivity less dependent on human effort, knowledge and skills. But recent years have witnessed a growing acknowledgement by the port industry that appropriate attention must also turn to performance improvement through people. According to him, Ports should be seen as “socio-technical” systems because, in practice, operations in port terminals are carried out by a partnership between human beings and technology. This partnership, however, can only be successful if appropriate emphasis is given to Human Resource Management (HRM) and particularly the training component of HRM, an often over-looked area that can have a significant impact on port performance. He therefore recommended  Codes of Practice, Guidelines and Manuals as well as training materials developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO), which aim in the improvement of cargo handling performance, the working conditions and practices and safety, status and welfare of women and men working in ports.

3. Methodology

3.1. Research Design

The research design used was the descriptive survey. The principal of proportionate sampling was also adopted for the study. Osuala, E.C. (2001) saw research methodology as the overall strategy used by the researcher in collecting and analyzing data for the purpose of investigation of problems. However, the method to be used by any researcher depends on the purpose of the study, the nature of problem to be investigated. This research is designed to be both descriptive and empirical in value. 

3.2. Sources/ Methods of Data Collection

Data was sourced through primary and secondary means. The data collected for the purpose of analysis were primary data. Primary data were collected using oral personal interviews and simple questionnaires administered to the employees of the organization.

3.3. Population and Sample Size

The population consisted of all the staff of Ministry of Finance. The sample size which is a subset of the population was determined by simple random sampling.  The researcher sampled to all the accounting and executive officers of the ministry which comprises of forty-two accounting cadre and eight executive cadres in the ministry of finance. A random sampling technique was used to ensure that each cadre of the population had an equal chance of being interviewed from the forty-two accounting cadre in the ministry of finance headquarters. Similarly, eight executive cadres were randomly selected from the fifty of the total number. Therefore sample consisted of forty-two accounting cadre and eight executive cadres.

3.4. Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instrument

In order to test the validation of the instrument of the study, the researcher recognized the need to pretest the questionnaire before actually administering them on the respondents. The rationale behind this work is to ascertain whether the questions were capable of eliciting the appropriate information or not.

3.5. Method of Data Analysis

The data were arranged in tables and the scores converted into simple percentages. The hypotheses were analyzed using Minitab software (Chi-Square) at 5% level of significance.

4. Analysis of the Information Based on Objectives

4.1. Presentation of Data

Table-1. Length of Service
This is question number 1 for the workers: How long have you worked with the organization?
Source: Question 1 of questionnaire

From the above table, 20 or 40% said they have work for 6 Months -2 years, 15 or 30% said is for 6-10 years while 5 or 10% said 11 years and above.

Table-2. Enjoyment
This is question number 2 for the workers. How do you enjoy your work?
Source: Question 2 of questionnaire

The table above shows that 50% found their work fascinating, 25% interesting, 15% uncertain while 10% said frustrating.

Table-3. Training Opportunity
This is question number 3 for the workers: have you received training since you were given this job.
Source: Question 3 of questionnaire

The above table indicates that 40 respondents or % said that they have received training while 10 respondent or 20% said they have not received any training.

Table-4. Type of Training
This is question number 4 for the workers: what type of training have you received?
Source: Question 4 of questionnaire

From the above table, shows that 45% respondents said on the job training, 32% respondents said seminars, 17% said lectures while 6% of the respondents said workshop training.

Table-5. Length of Training
This is question number 5 for the workers: How long did the training last?
Source: Question 5 of questionnaire

From the analysis 60% of the respondent said that their training 1 month 21% respondents said 2.5 months 14% said 6 months – 1 year while 5% said 2 years and above.

Table-6. Job Performance
This is question number 6 for the workers. Do you think that the longer the training last, the more impact it will have on your performance?
Source: Question 6 of questionnaire

From the above table, 80% of respondents agreed that the longer the training last, the more impact it will have on their performance while 20% disagreed.

Table-7. Reason for Attraction to the Organization
This is question number 7 for the workers: what do you think that attracted you to the organization.
Source: Question 7 of questionnaire

The table above reveals that 40% respondents said salary/wage attracted them to the organization 30% respondents said training/employee development, 20% said no choice, while 10% respondent said fringe benefit.

Table-8. Training and Development
This is question number 8 for the workers. How often are employees trained and developed in your organization?.
Source: Question 8 of questionnaire

The above shows that 30 or 50% worker: Do you suggest that you need training and employee development when output seems to be dwindling?

Table-9. Favoritism
This is question number 9 for the workers: is there any favoritism in selecting those for training and developing and development in your organization?
Source: Question 9 of questionnaire

From the analysis, 64% of the respondents said yes indicating that there was favoritism while 36% said no.

