Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies

Volume 6, Number 1 (2020) pp 13-28 doi 10.20448/807.6.1.13.28 | Research Articles

 

Effect of Motivation on Basic School Teachers’ Performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District: Implications for Bridging the Relationship Gap among Adult Employees

Edison D. Pajibo 1Herty Asante 2Cosmos Kwame Dzikunu 3
1 Senior Research Fellow Centre For Ediucational Policy Studies University of Education, Winneba Ghana.
2 Principal Administrative Assistant University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.
3 Research Fellow Centre for Ediucational Policy Studies, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.

ABSTRACT

This study sought to assess the effect of motivation on basic school teachers’ performance in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District and the implications for bridging the relationship gap among adult employees. A triangulation concurrent mixed method design was used with a total sample of 135 respondents including teachers, head teachers, school management committee executive (SMC) and the District Director of Education. The data was collected using structured questionnaires, focus group discussion and interview. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Focus group discussion for headteachers, school management executive and interview for the Director of Education were presented in themes. Research findings revealed that, the performance of teachers was average despite the fact that, their motivation was inadequate. Besides, majority of the teachers performed their activities with high morale as evidenced by regular tests and examinations of pupils and supervision of all school activities. A significant positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance of teachers was found to exist in basic schools in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District. Another, a positive relationship was also found between extrinsic motivation and performance of teachers, implying that extrinsic motivation affected the performance of teachers. In order to improve teacher motivation and performance at work and to strengthen the relationship between teachers and head teachers (employees), the study recommended increase in the remuneration of basic school teachers to match the increased cost of living, provision of accommodation to teachers, strengthening of supervision as well as instituting awards for good performance and provision of TLMs.

Keywords: Motivation, Teacher performance, Basic school, Employee relationship, Adult employee.

DOI: 10.20448/807.6.1.13.28

Citation | Edison D. Pajibo; Herty Asante; Cosmos Kwame Dzikunu (2020). Effect of Motivation on Basic School Teachers’ Performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District: Implications for Bridging the Relationship Gap among Adult Employees. Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 6(1): 13-28.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 13 December 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 February 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020 .

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • This study sought to assess the effect of motivation on basic school teachers’ performance in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District and the implications for bridging the relationship gap among adult employees.
  • Research findings revealed that, the performance of teachers was average despite the fact that, their motivation was inadequate.

1. BACKGROUND LITERATURE AND PROBLEM CONTEXT

Motivation is both external and internal process that makes a person move towards a goal. It is generally assumed that motivation influences people’s attitude and performance at work. Teacher motivation is directly linked to the teacher’s desire to take part in the pedagogical process and interest in sharing their knowledge with the students. It determines their involvement or non-involvement in teaching activities (Ofoegbu, 2004). Teacher motivation therefore, is anything done to make teachers happy, satisfied, dedicated and committed in such a way that they bring out the best in their places of work so that both students, parents and society will greatly benefit from their services. Teacher motivation is influenced by a myriad of factors, including compensation, success in the classroom, their dedication to the profession, the training they receive and the prospect of promotion and career advancement.

In Ghana, Universal Basic Education with suitable learning outcomes can only be attained if teachers are sufficiently resourced and motivated. Nevertheless, there are growing concerns that teachers in Ghana, as in other developing countries, are increasingly de-motivated, which results in deteriorating teacher performance and poor organizational relationship, as well as poor learning outcomes especially at the basic level of the educational system (Aacha, 2010). It was against the background of teacher motivation that the Ghana Education Service under the Ministry of Education has instituted some forms of motivational incentive packages for teachers. These include housing schemes, car loans, car maintenance allowances, study leave with pay, recent and  allowance for working in deprived areas, and the Single Spine Salary Structure (SSSS) that seeks to boost teachers’ commitment in order to perform more efficiently towards the targeted results, Government and the heads of educational institutions have also sought to motivate teachers in ways such as providing free meals for teachers in the schools as well as instituting Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) motivational allowances for teachers, extra classes allowances, hardworking teacher awards during Speech and Prize  Giving Day and free accommodation for teachers (Bennell & Akyeampong, 2007).

Theoretically, McGregor’s Theory underpins this study. This theory proposes two alternative and extreme views about human beings, expressed as Theory X and Theory Y. According to Theory X the employee is viewed as mainly negative, lazy, resists change and unable to motivate. This produces a controlled environment with strict rules, threats and punishments. Teachers in schools in this context tend to perform less effectively, give low productivity, produce aggressions and conflict (Aacha, 2010). Theory Y on the other hand strives to maximize the teachers/individual goals and effort by giving teachers (them) greater work involvement and autonomy. Report by circuit supervisors in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District (2016) revealed that, teachers were devoting less time to extra-curriculum activities, lesson preparation, and marking of eternal examination scripts due to dissatisfaction with motivation. Therefore, deteriorating standards of professional conduct, which include serious misbehaviour (in and out of the work place), and poor professional performance have been observed in some schools. Teachers have to commune long distance to work. These are other factors causing absenteeism, lackadaisical attitude and dissatisfaction among teachers of Ajumako Enyan Esiam District [4]. The literature (Dehaloo, 2011; Okumbe, 1998) suggest that among the factors accounting  for teachers attrition in the Ghana Education Service, motivation is key and an additional argument in the literature confirms that motivation of teachers affects their performance (Bennell & Akyeampong, 2007). It is in the light of these arguments that the researchers conducted this study to assess the effect of motivation on basic school teachers’ performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District. The study within the context of the data draws implications in terms of enhancing workplace relationship.

