Volume 1, Number 1 (2016) pp 10-34 doi 10.20448/journal.801/2016.1.1/801.1.10.34 | Research Articles
Evidences from the literature have revealed that the cultural value that predominates among individuals in a society exercises an influence on their attitude, intention and behavior including those that are channeled towards entrepreneurial activities. Thus, an in-depth knowledge of the differing cultural orientation among these individuals based on their demographical or other personal characteristics can serve as a basis of understanding their entrepreneurial behavior in addition to providing a means of promoting an entrepreneurial driven cultural value. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics: gender, marital status, age group on the tendency of university study to exhibit entrepreneurship cultural values. Three cultural predictors: perceived appropriateness, perceived consistence and perceived effectiveness were highlighted as important entrepreneurial cultural values which can be used to predict an entrepreneurial inclined intention/behavior. Furthermore, the results from the 255 copies of close ended and structured questionnaires that were considered usable for statistical analysis indicates that while no significant difference was uncovered in the constructs of appropriateness, consistence and effectiveness according to the gender group of the respondents, a statistically significant difference was however uncovered among them according to their marital status in that those students who are single have the tendency to exhibit a higher perception of entrepreneurial appropriateness. In addition, it was uncovered that those students who are between the age range of 26 and 36 are significantly higher in these three cultural predictors as compared to their younger counterparts who are within the ranges of 15-25 years, 37-47 years old, and 48 years old and above. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that while disseminating information to foster entrepreneurial cultural change, efforts should be made to employ a segmentation strategy which will allow more concentration on the individuals who were highlighted as having less perception of entrepreneurial cultural values.
Keywords: Demographic factors, Entrepreneurial culture, University students, Metropolitan Kano.
Citation | Adewale, A. Adekiya (2016). Effect of Demographic Factors on Entrepreneurial Culture: A Study of University Students in Metropolitan Kano. American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(1): 10-34.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Funding : The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
History : Received: 6 June 2016/ Revised: 20 June 2016/ Accepted: 24 June 2016/ / Published: 29 June 2016
Publisher: Online Science Publishing
According to Sajilan, Hadi, &Tehseen (2015) entrepreneurial behavior is a purposively driven behavior that attempts to builds up a business, does creative things and makes impossible things to be possible. For Sethi (2013) it is an action undertaken by an entrepreneur to establish an enterprise. They pointed that it is a creative activity or process which could involve building a social or economic entity from practically nothing or sensing an opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction and confusion. Also, Hisrich and Peters (2002) admitted that it is the process of creating something new, assuming the risk involved and reaping the reward attached, which could be profit-based, social prestige or the achievement of some social goals. Findings from numerous schools of thoughts are bordered on the premises that all entrepreneurial driven behavior are preceded by the intention to engage in such venture. In other words, this behavior has been highlighted as having a direct link with a prior intention to engage in entrepreneurial activities. For instance the theory of planned behavior by Ajzen (1991) posits that intentions reflect the motivational factors that influence behavior and are a reliable indicator of how hard a person is willing to try and how much effort he/she makes to perform a behavior including that of entrepreneurship. While Krueger and Brazeal (1994) pointed that entrepreneurial intention is central to understanding the entrepreneurial process because it is the foundation and the first step to understanding the process of entrepreneurship, Peterman & Kennedy (2003) have defined the construct as the perceptions of desirability and feasibility and the propensity to act upon opportunities. These two submissions gives us the assumption that the perception of desirability and feasibility of venture creation will lead to intention to engage in such task, while such intention can act as a reliable predictor of an actual engagement in the venture.
The concept of entrepreneurial culture which can be defined as an environment where someone is motivated to innovate, create and take risks, has been identified as a condition for entrepreneurial behavior/intention (Thurik & Dejardinas, 2012). As argued by Hayton & Cacciotti (2014) to the extent that cultural values lead to an acceptance of uncertainty and risk taking, they are expected to be supportive of the creativity and innovation underlying the act of entrepreneurship. Further, the submission by Mitchell, Smith, Morsem, Seawright, Peredo, & Mc-Kenzie (2002) indicates that for starting a new business, many factors influence entrepreneurial intention. In their opinion, while such factors can range from desirability, feasibility, and entrepreneurial experience, they are subjected to variation across different cultures and nations. Put in another way, the prediction of entrepreneurial intention is anchored on the premises of whether the cultural value that is predominant in an environment is in supportive of entrepreneurship, and vice versa. The aggregate psychological trait theory of Davidsson (1995) lend credence to this by proposing that if there are more people with entrepreneurial values in a country, there will be an increased number of people displaying entrepreneurial intentions/behavior. Thus, knowledge of those cultural values that are entrepreneurial driven and inherent in individuals, take for instance according to their demographical characteristics, might serve as yardstick for predicting entrepreneurial intentions among them. In other words, an important area of academic debate would be to determine the moderating role of demographical characteristics such as gender, marital status and age on entrepreneurial culture. In achieving this objective, the study is narrowed down to the final year students of Bayero University, Kano who are expected to graduate soon and will be in dire need for self employment as a result of the scarcity of paid employment nationwide. Further, it is constituted into five sections. In section two, emphases was placed on the review of relevant literature, section three discusses the methodology of the research, section four highlights the main findings, while section five, gives a concluding remark and recommendations.
Since it has been supported by both theoretical argument and empirical evidences that entrepreneurial culture have a positive and direct link to entrepreneurial intention which in turn, exert a direct and positive influence on the degree to which individuals are engaged in entrepreneurial behavior it is thus anticipated that a knowledge on the effect of gender, marital status, and age on entrepreneurial culture will assist in the prediction of entrepreneurial intentions among the population in focus according to the highlighted demographic characteristics and will also aid in the formulation of policies that will aid in the optimal allocation of resources to students on the basis of these demographic characteristics whenever the objective is the dissemination of entrepreneurial information that are targeted towards national re- orientation and cultural changes.