Table-10. Training Outcome
This is question number 10 for the workers. Do training and development matter so much in your organization?
Source: Question 10 of questionnaire

The above shows 80% of the respondents agreed that training and development matter so much in their organization while 20% of them said no or disagreed.

Table-11. Productivity:
This is question number 11 for the workers. Do you think that productivity will increase after an employee has been trained?
Source: Question 11 of questionnaire

The table above reveals that 90% of the respondents agreed that productivity will increase after an employee has been trained while 10% disagree with this view.

Table-12. Growth
This is question number 12 for the workers: Do you agree that training and employee development will contribute to the achievement of the organizational objectives?
Source: Question 12 of questionnaire

In the above table 41 respondents representing 82% agreed that training and developing employee contribute to achieving the organizational objectives while 18% disagreed with the facts.

Table-13. Suggestion
This is question number 13 for the workers: Do you suggest that you need training and employee development when output seem to be dwindling?
Source: Question 13 of questionnaire

The above table shows that 88% of the respondents suggested that they need training and development when output seems to be dwindling of the respondents disagreed with the view.

Table-14. Reason for Frequent Absenteeism:
This is question number 14 for the workers: Do you think that frequent absenteeism due to lack of training?
Source: Question 14 of questionnaire

From the above, 70% respondents said that frequency of absenteeism in due to lack training while 30% said no.

Table-15. Customer’s Complaints
This is question number 15 for the workers: Do you suggest any training need when customer’s complaints are mostly on quality of job executed?
Source: Question 15 of questionnaire

The above table shows that 75% said yes while 25% respondents said no.

Table-16. Improvement in Product
This is question number 16 for the workers: Do you agree that training will result in improving quality of product?
Source: Question 16 of questionnaire

The table above shows that 90% of the respondents says yes while 10% of the respondents says no.

Table-17. Minimization
This is question number 17 for the workers:
Do you think that training and employee development minimize labour turnover?
Source: Question 17 of questionnaire

The analysis shows that 90% respondents agreed that training and development minimize labour turnover while 10% disagreed with the view.

Table-18. Recent Innovation
This is question number 18 for the workers: Is it easier to introduce new skills and techniques after training?
Source: Question 18 of questionnaire

The table above reveals that 86% of the respondents agreed that new skills and techniques should be introduced after while only 14% disagreed

Table-19. Reduction of Accidents
This is question number 19 of the workers efficiency acquired during contribution to minimize accidents in the ministry.
Source: Question 19 of questionnaire

In this table 90% of the respondents agreed while 10% of them disagreed.

Table-20. Duty
This is question number 20 for the workers. Does it mean that employees will accept move responsibilities after training?
Source: Question 20 of questionnaire

The table above shows that 82% (percent) of the respondents agreed that employees accept move responsibilities after training while 18% says No.

Table-21. Efficiency
This is question number 21 for the workers: to what extent does employees exhibit efficiency?
Source: Question 21 of questionnaire

The above table shows that 50% of the respondents said that trained employees result in high efficiency, 25% respondents said immoderate 15% respondents said low while 10% of the respondent said No efficiency,

Table-22. Confidence
This is number 22 for the workers. When efficiency is acquired through training the employees have more self-confidence to perform?
Source: Question 22 of questionnaire

In the above table, 84% of the respondents agreed while 16% disagreed.

Table-23. Profitability
This is question number 23 for the workers; Training and development will contribute to the organization’s profitability when products are highly demanded?
Source: Question 23 of questionnaire

The table above shows that 52% of the respondents agreed that training helps to contribute the organizations profitability when products are highly demanded while 48% disagreed.

Table-24. Machine Operators
This is question number 24 for workers. Training will help the employees in knowing the skills or machine handlings?
Source: Question 24 of questionnaire

Form the above table, 88% of the respondents agreed while 12% disagreed.

Table-25. Utilization
This question number 25 for the workers: training of an employee utilization of scarce raw materials?
Source: Question 25 of questionnaire

The table above shows that 76% of the respondents agreed that training of employee contributes to effective utilization of scarce raw materials while 24% disagreed with fact.

4.2. Test of Hypotheses

The hypotheses are in null forms;

  1. Training and development do not significantly effects worker’s productivity.
  2. Training and development of workers do not significantly improve workers efficiency

Hypothesis one: Training and development do not significantly affect worker’s productivity

Chi-Square Test Likerts; 4,3,2,1

Expected outcomes are printed below observed counts

Chi-square contributions are printed below expected counts

Chi-sq = 120.658, DF =27, P- Value = 0.000
20 cells with expected counts less than 5.