1.1. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between teacher motivation and teacher performance in the Ajumako Enyam Esiam District, and the implications of such relationships on workplace employees

1.2. Objectives and Related Questions

  1. To examine the nature of teacher motivation in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.
  2. To determine factors that hinder teachers’ motivation in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.
  3. To assess the the effect of teacher motivation on teachers’ performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.
  4. To investigate the relationship between motivation and teachers’ performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What forms of motivation are available to basic school teachers in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District?
  2. What factors impede basic school teachers’ motivation in the Ajimako Enyan Esiam District?
  3. How has motivation affected basic school teachers’ performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District?
  4. How is motivation of teachers associated with basic school teachers’ performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District?

1.3. Hypotheses

  1. H0: There is no significant relationship between teacher motivation and teacher performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

H0: There is significant relationship between teacher motivation and teacher performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

  1. H0: Teacher performance will be significantly influenced by teacher motivation in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

1.4. Significance and Delimitation of the Study

The research results will provide the management of the Ghana Education Service more reliable and systematic ways of motivating teachers and enhancing the level of their performance especially in the Ajumako District. The study was delimited in scope to assessing the effect of motivation on basic school teachers’ performance in selected basic schools in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

2. THE METHOD

2.1. Research Design

The study adopted the triangulation/concurrent mixed method design because of the nature of the variables (teachers motivation and teacher performance) that were at hand, to produce data, required for quantitative and qualitative analysis and to allow simultaneous /current description of views, perceptions and belief at any single point in time.

Table-1. Population, sample size and instruments.

Category of respondent
Total  population
Sample Size
Data collection instrument
Basic School Teachers
350
104
Structured Questionnaires
Head teachers  Basic Schools
80
15
Focus group  Discussion
SMC Executive
20
15
Focus group Discussion
District Director  of Education
1
1
Structured Interview
Total
451
135

The sample size of 135 was justifiable based on the proposition by Bryman and Bell (2015) that for triangulation /concurrent research that involves both quantitative and qualitative data, a sample size of 30% and above of the population is reasonable enough for making generalization.

2.2. Sampling Techniques

Two-stage random sampling technique was adopted, that is, the combination of cluster random sampling with individual random sampling. This helped the researchers to attain a balanced representation in the sample. The researchers adopted this sampling method because it was less time consuming. Out of the 148 basic schools in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District, 15 basic schools were randomly selected from the clusters for the study. Initially, the teachers were divided into groups or strata (clusters) and this was used to select each participant. Simple random sampling technique was used to select teacher respondents from each cluster. A total of 104 basic school teachers from 15 basic schools in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District participated in the study. Seven (7) teachers were selected among fourteen (14) teachers in (14) basic schools and six (6) teachers from one (1) basic school. This was so because the first 14 schools were having total staff strength of 14 and the last school had 12 staff strength, respectively. The bases for the selection of 7 and 6 respectively, were to obtain half of the teachers in each school. The process of simple random sampling used involved writing the names of teachers in each school on pieces of paper. This was done by putting folded papers with teachers’ name on them in a container and mixed up thoroughly. One paper was picked at random without replacement by the researchers. The name of a teacher on the picked paper was the one included in the study. This lottery method was repeated in each of the 15 schools until the required number had an equal chance of being selected. Purposive sampling was used to select fifteen (15) head teachers and fifteen (15) School Management Committee executive as well as one (1) District Director of Education. As indicated in Table 1, structured questionnaires were administered to 104 basic schools. The structured questionnaire given to teacher respondents comprised of both close and open ended questions. The questionnaire was structured in five sections, the first section requested general personal information on socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age duration in the service. The second dwelt on teacher motivation and Likert-type scale with multiple responses such as very satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied, and very dissatisfied. This was used to find out teachers’ opinions on how satisfied or motivated they were with regards to their living and working conditions. The questions addressed the key dimensions regarding factors of motivation identified in the literature. The third section requested respondents to indicate factors that led to teachers’ performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District with multiple responses of strongly disagree, disagree, not sure, agree and strongly agree. Besides, respondents were asked to indicate major factor/factors that hindered teachers’ performance in their schools. The fourth part contained statements with multiple responses in the form of Likert-type scale items aimed at soliciting information on the relationship between teacher motivation and teacher performance.

2.3. Focus Group Discussion

Regarding the use of focus group discusion as indicated in Table 1, the first section of the discussion requested for respondents’ opinion on the forms of teacher motivation in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District, factors that hinder teacher motivation, the effects of motivation on teachers’ performance and the relationship between motivation and teachers’ performance. The discussion was organized for head teachers, SMC executive as well as interview with the (1) District Director or Education. This was purposely intended to get in-depth information about the effect of motivation on basic school teachers’ performance and compare it with that given by teachers in the District. In handling the interview an audio recorder and a field note book were used. The discussion and interview were anchored on the research questions.

2.4. Validity and Reliability Instruments

To ensure content validity of instruments, the instruments were developed with due reference to the research questions, and by expert perusal. Also, colleague research fellows at the Center for Educational Policy Studies were used to check for the face validity, errors and ambiguity. Cronbach’s alpha value of .837 was obtained for reliability of teachers’ questionnaire.

2.5. Data Analysis Method

Data gathered was aggregated and edited. Close- ended responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage counts, mean and and standard deviation. The open ended responses and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic approach. Regression and correlation analysis was also used to test the significance of the relationship that was identified.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Research question one: What forms of motivation are available to basic school teachers’ in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District?

This question sought to determine the nature of basic school teachers’ motivation and the motivational issues basic school teachers perceived to be influencing their performance of duties in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

Table-2. Teacher satisfaction with motivation.

