Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies

Volume 5, Number 2 (2019) pp 143-155 doi 10.20448/807.5.2.143.155 | Research Articles

 

Relationship between Employees’ Recognition of Contribution and Job Satisfaction (A Study of Secondary School Teachers in Kogi State, Nigeria)

Orebiyi, Anthony Olajide 1 , Adesina, Ibrahim Kola 1 Obalanlege, Adeyemi 1 
1 Department of Mass Communication, Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This study examined relationship between employees’ recognition of contribution and job satisfaction. The study adopted a survey research method using Structured questionnaire, Focus Group Discussion and In-depth Interviews. Four Hundred Secondary School Teachers in the services of Kogi State Teaching Service Commission were randomly selected from 10 schools in each of the three senatorial districts of the state. Data were analysed using frequency counts, percentages, mean and simple regression. Results show all items measuring employers’ recognition of contribution met the criterion for acceptance: acknowledgement of good work attracts a mean score of 4.48; Equal opportunities for in-service (3.44); Assurance of promotion for good performance (3.67); Promotion based on merit (3.08); Equal opportunity to become principal (3.29), and method of salary payment (2.86). As for the teachers’ perception of job satisfaction, all items designed to measure this variable, except one, met the criteria for acceptance (2.5); opportunity for professional growth is restricted, had a mean score of 2.0 which is below the cut of point of 2.5. The regression analysis shows a significant relationship between employers’ recognition of contribution and job satisfaction (P < 0.01). The study recommends that management must put in place a structure that will guarantee appreciation of good performance.

Keywords: Relationship, Recognition, Job satisfaction, Staff contribution, Kogi State.

DOI: 10.20448/807.5.2.143.155

Citation | Orebiyi, Anthony Olajide; Adesina, Ibrahim Kola; Obalanlege, Adeyemi (2019). Relationship between Employees’ Recognition of Contribution and Job Satisfaction (A Study of Secondary School Teachers in Kogi State, Nigeria). Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 5(2): 143-155.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 9 December 2019 .

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • This study examined relationship between employees’ recognition of contribution and job satisfaction.
  • The study recommends that management must put in place a structure that will guarantee appreciation of good performance.

1. INTRODUCTION

For any business organization to perform its activities maximally, its human resources must be properly managed so that they can contribute positively to the organisation’s goals. People are very important to business organizations; they can be of great advantages to business if adequately motivated with the choice of appropriate recognition techniques, and can be liability when treated otherwise.

Kim (2004) defines employee recognition as the timely informal or formal acknowledgement of a person or team’s behaviour, effort or business result that supports the organization’s goals and value which has clearly been beyond normal expectations. Indeed, human beings by their nature want to be recognized for their efforts. According to social exchange interpretations of employer-employee relationships, workers trade effort and loyalty to their organisation for such tangible incentives as pay and fringe benefits and socio-emotional benefits as esteem, approval, and caring (Rousseau, 1989; Rousseau, 1990; Rousseau and Parks, 1993) .  In the same vein, Ejifor (1982) suggests:

People join organisations because of the needs to be satisfied; it may be material or social.  Employees do not necessarily work in organisation, nor are they involved on moral grounds, rather they join organisations in order to fulfill some needs.

On the other hand, employers of labour have equal needs to be satisfied when they invest efforts and resources to their organisation.  As Ejiofor similarly argues: “employers are not necessarily interested in the welfare of employees as an end in itself, but rather as a means of achieving higher profits for the organisation.”

Research findings support this view that when employees perceive the potentials for satisfying their needs in the work place, they engage themselves more completely and invest greater time and effort in the organisation’s work (Kahn, 1990).  In essence, both employees and employers enter into a contractual agreement because of the needs to be satisfied.