Decision Rule: If Xcal > Xcrit reject H0, that is the null Hypothesis and accept HA, that is the alternative.
Decision: Since Xcal =120 > Xcrit (0.05,27)=49.645, also P-value is less than 5%, hence we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that training and development significantly effects worker’s productivity.
Hypothesis Two: Training and development of workers do not significantly improve workers efficiency.
Welcome to Minitab, press F1 for help.
Chi-Square Test Likerts; YES=1, NO=0
Expected outcomes are printed below observed counts
Chi-square contributions are printed below expected counts
Decision Rule: If Xcal > Xcrit reject H0, that is the null Hypothesis and accept HA, that is the alternative.
Decision: Since Xcal =30 > Xcrit (0.05,6)=18.51, also P-value is less than 5%, hence we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that Training and development of workers do not significantly improve workers efficiency.

Chi-sq = 30.706, DF =6, P- Value = 0.000

5. Discussion of Findings

5.1. Table 3 & 6: Training Opportunity and Job Performance

These training opportunities to prepare their employees to expect change and to develop the right attitude to meet and adapt to changes taking place in the organization. It was discovered that 80% of the respondents have received training while 20% have not received any training. According to Campbell (1990) proved the above findings when he was articulating the need of qualified staff by saying that consequent upon the introduction of few techniques in caring out some of the office, work and able to understand and operate new adaptable office staff, aware of the latest technologies in office equipments and system was called for and more impact of it will make on job performance because of the constant training in the organization.

This is in agreement with hypothesis 2 that said training and development of workers has made any impact in the organization

Table-9.Favouritism

From the analysis of the table three (iii), it was discovered that 64% of the respondents said that there was favouritism while 36% said that there was No. According to Warri (2000) indicate that organizations should not practice favoritism in the selection of trainees. In its place, standards should be set as the selection criterion for development of the ministry.

Table 10, 11 & 12: Training Outcome, Productivity and Growth

The study found out that the resultant outcome of the training schemes offered to their employees is favourable. Becker (1994) viewed that the purpose of this study is to ascertain the impact of training and employee development workers performance. These have reduced most of the problems encountered at the office to develop their skill and knowledge as a means of promoting the growth of the organization. 

These confirm hypothesis 1 which said that the organization do train and develop their employees for productivity and that training and development do improve productivity respectively.

Table-16. Improvement in Products

The study found out that training of employee development helps in the improvement in both the quality and quantity of products of the organization. This is confirmed right by the 90% positive response of the workers of the organization. Training of employee helps to increase production and never make mistake which makes the products to be high quality.

Table 18: Recent Innovation

Based on the research questions that sought out the recent innovations that constitute modern office technology, these questions were answered with the growth and development of modern techniques and establishment, if training institution for the purpose of employee training and development. Becker et al (1998) sees training and employee development as a scheme to catch the growth and development of modern management techniques.

Table 19 & 20: Reduction of Accidents and Duty:

From the analysis of the table in Chapter four, it was discovered that 90% of the respondents agreed that efficiency acquired during training contribute to minimize accidents in the ministry while 10% disagreed. Ibekwe (2004) mentions that the impact of training and employee development on workers performance and manifested in the following conditions; high productivity, low wastage, low accident rate, high quality of product, more responsibility. Few customers’ complaint and minimization of cost of operations, more so, workers are of the opinion that training and development do not only improve efficiency but also boast high productivity.

Table 22: Confidence

The twenty two research question try to verify whether employees has more self-confidence to perform after training 84% of respondents agreed while 16 disagreed. If employees generally can find their ways into work activities for which they are qualified through training, the use of human talent and self-confidence will tend to be maximized in terms of society in general.

Table 23: Profitability

The twenty three research question tried to verify whether training and development contribute to the organization’s profitability when products are highly demanded. In the light of these, any parastatal that fails to train and develop its employee’s skills is ignoring one of the most important managerial functions that foster continual growth and profitability in the organization.

Table 24: Machine Operators

This research question tried to investigate whether training helps the employees in knowing the skills or machine handling. It was discovered that 44 or 88% respondents agreed on the fact while 6 or 12% disagreed.

The organization made the researcher to understand through oral interview that they make sure candidates are full qualified before being employed while some time employ unqualified ones and train them on the job to their test and office procedure.