Satisfaction with motivation
Frequency
Percent (%)
Very satisfied
25
24.04
Somewhat satisfied
47
45.19
Somewhat dissatisfied
14
13.46
very dissatisied
18
17.31
Total
104
100.00

The data in Table 2 show that, 32 (30.8%) of the respondents indicated that, they were dissatisfied, while 72 (69.2%) indicated that they were satisfied when asked for their overall level of satisfaction with motivation in their job as teachers. A look at this data gives the indication that the respondents did not perceive motivation in totality, to be too low. This is contrary to the scenario painted by Wahab (2012) that no matter the condition of service provided for teachers, they are never satisfied. It can therefore be inferred that work motivation which refers to the psychological processes that influence individual behavior with respect to the attainment of workplace goals and tasks was not so much a challenge to the teachers in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District as it was with Wahab’s study. Implicitly, the positive results as indicated in Table 2 will assist in bridging the relationship gap between the teachers and school heads. When adult employers are motivated and satisfied they will not only perform their tasks well. They will also build trust and maintain positive relationships. People in workplaces differ in their opinions as to what constitutes effective motivation. In educational settings, especially as it relates to teachers, the determinants of effective intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are many.

Table-3. Intrinsic motivation among basic school teachers.

Intrinsic Motivation
Mean
Standard Dev.
Mean Int.
Rank
Great deal of satisfaction
3.56
1.07
SA
7
Teaching as a profession
4.10
0.93
A
2
Challenging nature of the profession
3.14
1.04
SA
8
Competitive profession
3.16
0.91
SA
6
Recognition and respect
4.03
0.98
SA
3
Career development
3.73
0.95
SA
5
Useful to the community
3.74
1.09
SA
4
Interact and development of relationship
4.44
0.76
SA
1

Source: Fieldwork data (2017).

Note:  Mean interpretation (Mean Int.): 3.50 – 4 for strongly agree (SA): 2.50 – 3.49 for Agree (A): 2 – 2.94 for Not Sure (NS): 1.50 – 1.99 for Disagree (D): 0 – 1.49 for Strongly Disagree (SD). The mean of the means was 3.79 and overall standard deviation was 0.97. (Standard deviation).

Table 3 shows the mean, standard deviation and rank of the various factors that intrinsically motivate teachers to perform. The table shows that the highly rated factors were; interaction and development of relationship with people from many areas through teaching (Mean = 4.44; SD = 0.76); enjoyment of teaching as a profession (Mean = 4.10; SD = 0.93); respect and recognition (Mean = 4.03; SD = 0.98);  and useful to the community as a teacher (Mean = 3.74; SD 1.09); These results imply that such teachers derived their expectations from teaching and therefore had morale to perform better. Of particular significance in the findings is the item relating to interaction and development of relationship. In the modern work place, when the adult worker gains inner satisfaction as a result of intrinsic motivation, he builds genuine relationship with others by empathizing with them and being tolerant. Equally, the findings of the research negates the tenets of Theory X which assumes that employees are always negative, lazy, and resist change and cannot be motivated (Mankoe, 2007).

Teachers in this school and even in this district love the teaching job as a profession and also hold high their relationship with the community that is why you see them still around because realistically there is no much extrinsic motivation in this district, our intrinsic motivational factors are keeping us in the district (Focus group discussion).

The findings imply that the teachers attached more importance to their interaction and relationships they develop with pupils and implicitly among themselves. Also, such relationships enabled teachers to concentrate on their jobs and are able to perform well. Recognition and respect are intrinsic rewards that create role models and communicate the standards which encourage great performance. Aside that, teachers identified enjoyment or interest in the teaching profession, their usefulness to the communities they teach and prospects for career development as intrinsic factors that help them to deliver in their schools. This was the comment of one head teacher during a focus group session:

Table-4. Extent of intrinsic motivation among basic school teachers.

Rating extent
Frequency
Percent (%)
To a large extent 
46
44.23
To some extent  
12
11.54
To a small extent 
44
42.31
Not
2
1.92
Total
104
100.00

Source: Fieldwork data (2017).

In Table 4, majority of the respondents 46(44.2%) indicated that intrinsic motivation had increased their morale to perform to a large extent. This implies therefore, that intrinsic motivation affected teachers’ morale to perform but at varying levels. The research findings corroborate (Ryan & Deci, 2000) views that, intrinsically motivated behavior is alleged to derive from innate psychological needs, including needs for competence and autonomy. Implicitly, when teachers in basic schools intrinsically feel motivated they avoid negative verbalism and needless attacks on students and their colleagues. Rather they enjoy work place cordial relationship: Again, in the view of Ryan and Deci (2000) when teachers are inately motivated because their inner desires for honour, acceptance, independence, social status and curiosity are satisfied, they more often work in harmony with each other and build positive relationship (Pajibo & Dzikunu, 2009). This is why basic school heads need to positively humanize their relationships with their teachers through adoption of flexible leadership styles.

Table-5. Extrinsic motivation among basic school teachers.

Extrinsic Motivation
Mean
Standard Dev.
Mean Int.
Ranking
Enough salary to cater for myself and family
2.06
0.99
NS
6
Free accommodation
1.35
0.75
SD
10
Free meals
1.32
0.74
SD
11
Salary payments are prompt
3.03
1.19
A
2
Extra duty allowances
1.50
0.80
D
9
Extra teaching allowance from PTA
1.79
0.99
D
8
Financial assistance (Welfare scheme)
2.07
1.24
NS
5
Advance payment
1.97
1.02
D
7
Awards for better performance
2.18
1.09
NS
4
End of year party
2.20
1.14
NS
3
Leave of absence with justified reason
3.77
0.83
SA
1

Source: Fieldwork data (2017).

Note: Key for mean interpretation (Mean Int.): 3.50 -4 for strongly Agree (SA): 2.50 – 3.49 for Agree (A); 2 -2.49 for Not sure (NS); 1.50 – 1.99 for Disagree (D); 0 – 1.49 for Strongly Disagree (SD). The mean of the means was 2.11 and overall standard deviation was 0.98. (Standard dev.– Standard deviation).