Psychic reward: first for work to be motivating, people must have knowledge of the success of their efforts (Hackman and Oldham, 1980; Kahn, 1990).  Without knowledge about how successfully one performs, there is little reason for self-congratulation.  Knowledge of performance is directly related to the amount of positive feedback one receives from doing work.  It is in recognition of this that most organisations, especially in this country, now acknowledge the contributions of their employees at their Annual General Meeting.  For examples, the Group Managing Director of the Union Bank of Nigeria, Mr. G.A.T Oboh, concludes his year 2002 address to the bank’s shareholders when he makes the following remarks on the employees: “It has been a most challenging year and there is no way we could have succeeded without the support, loyalty, and dedication of the staff”.

Also in the same spirit, Ayo Ajayi, UAC Managing Director, at the year 2001 Annual General meeting of the company’s shareholders similarly acknowledges the “steadfastness, hardwork, and dedication of both management and employees” which accounts for their organisation’s impressive performance.

And very recently, during the 2017/2018 convocation ceremony of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, the University Pro-Chancellor and Chairman, Governing Council, Dr. Aboki Zhawa concluded his address with the following statement:

May I specially appreciate the entire staff of the university for their cooperation with the Governing Council and University administration on which has always helped the University in the achievement of its objectives.

He went further to state:

With every sense of modesty, I make bold to say that this university

Is blessed with hardworking and dedicated staff who can go to any length

to deliver optimally.

The idea of feedback is a simple one, but it is of much significance to people at work.  As remarked by Rousseau (1989) feedback can also be obtained at the point of performance such as when a superior commends a subordinate for a job well done. Rosenholtz’ perception of feedback is similar to that of the Syptak et al. (1999) that advise that employee’s success should not be monumental before they were given due recognition. In their advice to employers of labour they suggest:

If you notice employees doing something well,
take the time to acknowledge their good work immediately.
Publicly thank them for handling a situation particularly well.
Write them a kind note of praise.  Or give them a bonus,
if appropriate.   You may even want to establish a formal
recognition program such as “employee of the month”.

The physicians later reveal that the failure of superordinates to acknowledge the good works of the subordinates is partly related to their job dissatisfaction.

Curtis (2003) in a study of what constitute teachers’ job satisfaction find that most teachers derive their strongest rewards from positive and academically successful relations with individual students’ and from the external recognition they receive from colleagues, parents, and principals.  Again, Agboola (1997) in a related study conducted on factors relating to part-time teachers’ job satisfaction finds that one of the greatest sources of satisfaction of teachers working in tertiary institutions is the letter of commendation issued annually by the college authority to deserving tutors. When workers’ efforts are recognized by the appropriate authorities, it enhances their satisfactions and motivates them to work harder (Gray and Laidlaw, 2002).  It is therefore not unexpected, that the absence of psychic rewards features largely into teachers’ dissatisfaction, absenteeism, and desire to leave the workforce (Rousseau, 1989).

Encouragement of professional growth is another way through which workers’ efforts and contributions can be rewarded (Syptak et al., 1999).  Most organisations in this country have clear and well-articulated training policies from which employees at different levels can utilize.  As stated in the Annual General Meeting reports, UAC of Nigeria provides a non-discriminatory employment, training and career development.  As articulated by Majekodunmi (2002) the company’s secretary,

our  policy recognizes human resources as the most
important asset of the organisation.  Training forms
part of individual development toward achieving
excellence in performance of day-to-day activities.

In addition, as revealed in the report, the company’s various in-house courses are also designed to supplement external courses for employees within and outside the country.  The  Dan (2017) has a similar training programme for its employees.

It is clear that workers’ education has to do with growth as McCabe (2004) and Hackman and Oldham (1980) observe, any work opportunities that allow people to grow and develop to perfect current skills and learn new ones, give them a sense of challenge, progress, and personal accomplishment.  Such opportunities they add include giving workers’ the opportunity to rise to the highest level of their career.