Table 25: Utilization

The study found out that the training of an employee utilization of scare raw materials. Armstrong. M. (2000) says that the most lasting and meaningful development occurs when managers and employees actually use new approaches acquired through training in accomplishing specific performance improvement and success. A good manager should utilize all available resources or raw materials to help the organization find out the organizational conflict that may arise which will in turn affect production or services.

5.2. Reports of Findings

From the data analyzed above, the following findings emerged;

  1. That the training opportunity has been used to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of the staff of the ministry.
  2. That training and employee development contributes to workers experience, skills, knowledge and positive change of attitude towards their job.
  3. That training helps to reduce wastage or scraps and minimize production cost.
  4. That the longer one stays on the training, the more impact it will make on job performance.
  5. That a good number of training and development programme have been designed to affect each of the determinants of the performance motivation and capability. It has been observed that greater number of those programmes have been developed. To influence the trainee’s response capabilities whereas some exist that are designed to affect motivation.

6. Conclusion and Recommendations

To minimize the effect of the above problems and be able to bring about significant improvement in training and employee development, will require the co-operation of the government, the employers, the employees and the entire public which in effect would be a greater extent improve performance and productivity.

Here are some of the recommendations given by the researchers towards the problems identified;

  1. Organizations should avoid the practice of favoritism in the selection of trainees. In its place standard should be set as the selection criterion.
  2.    
  3. The length of the time spent on training and employee development should be extended to ensure full assimilation of knowledge.
  4. Techniques that should be easily understood by trainees should be used and exposed to different equipments.
  5. Government should come to the aid of organization by assisting in funding the training programmes.
  6. The practice of oversees causes for senior directors should be minimized to save cost.
  7. That organization includes in their policy statement, the need for training and employee development and also the training and development opportunities that exist.
  8. That all training and employees development should centre in the achievement of the individual and organization needs.
  9. Trainer should prepare their trainees to expect changes and to develop the right attitude to meet up and adapt to such changes taken in the office.

References

Aina, O. (2000): Personnel Management in Nigeria, Lagos: Pacific Printers.

Armstrong. M. (2000). “Understanding training”. Human Resource Management Practice. 8th Edition. Kogan page limited, London. pp: 543.

Becker. G. (1994), “Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education”Chicago The University of Chicago Press.

Becker, B. E., & Huselid, M. A. (1998). High performance work systems and firm performance. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 16: 53−101.

Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the Performance Prediction problem in industrial and organizational Psychology in Handbook of Industrial and organizational Psychology Education. MP Dunnette and Lit Hugh, Blackwell, Cambridge, MA.

Coleman, J. S. (1974). Power and the structure of society. New York: Norton.

Delphilips Frank et al (2002): Management of Training Programme, Prentice hall Industries Inc.

Goldstern, I.L (1980), Training in Organisations’ Annual Review of Psychology, 31: 229-72.

Haccoun, R. R., & Saks, A. M. (1998). Training in the 21st Century: Some lessons from the last one. Canadian Psychology, 39(1–2): 33−51.

Ibekwe Oliver (2004): “Manpower Planning and Economic Development in Nigeria: Some Issues of the Moment”, Nigeria Journal of Economic & Social Students Studies, 16(1) of March, 2004.

Kempnet Thomas (2000): A Handbook of Management Burplay Suffolk, Richard Clay: The Chance Press Limited.

Kibbee, J. M., C. J. Craft and B. Nanus (1961) Management Games, New York: Reinhold Publishing Compan

Lawler, E. E., Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E. (1998). Strategies for high performance organizations—The CEO report San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Marios (2006) Improved Port Performance Through Training: The contribution of the International Labour Organization. The Journal of Business, January, 2006

Osuala, E.C. (2001). Introduction to Research Methodology, 3rd Edition, Africana­Fep Publishers Limited, Lagos, Nigeria.

Porter, A. C., Garet, M., Demimonde, L., Suk Yoon, K., & Birman, B. (2000). Does professional development change teachers' instruction? Results from a

three-year study of the effects of Eisenhower and other professional development on teaching practice. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Salas, E.,& Cannon-Bowers, J.A. (2001). The science of training: A decade of progress. Annual Review of Psychology, 52: 471−499.

Ubeku, A.K. (1975) Personnel Management in Nigeria. Benin City: Ethiope Publishing Company.

Warri, P (2000). Actions and Motives, Psychology at work, London, Cox and Women

About the Authors

Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu
Department of Maritime Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
Lazarus I. Okoroji
Department of Transport Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
Onyemere Fineboy Ezewoko
School of Management Technology, National Open University of Nigeria, Owerri Study Centre
Chima Allios Nwaobilor
School of Management Technology, National Open University of Nigeria, Owerri Study Centre

Corresponding Authors

Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu

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