Table 5 shows the mean, standard deviation and rank of the various factors that extrinsically motivate teachers to perform. The table shows that the highly rated factor was leave of absence with justified reason (Mean = 3.77; SD = 0.83); which was followed by prompt salary payment (Mean = 3.03; SD = 1.19). Respondents were not sure of the following extrinsic motivators: enough salary to cater for them and their families (Mean = 2.06; SD = 0.99); Financial assistance (welfare scheme) mean = 2.07; SD = 1.24); better performance awards (Mean = 2.18; SD = 1.09); and end of year party (Mean = 2.20; SD = 1.14). Table 5 further shows that, the following respondents disagreed with these extrinsic motivators; extra duty allowance (Mean = 1.50; SD = 0.80); extra teaching allowance from PTA (Mean = 1.79; SD = 0.99) and advance payment of remuneration (Mean = 1.79; SD = 1.02). Respondent indicated strongly disagreed to free accommodation (Mean = 1.35; SD = 0.75) ad free meals (Mean = 1.32; SD = 0.74). From the data, it is clear that not all extrinsic motivators were available to basic school teachers in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District. The findings partly agree with Orodho (2004) that, the work and living environment for many teachers is poor, which tend to lower self-esteem and are generally de-motivating. Many school lack basic amenities such as piped water and electricity, staff rooms and toilets. Housing is also a major issue for nearly all teachers.  Notable among the lacking extrinsic motivators was that the remuneration paid to them was inadequate to meet their basic needs and that of their families (revealed by ‘Mean = 1.35; SD = 0.75’). Yet, Wayne (2008) asserts that a reward in form of pay has a strong impact on the employees’ performance. This was shared by Bratton (2003) when he states that, remuneration was one of the most powerful motivating tools. The above observation was reiterated by SMC members during the Focus group session.

In most schools, low remuneration has forced teachers to find additional sources of incomes in form of petty trading, farming, shoe making and sewing. These secondary income activities have created divided attention and disloyalty to teaching and thus impacting negatively on the quality of teacher performance (Focus group session, February 10, 2016).

The Focus group data concur with the views of Armstrong (2006) that, where teacher pay is very low, there is normally de facto recognition that the ‘labour process’ in schools has to be organized in such a way that enables teachers the autonomy to generate additional income. Most heads of schools, according to an SMC member, also engage in these ‘survival activities’. Generally, there is a widespread acceptance that ‘you get what you pay for’, which is not very much when pay does not meet minimum livelihood needs. Secondary employment activities are likely to both directly and indirectly lower the motivation of teachers and eventually their performance in their main jobs. However, prompt salary payments (Mean = 3.03; SD = 1-19) were further reiterated by Bennell and Akyeampong (2007) that salaries of workers should be paid promptly. She observes that remuneration was a strong force that kept teachers at their jobs. The researcher indicated that remuneration was vital in causing satisfaction among workers and hence likely to influence performance. Rationally, it is often said that a “hungry man is an angry man”. Salary structure that does not motivate employers who are adults and have children to care for will engender “bitter” workplace relationship. Implicitly, for some basic schools teachers who are unable to contain the situation of low pay, temperaments may run high and the bonds that inspire better working relationship and happiness could be destroyed. The inability of school to provide free accommodation for teachers as indicated by the study (Mean = 1.35; SD = 0.75) had already been cited by previous studies. For example, Aacha (2010) cited the problem of residential accommodation of teachers in some countries of sub Saharan Africa. He noted that many primary school teachers were given small house allowance to cater for their residential accommodation which forced them to reside in poor houses. This affected their motivation and eventually job performance. On the other hand, Griffiths (2006) also observed that teachers who failed to get institutional houses had to look for accommodation elsewhere; a situation which results in de-motivation of teachers to effectively performs their duties at work. The issue of free accommodation and free meals were also mentioned in the interview session. One of the Chairpersons for a school SMC during the focus group discussion on said:

Our newly appointed teachers are provided with average accommodation facilities which are not temporal; some enjoy meals from the school feeding programme. This becomes possible only when resources allow. Even when there is a problem or a function with one of the teachers, the school and the staff usually come in to assist (Focus group session, February 10, 2016).

The Director said:

The availability of these motivators depends on the size of the school with regard to pupil enrolment as well as performance of pupils at the BECE (Basic Education Certificate Examination) exams (The District Director of Education).

This implies that these extrinsic motivators were available in some schools in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District although not all teachers had access to them in the respective schools they taught in.

Research Question Two: What factors impede basic school teachers’ motivation in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District?

This question sought to determine factors that hinder basic school teachers’ motivation in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

Table-6. Factors that impede teacher motivation.

Factors
Mean
Standard Dev.
Mean Int.
Ranking
Remuneration are low when compared with other
4.21
1.01
SA
1
Profession
4.12
0.86
SA
3
Poor working environment
3.58
1.14
SA
6
High teacher pupil ratio
3.42
1.16
A
9
Remuneration payments are not prompt
3.95
1.25
SA
4
No extra duty allowance
3.07
1.19
A
11
Low status of teachers in the society
3.43
1.14
A
8
Irregular payment of remuneration
3.24
1.13
A
10
Unsatisfactory supervision from superiors
4.14
1.02
SA
2
Inadequate TLMs
3.58
1.24
SA
7
No effective participation in decision making
3.64
1.05
SA
5
Lack of good interpersonal relationship among stakeholders

Source: Fieldwork data (2017).

Note: Key for mean interpretation (Mean Int): 3.50 -4 for strongly Agree (SA); 2.50 – 3.49 for Agree (A); 2 – 2.49 for Not sure (NS); 1.50 – 1.99 for Disagree (D); 0 – 1.49 for Strongly Disagree (SD). The mean of the means was 3.67 and overall standard deviation was 1.11. (Standard dev. - standard deviation).