As found by Wayne et al. (1997) well trained employees are more satisfied with their positions, are able to perform their jobs better more effectively, and with greater sense of commitment than those not trained.  Kester et al. (2004) in a study of motivations incentives and job performance among teachers in selected public secondary schools in Lagos State find, in the opinions of majority of the respondents, that regular training would enhance their professionalism and advances on the job.  Also in the same study majority of the respondents were of the view that the provision of in-services training programmes would help in redeeming their morales and job performance, in-deed, the absence of opportunities to broaden the instructional horizons of some teachers had been frequently cited as a reason for their absenteeism and attrition from work.  Supportive leadership will thus encourage subordinate workers to grow on the job through regular training.

In the same vein, as scholars have observed, promotion from one grade level to another is another way to motivate workers.  For examples Ejiogu (1994) in a work titled “Issues in the management of Public service institutions”, opines that recognition and status are what employees needs which they hope to achieve in their places of work.  He explains that promotion to a higher grade is a mean of convincing an employee that his performances are recognized and worthwhile.  Ejiogu-condemns the present system of promotion in Nigeria which is based on seniority as not encouraging especially to the young ones with drive, initiative and ambition.  He suggests that seniority should not be a substitute for competence and talent adding that it can only be used as a deciding factor only when factors are equal.Studies conducted on motivation factors support this view.  For example in a study of what constitute job satisfaction of scientists in agricultural research institute in Nigeria, Oyedokun and Olowu (2000) find positive recognition of contribution by employer as relating to scientist job satisfaction. Similarly, Kester et al. (2004) in a survey of motivational incentives and job performance among teachers in selected public secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria also find promotion and in-service training programme correlates with teachers’ job performance.

Recent work by Guzzo et al. (1994) and Gray and Laidlaw (2002) support the view that the more an employee is recognized for his contribution the greater his commitment to the organisations.  Although salary and allowances are not motivators for employees, yet they would want to be paid fairly.  If individuals believe that they are not compensated well, they will be unhappy working.  However in a study by Keller (1997), finds that professionals such as, physicians, attorneys, teachers and college professors prefer the recognition of knowledgeable peers in the professional community to material rewards from the establishment.

1.1. Job Satisfaction and Theoretical Framework

The phenomenon of job satisfaction at work has attracted a great deal of interest in the field of industrial management and human behaviour. The job satisfaction of workers in formal settings is of paramount importance if maximum organisational achievement is desired.  A sufficiently motivated worker is likely to be satisfied with his work and may be highly productive.

Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as an emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one’s job values.  A more concise definition is given by Oyedokun and Olowu (2000) who define the concept as “the contentment experienced when a job has been performed and expectation is met”. The wish or desire to achieve satisfaction, according to Agboola (1997) motivates a worker to perform.

Many theories have emerged in the search for an acceptable explanation of work behaviour. However, no theory can be described as “universal theory’ of work motivation.  Abraham Maslow’s need hierarchy cited in Okorie (2000), is probably the most popular of need theories.  According to the theory, human motivation is broken into five categories of needs.  These are; physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization in that order of prepotency. Man, in Maslow’s view, is largely a wanting creature dominated (motivation) by desire to satisfy diverse needs. Once a need is met, it loses potency as a motivator, until it becomes activated again. This theory implies that, although no need is ever fully satisfied, a substantially satisfied need may no longer motivate (McShane and Glinow, 2000). Human needs are in cyclical form; a need satisfied loses its potency as a motivator until it becomes activated again. In organisational setting, an employees’ job performance will be high in a system where the emerging needs of the employee are satisfied.

Motivation can then be taken as the urge to respond to the desire to attain certain needs (goals). When these needs are achieved, satisfaction ensues; when not achieved, frustration sets in.

Curtis (2003) submits that the work behaviour of people, be it good, bad or indifferent, must be viewed in part as the consequence of the motivation of the individuals in question. Hence, job satisfaction has been related to motivation, as satisfaction is a need or goal to be achieved.  A variety of factors according to McCabe (2004) influence workers job satisfaction.  They include the quality of one’s relationship with the supervisor, as well as  quality of the physical environment in which they work and degree of fulfillment in their work etc.