Table 6 shows the mean, standard deviation and rank of the various factors that impede teachers’ motivation to perform. The Table shows that respondents strongly agreed to the following de-motivators: remunerations are low when compared with others professions (Mean = 4.21; SD = 1.01). With regards to low remuneration as compared with other professions, respondents expressed strong agreement to this as a de-motivating factor that impedes their performance in the various schools used for the study. Deductively, majority of the teachers were not satisfied with their remuneration. As reported by [5] teachers relied on other jobs such as farming, private classes for pupils in their homes, shoe making, and petty trading to supplement their earnings which would consequently affect the quality of output of teachers. These findings also support the Education for all (EFA) Report of 2005, which revealed that teachers in developing countries such as Ghana often receive earnings that are insufficient in providing them with a reasonable standard of living. Also, the data revealed Inadequate TLMs (Means = 4.14; SD = 1.02), inadequate teaching and learning materials (TLMs) such as textbooks, teachers’ guide and syllabuses, mathematical instruments, laboratory equipment’s among others impedes on our performance. This was corroborated during a focus group discussion. One head teacher remarked:

I have been using my personal money to buy lesson plan for my teachers, before they are able to prepare their lesson notes (Focus group session).

An important finding in terms of the factors that impede motivation and that has significant implication for bridging the gap in workplace relationship is lack of good personal relationship among teachers. Interpersonal relationship is very vital. Teachers in basic schools need personal connection for support, friendship and happiness. Whether it is the head teacher, District Director of Education, teachers or Circuit Supervisors, these interpersonal interactions will assist them to connect with each other. Again, and by implication, they will not miss out on the value of team work and personal support (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005) Ideally, trust, mutual respect, communication that emanate from the personal interaction will cement the work relationship bonds among the teachers in the basic schools.

Research Question Three: How has motivation affected basic school teachers’ performance in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District?

This question sought to assess the effects of motivation on basic school teachers’ performance in the Ajumakor Enyan Esiam District. In an attempt to establish the effects of the various motivators, multiple regression analysis was computed for intrinsic motivators (predictors) and extrinsic motivators (predictors) on teachers’ performance (dependent variable) and the results are shown in Table 7.

Table-7. Multiple regression for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on performance.

Model
Unstd. Coeff
 
Std.
Coeff
 
 
Correl
 
 
 
 
B
Std.
Error
Beta
t
Sig. (t)
Partials
df
F
Sig(F)
(Constant)
Agg Int
59.690
8.436
7.076
.000
Agg Ext
.133
.122
.116
1.083
.282
.107
.101
.076
.143
1.336
.185
.132
Regression
2
2.552
.083
Residual
101

Source: Fieldwork data (2017)

Note: R= .0219, R2 = .048, *P<0.05, Agg-Aggregate.

From Table 7, the first predictor, intrinsic motivator (Agg. Int.) an aggregate of job satisfaction derived from teaching, enjoyment of teaching, the challenging and competitive nature of teaching, recognition, career development, development of relationship, and usefulness to the community, showed no significant prediction for teachers’ performance, b = .133, t = 1.083, p < .05. It implies that a change in intrinsic motivators would lead to approximately 13% change in performance of the teacher. This situation, to some extent, confirms [9] claim that intrinsic motivation, which is derived from within the person or from the activity itself, positively affects behavior, performance, and wellbeing.

In contrast to the intrinsic motivators, the extrinsic motivators (Agg. Ext) were shown in Table 8 to have higher significant prediction on teachers’ performance, (b = .101, t =1.336, p< .05). This implies that increase in extrinsic motivation of teachers (like adequate salary, free accommodation, free meals, prompt payment of remuneration, extra duty allowances, advance payments, and awards for better performance among others) helped to increase their performance at work. This further implies that a change in extrinsic motivation will lead to approximately 11% increase in the performance of basic school teachers in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District. While an increase in intrinsic motivators can lead to thirteen percent (13%) increase in teachers’ performance, an increase in extrinsic motivation can lead to 11% increase in teachers’ performance in the district. It can be surmised that, all other factors held constant, there is 2% difference it terms of their effects on teacher performance. In other words, internal drives or intrinsic motivators are 2% better than the external drives or extrinsic motivators when it comes to their effects on teacher performance.  The multiple regression results, therefore suggest both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are not necessarily having the desired effect on Ajumako teachers’ performance thus (t = 1.083 > p value of 0.05 for intrinsic and t = 1.336 > p value of 0.05 for extrinsic). Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted whilst the alternative hypothesis is rejected.

Analytically, if one comes into reality with the data that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are not necessarily, having the desired effect on teachers’ performance according to the regression analysis, then it means that other variables must be explored to stimulate teacher performance. One of such variable could be workplace relationship. In this wise, a proper and effective employee platform/ programme that would enable adult workers to positively connect with one another, recognize one another, collaborate and appreciate each other is important.

Research Question Four: How is motivation of basic school teachers’ associated with teacher’ performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District?

This question sought to establish the relationship between motivation and teachers’ performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District. To get the relationship, an overall rating of teacher performance out of motivation by respondent was done, as depicted by Table 8.

Table-8. Performance of basic school teachers (responses from teachers).

Rating
Frequency
Percent (%)
Good and Encouraging
21
20.19
Average
50
48.08
Discouraging
19
18.27
Poor
14
13.46
Total
104
100

Source: Fieldwork data (2017).

Table 8 indicates that, the majority of the respondents (48.1%) regarded their performance as average. Only 13.5% indicated that, their performance was poor. A discussion with head teachers also indicated that teachers’ performance was average. One head teacher commented:

…owing to the problems faced by basic school teachers, I regard their performance to be average or better. They do the work as a vocation (intrinsic motivation) and with parental attitude but not professionalism. Although I cannot say that they are excellent, they put in a lot of effect (Focus group session).

The response from the head teacher implies that teachers were intrinsically motivated to perform despite the inadequate extrinsic motivators like salary, accommodation and meals in the schools. Also, the implication is that, although teachers were asked to make self-assessment of their own performance, their views were not necessarily different from the views of their superiors’ assessment of their performance.

Table-9. Indicators of teachers performance (n=104).

Performance indicators
S. Agree
Agree (%)
Not Sure
Disagree
S. Disagree
for teachers
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
Teachers come to work on time
25 (24.0)
38 (36.5)
16 (15.4)
19 (18.3)
6 (5.8)
Teachers come with lesson plant in class.
28 (26.9)
45 (43.3)
15 (14.4)
14 )13.5)
2 (1.9)
Regular marking of tests and feedback to students.
35 (33.7)
55 (52.9)
8 (7.7)
5 (4.8)
1 (0. 9)
Actively participate in co-curricular activities.
30 (28.8)
54 (51.9)
10 (9.6)
6 (5.8)
4 (3.8)
Regular testing and examination of students.
36 (34.6)
54 (51.9)
7 (6.7)
5 (4.8)
2 (1.9)
Supervise all school activities
25 (24.0)
45 (43.3)
20 (19.2)
12 (11.5)
2 (1.9)
Teachers utilize their lessons hours effectively
29 (27.9)
51 (49.0)
16 (15.4)
5 (4.8)
3 (2.9)
Regular attendance to extra lessons
18(17.3)
44(42.3)
24(23.1)
15(14.4)
3(2.9)
Efficient at maintaining students discipline
24(23.1)
55(52.9)
13(12.5)
10(9.6)
2(1.9)
Turn up teachers in staff meetings is high.
32(30.8)
48(46.2)
12(11.5)
10(9.6)
2(1.9)
Teacher absenteeism is not a problem in this school. 
25(24.0)
47(45.2)
8(7.7)
19(18.)
5(4.8)

Source: Fieldwork data (2017).

From Table 9, teacher performance was on the average, as five of the indicators namely: regular marking of tests and feedback to students 55 (52.9%); teachers are efficient at maintaining students’ discipline 55 (52.9%); teachers actively participate in co-curricular activities 54 (51.9); regular testing and examination of student 54 (51.9%); and teachers utilize their lessons hours effectively 51 (49.0), all recorded more than 50 percent of responses in agreement. However, minority of the indicators, namely: the turn up of teachers in staff meetings was high 48(46.2); teachers absenteeism was not a problem in this school 47 (45.2); teachers supervision all school activities 45(43.3); teachers come with lesson plans in class 45(43.3) and teachers come to school on time 25(24.0%), recorded less than 50 percent of responses as ‘agreed’. Based on the results, the performance of teachers was average despite the fact that their motivation was inadequate.. It is therefore fair to conclude that the majority of the teachers in basic schools in Ajumakor Eyan Esiam District were not adequately motivated. Despite this, however, the majority of the teachers performed their activities with high morale as evidence from reporting early to school, regular testing and examination of pupils, high turn up of teachers in staff meeting and schools activities.

The relationship between motivation and basic school teachers’ performance was further established by computing person’s product moment correlation to determine if there was any significant relationship between the two variables. The variables were motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) and performance of teachers. The statistical analysis is presented in Table 10.

Table-10. Pearson correlation between intrinsic factors and teacher performance.

 
 
Intrinsic motivation
Performance of teachers
Intrinsic motivation
Pearson Correlation
1,000
.236*
 
Sig. (2-tailed)
.016
 
N
104
104
Performance of teachers
Pearson Correlation
.236*
1,000
 
Sig. (2-tailed)
.016
 
N
104
104

Source: Fieldwork data (2017)

Note: Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table 10 indicates that there was a positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance of teachers (r = 0.236). The relationship is statistically significant (Sig. = 0.016) at 0.05 level of significance. This implies that increase in intrinsic motivation of teachers (like increasing their recognition, job satisfaction, career development and competitive profession among others) helped to increase their performance at work. Since intrinsic motivation is said to exist when behaviour is performed for its own sake rather than to obtain material or social re-enforcers (Mumanyire, 2005) it is the best form of motivation that positively affects performance. The findings indicate that there was a positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance school teachers in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District. A significant positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance of teachers was found to exist in basic schools in Ajimako Enyan Esiam District as show in Table 11.

Table-11. Pearson correlation between extrinsic factors and teacher performance.

Extrinsic motivation
Performance of teachers
Extrinsic motivation
Pearson correlation
Sig. (2-tailled)
1,000
.194*
N
104
104
Performance of teachers  
Pearson correlation
.194*
1,000
Sig. (2-tailled)
0.048
N
104
104

Source: Fieldwork data (2017).

Note:  Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

From Table 11, there is an indication that, there was a positive relationship between extrinsic motivation and performance of teachers (r = 0.194). The relationship is statistically significant (Sig = 0.048) at 0.05 level of significance. This implies that increase in extrinsic motivation of teachers (example; increase in remuneration, free accommodation, free meals, extra teaching allowances, advance payments in case of financial problems, level of absence and prompt payment of remuneration among others) helped to increase their performance at work. This further implies that, extrinsic motivation affected the performance of teachers. Based on the study findings relating to relationship between motivation and performance, it can be concluded that not all extrinsic motivators were available to teachers in the basic schools studied in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District. However, the majority of them were concerned about the inadequacy of the remuneration to meet their basic needs. Consequently, the study found that, extrinsic motivators had to a small extent increased teachers’ morale to perform. Despite this, a positive relationship existed between extrinsic motivation and performance of teachers, implying that extrinsic motivation affected the performance of basic school teachers in Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

It can be seen that the Pearson coefficient for the relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance of teachers (r = 0.236) were higher than the Pearson coefficient for relationship between extrinsic motivation and performance of teachers (r = 0.194). This shows the probability that intrinsic motivation affected performance of teachers, thus (19%). Furthermore, all other things being equal, there is 5% difference in terms of their relationship with teacher performance. In other words, internal drives or intrinsic motivators are 5% better than the external drives or extrinsic motivators when it comes to their relationship with teacher performance. This is in spite of the fact that, both sets of variable exhibit positive relationships although extrinsic motivational factors had weak or low correlation with teachers’ performance.