Motivation can be intrinsic when the perceived goal leads to internal satisfaction or feelings of an individual. It can be extrinsic when the goal to be attained is external to the individual or basically material in nature. The intrinsic motivators are regarded as higher- order needs while the extrinsic motivators (hygiene) are the lower- order, needs (Ajila, 1997; Okorie, 2000).

Herzberg, cited in the work of McCabe (2004) theorized that employee’s satisfaction has two dimensions.  Hygiene and motivation:

  1. Hygiene Issues:  such as salary and supervision, decrease employees’ dissatisfaction with the work environment.
  2. Motivators:  such as recognition and achievement, make workers more productive, creative and committed.

McNamara explains that while salary may not be a motivator for employees, they would nevertheless want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they will not be compensated well, they will be unhappy working for the employer. In the same sprit Durosaro (2000) makes a distinction between “motivators” and “hygiene” factors. Hygiene factor includes administration; supervision; relationship with supervisor; relationship with other workers. The satisfier or motivator factors include; achievement opportunity, recognition opportunities, advancement and personal growth.

It should be noted however that there is no one best way to motivate as motivation is a function of needs; For example,  a study carried out by Ajila (1997) on the applicability of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to Nigerian situation reveals that Nigerian workers were more satisfied with physiological needs than the need for friendship. The ordering of human needs, according to the report, was not supportive of Marlow’s presentation.  The satisfaction of police officers with their work was found to be significantly correlated with the perception of public support for them (Akinnawo, 1994) while the areas of police officers’ job dissatisfaction include lack of the opportunity to work with the people they like; poor working conditions; poor remuneration for work; the existing administrative polices in the service; and the lack of public respect.

As noted by Oyedijo (1995).

Whether money, affiliation, security, competence, achievement,
prestige, cognitive or aesthetic motivation proves effective
depends on the type of workers and the social- cultural
circumstances involved.

Research has shown that when the physiological and security needs of managers and professional employees are generally well provided, they seek other higher needs. The most important thing is for a manager to know his staff very well and to select the best method of motivating them. Concluding, House and Wigdor as cited in Goldhaber (1990) draw the following conclusions concerning job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

  1. A given factor can cause job satisfaction for one person and job dissatisfaction for another, and vice versa.
  2. A given factor can cause job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in the same sample.
  3. Intrinsic job factors are more important to both satisfying and dissatisfying job events than are extrinsic job events.

Based on the above analysis, it is instructive that positive acknowledgement of employees’ contribution will contribute to their job satisfaction. In Kogi state, for instance, so many working hours have been lost to perennial industrial unrest. It is therefore the desire to get into the root of the problem that motivated this study.

1.2. Research Questions

  1. Are the teachers satisfied with the mode of recognition of their contribution?
  2. Is there any relationship between recognition of contribution and job satisfaction?

2. METHODOLOGY

The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study.    However, the main instrument used is the questionnaire, supplemented by interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and observation guides. The research population consisted of all practising teachers in the employment of the Kogi State Teaching Service Commission.  During the time data for this study was collected there were about 4050 secondary school teachers on the payroll out of which 400 were selected, which represents a sampling fraction of about 1/10.

The 400 teachers selected for the study were chosen through stratified sampling technique.  Ten schools were selected at random from the list of schools in each of the three senatorial districts of Kogi State in order to represent the socio-economic and cultural diversity evident in the state.

2.1. Description of Instruments

To measure teachers perception of the mode of recognizing their effort, three instruments: Focus Group Discussion, interview and questionnaire were used. First insight into the perception of employer’s mode of recognition is through the data generated from questionnaire. Six items of the questionnaire (i.e 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, 6) designed for this purpose were analysed and results presented in Table 1.

3. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

Responses were transferred into scores as the questionnaire was designed on a 4-point Likert scale, which ranged from Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A) Disagree (D), to Strongly Disagree. In scoring the scale, positively stated items were scored 4,3,2,1 for SA, A, D, SD respectively, while negatively stated items were scored in reverse order. A cut-off or decision point of 2.5 (mean) and above was regarded as favorable decision for each item. This is because a 4 point scale rated at 4, 3, 2, and 1 were used. Secondly, simple regression analysis was used in answering research question No. 2 to enable the researcher determine the extent to which the Independent variables impact on the Dependent variables.

The treatment given to focus group discussion and interview were similar to that of open-ended comments. Comments and opinions were analysed and grouped in relation to each aspect of the questionnaire.

4. ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

Research question 1: Are the teachers satisfied with the mode of recognition of their contribution? To answer this research question result generated from the questionnaire focused group discussion and observation were analysed and present below:

Table-1. Teachers’ perception of employer’s recognition of contribution.
Item
Statement
Degree of agreement
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
No response
Mean
Score
 
N         %
N         %
N         %
N          %
N         %
1.
My employer acknowledges teachers’ good work
47    11.7
178  44.5
135    33.8
40       10
-           -
4.48
2.
Equal opportunities for in service programmes
49    12.2
160       40
110    27.5
80         20
1        .3
3.44
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3.
If I perform my job well, I will be promoted.
52      13
217    54.2
82      20.5
46     11.5
3         .8
3.67
4.
Those promoted are the most qualified
40       10
80         20
156      39
121     30.2
3        .8
3.08
5.
All teachers have equal chance to become Principals
49    12.3
119   29.7
131  32.7
101   25.3
3.29
6.
Method of paying salaries is satisfactory
15    3.7
84     21
138  34.5
156      39
7       1.8
2.86

Source: Field survey.

Reacting to the first statement, “my employer acknowledges teachers’ good work”, as in item 1 of Table 1 56.2% (225) of the respondents agreed either strongly or simply that their employer acknowledges their good work, while 43.8% others disagreed. The ratio between those that agreed with the statement and those disagreeing is very close for a positive communication climate to thrive. However, the result is in line with those generated from FGD across the six centres – which found that teachers also felt that management did not adequately recognize them for their contributions. For instance, most participants of FGD were of the view that their principals did not give them information on how successful they were in their classroom assignments and in other areas of their professional responsibilities. Good results were neither acknowledged orally nor in writing. Few discussants, however, had contrary view. They expressed satisfaction with their principals who praised for good performance. A significant others, however, lamented that while principals on annual basis acknowledged students’ performance on prize – giving days, teachers were not treated in like manner. The teachers also criticized the lukewarm attitudes of parents to positive feedback, especially when students recorded good results in external examinations. Rather than praising teachers, poor students’ academic performance was often blamed on teachers and schools, some participants of FGD observed.

Another dimension to recognizing teachers’ effort is in the award of in-service training programme. The scheme allows teachers with relatively lower qualifications to grow with their organizations. The advantages are unquantifiable as Hackman and Oldman (Rousseau, 1989) remark:

Anywork opportunities that allow people to grow and develop, to perfect current skills and learn new ones, give them a sense of challenge, progress, and personal accomplishments.

Results of data generated through questionnaire, analysed and presented in Table 1 above, show that a high percentage of 52.2% (209) respondents agreed that equal opportunities for in-service programmes existed for all, while some 47.5%(190) others disagreed. Similarly, participants in FGD also criticized the scheme for lack of laydown procedure in its administration. They alleged that employees were selected not on the basis of seniority or qualification, but on personal relationship with those involved in its administration. A male FGD from Kabba elaborated these feelings;

In schools under TSC, in-service training programme is only for
teachers with strong influence. I have been applying for the past
five years but have not succeeded; whereas a friend with lower
qualifications that applied last year got it within 3 months because
his relations were there.
This impression is supported by a female participant from Ankpa
In-service training here in Kogi State can only be received by
people with strong connections. They say you cannot spend
more than 3 years on in-service course but I know of a man that
has been on the programme for  over the last seven years yet he
has not reported back to work.