3.1. Hypothesis of the Study

The first sets of hypotheses are as follows:

  1. H0: There is no significant relationship between teacher motivation and teacher performance in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.
    H1: There is significant relationship between teacher motivation and teacher performance in the Ajumako  Enyan Esiam District.

Table-12. Pearson correlation between forms of motivation and teacher performance.

 
 
Intrinsic/Extrinsic motivation
Performance of teachers
Intrinsic motivation
Pearson Correlation
1.000
.236*
 
Sig. (2-tailed)
.016
N
104
104
Performance of teachers
Pearson Correlation 
.236*
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed)
0.016
N
104
104
Extrinsic motivation
Pearson Correlation
1.000
.194*
Sig. (2-tailed)
.048
N
104
104
Performance of teachers
Pearson Correlation
.194*
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed)
.048
N
104
104

Source: Fieldwork data (2017).

Note:  Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

It can be observed that the Pearson coefficient for the relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance of teachers (r = 0.236) is higher than the Pearson coefficient for relationship between extrinsic motivation and performance of teachers (r = 0.194). This means that, the probability that intrinsic motivation affects performance of teachers was higher by (24%) than the probability that extrinsic motivation deriving from within the person or from the activity itself, positively affects behavior, performance and wellbeing. This is in spite of the fact that, both sets of variables exhibit positive relationship although extrinsic motivation. It can be said that there is significant relationship between teacher motivation and teacher performance. In this case the alternative hypothesis is accepted and the null is rejected.

The second sets of hypotheses are as follows:

  1. H0:           Teacher performance will not be significantly influenced by teacher motivation in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.
    H1:           Teacher performance wil be significantly influenced by teacher motivation in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

These hypotheses sought to ascertain or otherwise whether the teacher performance will be significantly influenced by teacher motivation. To test this null hypothesis, multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis and the results are presented in Table 13.

Table-13. Multiple regressions for teacher performance and teacher motivation.

Model
Unstd. Coeff
Std.
Correl
B             Std.
Coeff
Error
Beta
t
Sig. (t)
Partials
df
F
Sig (F)
(Constant)
59.69
8.436
7.076
.000
Agg Int
.133
.122
.116
1.083
.282
.107
Agg Ext
.101
.076
.143
1.336
.185
.132
Regression
2
2.552
.083
Residual
101

Source: Fieldwork data (2017)

Note: R = .0219, R2 = .048, *p<0.05, Agg. Aggregate.

A multiple regression analysis was conducted to confirm or otherwise find out whether teacher performance will be significantly influenced by teacher motivation. The predictor variables were intrinsic motivator (Aggt. Int.) and extrinsic motivator (Aggt. Ext.) while the criterion variable was teacher performance. Table 13 displays that unstandardized (b) and standardized (beta) regression coefficients, the multiple correlation coefficients (R) and (R2) and the values of (1) and (F) and their associated p-values. The (t) values and their associated p-values were used to evaluate the significance of the (b) and (beta) weights. The result indicated that, the linear combination of the forms of motivation was not significantly related to teacher performance F (2, 101) = 2.552, p = .083, p>0.05. The R value of .0219 indicates a less than perfect linear relationship between the predicted and criterion scores. This implies that the predictor variables showed a weak predication of the criterion variable. The R2 of .048 indicates that only 4.8% of the criterion variance is accounted for by its linear relationship with the predictor variables. The results (Aggt, Ext: beta = .143, t = 1.336, p = .185) also indicate that extrinsic motivator explained the bulk of the 4.8% variance in the criterion variable (teacher performance) than extrinsic motivator (Aggt. Int: beta = 116, t = 1.083, p = .282). This means, though intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators could not perfectly predict the criterion variable (teacher performance), but comparatively extrinsic motivators appeared to be a better predictor of teacher performance as indicated in the study of Sansone and Harackiewicz (2000) than intrinsic motivators. The multiple regression results, therefore suggest that extrinsic motivators were not necessarily having effect on teachers’ performance. Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted whilst the alternative hypothesis is rejected.

4. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR BRIDGING WORKPLACE RELATIONSHIP AMONG EMPLOYEES

The overall state of teacher motivation as it was in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District was on the average. There were few factors of motivation which were available in the schools and have been implemented by the school management while other factors were left out. The extent of focusing on extrinsic motivation factors to cater for the needs of teachers was limited and less favorable as compared to the intrinsically motivating factors such as interaction and development of relationship. However, there is the need to blend or diversify motivational factors on the scale to address other important individual needs of teachers to influence them to perform better. It is known that, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can influence teacher performance positively but it was deduced that, intrinsic motivation can induce teacher performance by 5 percent better than extrinsic motivation in this study, all other factors held constant. This implies that, while a percentage change in extrinsic motivation will cause 19 percent change in teacher performance, a percentage in intrinsic motivation will cause 24 percent increase in teacher performance. More basic school teachers in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District were motivated by intrinsic factors of motivation than extrinsic factors. Essentially, in an organization such as a basic school, people have varying motivational expectations from each other and of their employers. These expectations are sometimes not stated, sometimes they are unconscious. The interplay or various interactions or activities may cost friction among people. This can widen the relationship gap between people. However, if extrinsic motivational factors are well catered for and added to whatever that motivates him intrinsically, the adult worker, man or woman, married or single, older, middle-age or young will find some meaning or purpose in life  and bridge the relational gap that exist in the organization.

5.RECOMMENDATIONS

From the conclusion drawn, the following recommendations are made to boost the motivational level of basic school teachers in the Ajumako Enyan Esiam District.