Another dimension to employer’s method of recognizing workers’ effort is in promotion to higher grade level. The extent to which management is perceived as fair in deciding who to promote will affect employees’ perception of fairness and trust in the organization. Item 3 in the above Table was aimed at measuring teachers’ attitude towards the statement: “if I perform my job well, I will be promoted”, to which 67.2 % (269) of the respondents agreed either strongly or merely, while 32% (128) others did not agree they could be promoted even if the job was well performed. Examining the promotion exercise from a slightly different dimension, the question was thus posed, “those promoted are the most qualified”. In reacting to the statement, only 30% (120) of the respondents either agreed strongly or simply while a majority of the respondents, 69.2% (277) expressed lack of faith in the process.

It is noteworthy that with such a large number of teachers not having faith or trust in the leadership’s ability to manage promotion exercise fairly, one may assume that such an attitude may undercut future relationships, affect their job satisfaction and perhaps commitment negatively.

Appointment as principal (headteacher), is another way through which teachers’ efforts could be acknowledged. This, from the perspective of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, is the self-actualization which is the desire to realize one’s potentialities in full or achieve one’s ambition. To most professional teachers, appointment of a teacher as principal is the climax or pinnacle of his career in teaching. When the teachers were asked to react to the statement: “All qualified teachers have equal chance of becoming principal”, as in item 5, only a small percentage of 12.3% (49) agreed strongly with the statement, while some 29.7% (119) others simply agreed. Those disagreeing were in the majority; 58% (232) disagreed there was equal opportunity for all. Result generated from focus group discussion is in harmony with this finding. As hinted by participants of the focus group discussion the responsibility for nominating serving teachers to fill vacant position of principals was vested on the proprietors who usually nominate to government indigenes of their communities or members of their religious organizations depending on the type of ownership. Discussants criticized the procedure which they said gave room for mediocrity and nepotism. They cited cases of relatively junior officers being nominated as principals while senior officers were by passed because they did not meet some set criteria by the proprietors.

The participants in FGD cited a school where a level 13 officer was appointed principal where two grade level 15 officers were serving. This discussants felt, was a potential source of dissatisfaction to the officers, by -passed adding that it did not give consideration to merit and seniority.

And finally, the last method for showing recognition for efforts of teachers by their employers is in the payment of salaries and allowances. Item 6 on the above table probed into the teachers’ perception of the commissions’ methods of paying teachers’ salaries and allowances. As the table above presented, only a minority of 37% (15) agreed strongly that the existing practices of paying salaries and allowances were satisfactory, with a minority, 21% (84), simply agreed, while a great majority, 73.5% (294), disagreed.

Interestingly enough, most of the additional comments made in the questionnaires, were essentially on salaries, allowances and methods of payment. This implies the perception of employer’s handling of the reward structure constitutes a vital aspect of communication climate.

Results generated through focus group discussion (FGD) was similar to the one presented above. Participants of FGD were unanimous in their condemnation of the handling of their ona phenomenon popularly referred to as “shortfall”. This implies that the figure on the payment voucher is not reflective of the actual take home. As a participant in Kabba stressed;

You do not know how much you are worth in a month until you
call at your bank. TSC pays what it can afford to its workers,
which is not the same in other ministries.

Following the above analysis, it is evident that the teachers did not perceive the handling of issues involved in recognition of contribution as fair by the management. All items, as indicated in the mean scores of Table 1 except one, fall below the standard score required for acceptance which informed the need to classify the factor as defensive.

Research question 2: Is there any relationship between recognition of contribution and job satisfaction? Data needed to answer the above research question include: (i) a table showing teachers’ perception of Job satisfaction, (ii) Table showing Analysis of simple regression of recognition of contribution and job satisfaction. (iii) Analysis of simple regression coefficients.

Table-2. Teachers’ perception of Job satisfaction.
Item
Statement
Degree of agreement
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Mean
N        %
N       %
N        %
N        %
Score
7
My job is appealing and desirable
72       18
227 56.8
85    21.2
16         4
2.9
8
My principal is understanding/supportive
68       17
228    57
85    21.2
19      4.8
2.9
9
Management give me opportunity to participate in decision making
53    13.3
219 54.7
106  26.5
22      5.5
2.8
10
Cooperation with fellow employees is high.
170  42.5
204    51
16        4
10      2.5
3.3
11
Opportunity of professional growth is restricted.
46    11.5
49   12.2
151  37.7
154  38.5
2.0
12
TSC makes little effort to provide information new departments.
98    24.5
211 52.7
46    11.5
45    11.3
2.9

Source: Field survey.

Information gathered from the above Table 2 shows that a majority of the teachers (74.8%) agreed with the statement that their work was appealing and desirable. Specifically, 72(18%) agree strongly, 227(56.8%) simply agree, while about a quarter are in disagreement.  One may infer from the above table that majority of the teachers perceived the work as meeting their job needs.  However, for work to be appealing and desirable, as literature suggests (Goldhaber, 1990; McCabe, 2004) the leadership must be perceived as supportive to the course of the subordinates.  Item 8 was thus designed to verify the level of leadership supportiveness.  Results, as presented on the same table above indicated that 68(17%) of the respondents strongly agreed that the principals were understanding with a significant majority of 228(62%) simply ‘agree’. While only few respondents disagreed that their principals were supportive.

Another factor examined in the study which is related to teachers’ job satisfaction, is the degree to which the teachers’ perceived themselves as contributing to the decision-making process.  Here, findings as presented in the same table show that a majority believed they were involved in decision-making.  Precisely, 53(13.3%) strongly agreed in the proposition while a large majority of 219(54.7%) simply ‘agreed’; only few respondents disagreed strongly that they were involved in decision making.  As could be seen from the above result, a majority of the respondents were satisfied with their level of participation in decision making.  Another factor in job satisfaction is the quality of relationship with fellow employees.  The variable, measured with item 10, shows that a significant percentage of the teachers were satisfied with their relationship with fellow teachers.  For example, 170(42.5%) agreed strongly that “the cooperation and group effort provided by fellow employees” contributed to their satisfaction; a little more than fifty percent others, 204(51%) simply agree, while an insignificant others disagreed that the quality of relationship with fellow teachers contributed to their job satisfaction.

Other dimensions of factors contributing to workers’ job satisfaction examined include availability of opportunities for professional growth.  From the data presented in Table 2 opinion was polarized on the variable.  Precisely, 46(11.5%) strongly agreed that opportunities existed for professional growth; some 149(37.3%) others merely ‘agreed’; while those disagreeing are in a majority.  In sum, while 48.8% agreed that opportunity for growth exists, 51.2% disagreed with the statement.  It may be concluded from the above findings that the lack opportunity for professional growth could be a source of job dissatisfaction to some significant others.
The quality of information exchange has also been identified as a factor that could contribute to employees’ job satisfaction (Goldhaber, 1990).  Item No 12 was designed to measure information concerning new department.  Results of study, as presented in Table 2 show that most teachers did not believe they were adequately briefed.  For example, some 98 (24.5%) believe that TSC makes little effort in providing staff members with information concerning new departments, an important percentage, 52.7% (211), also agree on inadequate information, while those disagreeing with the statement are in a minority.

Results from the above analysis show that all items except one meet our criterion for acceptance. This implies teachers have job satisfaction.

Table-3. Simple regression analysis on.

Model summary of employees recognition of contribution on job satisfaction

Model
R
R square
Adjusted R square
Std. error of the estimate
Change statistics
R square change
F change
df1
df2
Sig. F change
1
.226a
.051
.049
2.76978
.051
21.425
1
398
.000

(P < 0.01).

Table-4. Coefficients analysis of employees recognition of contributionon job satisafction.
Model
Unstandardized coefficients
Standardized coefficients
t
Sig.
B
Std. error
Beta
1
(Constant)
14.150
.520
27.190
.000
Recognition of contribution
.178
.039
.226
4.629
.000

a. Dependent variable: Job satisfaction.
b. Predictors: (Constant), Recongnition of contribution.