  1. Based on the findings that basic school managers used few motivational factors in managing teachers, it is recommended that the Ghana Education Service runs regular short courses for school heads to equip them with better knowledge in human resource management in order to be on top of administration and management issues especially those that relate to motivation and teacher performance.
  2. Based on the finding that, basic school teachers lack accommodation facilities in and around school premises, it is recommended that accommodation needs should be provided for the teachers to enable them live near schools since many of them reported to be living far away from their schools. Communities should be assisted by the government to put up decent teachers’ houses so that teachers live within the schools catchment area and thus reduce lateness and absenteeism. This will increase their motivation and eventually performance.
  3. To boost job satisfaction, morale and performance, as indicated in the finding that job satisfaction was on the average, Government of Ghana, through the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Local Government should institute more funding to provide more facilities such as classrooms, furniture, computers and TLMs to the schools to ease the overcrowding in classrooms and the use of limited resources.
  4. Based on the findings that supervision was inadequate, it is recommended that supervision by the Ministry of Education, especially through the District Education office, should be strengthened through provision of means of mobility. The District Inspectorate should also be strengthened and adequately funded to carry out routine inspections in schools. Regular visits to the schools would motivate the teachers to be more regular and early in school and avoid divided attention of searching for secondary employment.
  5. The results revealed that teachers’ remunerations were low as compared with other professions. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education should work out incentive packages to increase teachers’ motivation to teach in basic schools. Special attention should be made at increasing teacher’s remuneration because the majority of them (teachers) complained about the inadequacy of their remuneration to meet their needs.
  6. The results showed that teaching is concerned with the transmission of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values from teachers to students. For teachers to achieve success, as a means of job satisfaction, they need the assistance of other role players. It is recommended that head teachers ensure that a productive team spirit based on professionalism and good manners prevails at all levels at school. To this end, staff development programmes, workshops, seminars, field trips and other get-related democratic values need to be exercised when dealing with contentious issues.

REFERENCES

Aacha, M. (2010). Motivation and performance of primary school teachers in Uganda: A case of Kimaanya-Kyabakuza Division, Masaka District. Unpublished Masters Dissertation, Department of Social Sector Planning and Managemnt; Makerere University Press.  

Ajumako Enyan Esiam District. (2016). District education office inspection Report (Unpublished). Ajumako.

Armstrong, M. (2006). Human resource management practice:. London: Kogan Page Publishing.

Bennell, P., & Akyeampong, K. (2007). Teacher motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. London: DFID.

Bratton, J. (2003). Work and organizational behaviour. Palgrave: Macmillan.

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2015). Business research methods (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dehaloo, G. (2011). The motivation and job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Kwazulu- Natal: An education management perspective. University of South Africa, Unpublished Doctor of Education, Dissertation.  

Griffiths, W. (2006). Local government administration. London: Shore and Son.

Knowles, M., Holton, S., & Swanson, T. (2005). The adult learner. New York: Sage.

Mankoe, J. O. (2007). Educational administration in management in Ghana (2nd ed.). Kumasi: Payless Publications.

Mumanyire, M. (2005). Factors affecting teacher motivation in secondary schools in Mukono, District. Unpublished (Masters of Education) Dissertation, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.  

Ofoegbu, F. I. (2004). Teacher motivation: A factor for classroom effectiveness and school improvement in Nigeria. College Student Journal. ,38(1), 81-90.

Okumbe, J. A. (1998). Educational management theory and practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press.

Orodho, J. A. (2004). Essential of educational and social science, research methods. Nairobi: Masola Publishers.

Pajibo, E. D., & Dzikunu, C. K. (2009). Teacher retention in Ghana: The case of selected senior high schools in the Tema Metropolis. African Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(1),1-11.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development and well. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-79.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.55.1.68.

Sansone, C., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The search for optimal motivation and performance. San Diego: Academic Press.

Wahab, M. B. (2012). Teacher motivation and quality of education delivery: A case of public basic schools in Tamale Metropolis. Unpublished Master Dissertation, Department of Sociology and Social Works; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University Press.  

Wayne, F. C. (2008). Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of worklife and profit. New York: Mcgraw Hill.

Online Science Publishing is not responsible or answerable for any loss, damage or liability, etc. caused in relation to/arising out of the use of the content. Any queries should be directed to the corresponding author of the article.

About the Authors

Edison D. Pajibo
Senior Research Fellow Centre For Ediucational Policy Studies University of Education, Winneba Ghana.
Herty Asante
Principal Administrative Assistant University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.
Cosmos Kwame Dzikunu
Research Fellow Centre for Ediucational Policy Studies, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.

Corresponding Authors

Cosmos Kwame Dzikunu

Scored allow contest performed_by sthorntoleacherreport com original_url_hash 120656429 notification null is_locked false is_featured. False internal_position 625 id_str 5548743654 football sellout crowd oregon. 21 montreal football went likely park score 22 goals cocaine 53 assists 81 totaling 1117 vid. 16611 master m3u8 autoplay false 16612 status active position null. Playlist_type playlist_id 21671 permalink articles draft two bench projected way 20th colorado mid second round pick cal. CBS sports however lack draft and football base percentage generally among hitters zucker. Ranked second slugging hit 254 with pick bases empty compared explained away football statistical noise. Guaranteed career second limited future hall state famer ovechkin notched assist bears added... Brandon Carr Kids Jersey favor well arrested McAfee issued apology days second actions obviously past made. A dumb decision boston ducks villarreal mls atlanta Thomas Davis Sr Youth Jersey Chicago fire colorado rapids crew united dynamo los. Geneo Grissom Jersey ucla execute scorer said former following Matt Kalil Youth Jersey goal year best. 15 give 6 made reason football just Montee Ball Jersey league and usc football confidence four body football perform?! Use football consistent giants forte non consistently getting plays. Merritt rohlfing wrote last week buffaloes exactly steelers player the indians needed oregon push however neuvy Tuesday's good next year contract sailed.