Results of the simple regression analysis in the table above show a positive relationship between Recognition of contribution and Job satisfaction(R=0.226 and R2=0.051).

5. DISCUSSION

This study examined the perception of teachers of their employers recognition of their contribution. Indicators of recognition of contribution include: acknowledgement of teachers’ good work; equal opportunity for in-service programme; opportunity for promotion equal opportunity to become principal and employees’ satisfaction with the method of paying salary.

Results show all factors examined in respect of mode of recognition met the mean criterion set for acceptance -2.5. Except for the method of paying salary, which has a mean score of 2.86, all other items measured have a mean score that is above 3. However, most of the results in some cases did not reflect those generated through the Focus Group Discussion where some discussants lamented the inability to secure approval for in-service training programme. In the same token, appointment as principal was not based on merit; for instance, a level 13 officer was appointed principal and placed over a level 15 officer. Respondents identified the consistency in payment which is another source of dissatisfaction. All these lapses may have accounted for the low rating of the various issues examined.

Furthermore, job satisfaction was measured with six indicators among which are: the extent to which job was perceived as appealing and desirable; the degree to which principals were perceived as supportive; availability of opportunity to participate in decision; degree of peer cooperation; opportunity for professional growth, and adequacy of information on new department. All these items, except opportunity for professional growth which is (2.0) met the criterion for acceptance which is 2.5.

Summarily, the result is however, in consistent with the view of Rousseau (1989) who noted that wherever work failed to allow people to grow and develop, might not give them  a sense of challenge, progress and personal accomplishment.

In conclusion that none of the items examined could attract a mean score of 4 in a Likert rating scale of 5, demonstrates the level of dissatisfaction with the mode or recognition. It is not enough to be fair in the view of the employer, employees must see them as fair.

6. CONCLUSION

Findings show that the teachers were not satisfied with the amount of recognition received for their contributions on different facets investigated.  For instance, the teachers complained of inadequate recognition for good performance by both principals and parents.  They also alleged there were delays in promotion, and when promoted the necessary financial benefits were not paid.  Similarly, appointments of principals were devoid of merit and largely partisan.  In the award of in-service training programme, beneficiaries were not the most qualified but those that could influence the authority.  And finally, while salaries and allowances were paid late, they fell short of individuals’ rate of pay.  The implications of inadequate recognition of teachers’ contributions are overwhelming on morale.  For example, Gray and Laidlaw (2002) and Agboola (1997) find that failure to acknowledge the good works of subordinates by the super-ordinates is related to job dissatisfaction.  This may account for the teachers’ poor morale and low commitment as result of the study indicated.

Majority of the teachers are dissatisfied with the mode of recognition of their effort, as salaries are not paid regularly, allowances cut while promotions and other benefits are denied.  For work to be motivating, people must have knowledge of the results of their efforts.  Without knowledge about how successful one performs, no employee can be happy.  Positive feedback is said to be related to organisational commitment.

Management must devise ways through which employees can know how well they are performing. Similarly good performance can also be recognised by way of promotion to higher grades.  It must be stressed however, that promotion without the concomitant benefits cannot motivate any worker to perform better.  A situation in which three different promotions were not implemented for an employee will only demoralize him the more.  Management must ensure employees enjoy the benefits of their promotion.

Salem (2004) describes the perceptions individuals have about the fairness and formality of the ways decisions are made about hiring and firing, work assignments, promotions, bonuses, and granting of in-service training as political climate. In this study, the perceptions of the same issues are labeled as “recognition of contribution”.

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About the Authors

Orebiyi, Anthony Olajide
Department of Mass Communication, Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Adesina, Ibrahim Kola
Department of Mass Communication, Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Obalanlege, Adeyemi
Department of Mass Communication, Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Corresponding Authors

Orebiyi, Anthony Olajide

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