For Hofstede (2001) culture is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. Another definition by Hayton & Cacciotti (2014) highlights the concept as the values, beliefs and expected behaviors that are sufficiently common across people within (or from) a given geographic region as to be considered as shared. According to Kotler & Keller (2009) culture is the essential character of a society that distinguishes it from other cultural groups. In their opinion, the underlying elements of every culture are the values, language, myths, customs, rituals, and laws that shape the behavior of the culture, as well as the material artifacts, or products, of that behavior as they are transmitted from one generation to the next. It encompasses all the things individuals do on daily basis without conscious choice because their cultural values, customs, and rituals are ingrained in these daily habits (Kotler & Keller, 2009). As pointed by Barkai (2010) human interaction creates values and prescribes acceptable behavior for each culture. He pointed that by establishing common expectations, culture gives order to society. Culture is learned in that individuals are not born knowing the values and norms of their society but must learn what is acceptable from family and friends. For instance children learn the values that will govern their behavior from parents, teachers, and peers (Keller, 1993). This implies that communication tools such as interpersonal communication strategies or the dissemination of information through the mass media can play the role of an instrument for cultural influence and change.
While looking at the concept of entrepreneurship from the perspective of culture, Reardon (1991) have proposed three cultural factors or predictors which he highlighted as the ACE model of persuasion: the appropriateness-consistency-effectiveness model. According to De-Pillis& Reardon (2001) this theory proposes that the type of message influences the persuasion outcome. First, perceived consistence, they argued, is the degree to which entrepreneurship is a good fit with one’s self-concept. In their opinion, a subject who has high self-consistence with regard to entrepreneurship would agree with statements like, "an entrepreneur is someone like me," or "I am the entrepreneurial type. Second, perceived appropriateness as argued by them is the degree to which entrepreneurship is perceived to be considered proper and accepted by others in the society, as a suitable career while perceived effectiveness, they maintained, is the degree to which an entrepreneurship career is perceived as capable of achieving one’s desired outcome or lifetime goals. To the extent that people have internalized positive impressions about the appropriateness, consistency and effectiveness of entrepreneurship, they are likely to convert those impressions into intention to start a business (De Pillis& Reardon, 2001). Hence these three cultural predictors are adopted as main cultural values which can serve as a basis of prediction of entrepreneurial intention and behavior in this study.
According to Karayiannis (1993) cultural elements influence the development of entrepreneurship during the life time of an individual. As opined by them, in the childhood parental and wider family values and life goals influence the entrepreneurial spirit of the child. In adolescence also, the same parental influence are posed regarding the vocational preference, which is mainly a product of the cultural stratification of employment's prestige. In addition, they identified friendship, communities' attachments, and education as system which provides values and goals as cultural elements, which influences entrepreneurship in individuals at this stage of life. As pointed by Karayiannis (1993) Social approval contributes to the growth of entrepreneurial activity when the values of a given society reward entrepreneurship while disapproval impedes it. Hence in a social environment where the entrepreneur is seen as an exploiter of consumers and laborers, then among young individuals, hostility to starting a business will prevail (Karayiannis, 1993). A cultural trait strongly associated with individual attitudes towards risk and uncertainty is uncertainty avoidance (Thurik&Dejardin, 2012). According to Hofstede theory of cultural difference uncertainty avoidance relates to the extent to which societies tolerate ambiguity (Hofstede, 2001). A culture is characterized by high uncertainty avoidance when its members feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations. People in these cultures: “look for structure in their organizations, institutions and relationships, which makes events clearly interpretable and predictable (Hofstede, 2001). In countries with lower uncertainty avoidance, not only familiar but also unfamiliar risks, such as changing jobs and starting activities for which there are no rules, are accepted (Hofstede, 2001). In his opinion, low uncertainty avoidance thus implies a willingness to enter into unknown ventures which implies that when communication channels, and interpersonal encounters, predominating in a society fosters messages that supports risk taking, then such society is likely to be characterized by a higher level of entrepreneurial activities.
To press home the above point, Etzioni (1987) argues that the values and norms predominant in the social environment of an individual may have an influence on his or her propensity to start a business. Hence, culture averse to business foundation may suppress start-up activities and vice versa. For instance if entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship are not given a desired and appropriate public image in the society, such gesture might become an important component of local culture thereby leading to a resentment of new venture start up as a viable option of live hood. Theoretically, the relationship between culture and entrepreneurial intention and behavior can be explained by the institutional theory of North (1992). This theory states that both formal laws such as governmental regulations, policies or enterprises, and informal rules of behavior, such as standards, habits and customs shapes the behavior of people in any modern society (North,1992). It proposes that since human behavior is essentially shaped by institutions, institutions constitute the scope of action for entrepreneurs. For instance the nature of the institutional framework influences the behavior of choice in favor of or against business foundation and, consequently, the availability of business founders. Thus, formal institutions of a society ensure the existence of entrepreneurial opportunities while the informal institutions, i.e. attitudes, habits and customs, determine the extent to which these opportunities are actually recognized and grasped (Welter, 2002).
According to Mueller and Thomas (2000) Because extensive research at the individual level of analysis shows a link between values, beliefs and behavior, it is plausible that the differences in national culture in which these values and beliefs are imbedded, may influence a wide range of behaviors, including the decision to become self-employed rather than to work for others. Drawing inference from this, it is assumed that if the national culture that is predominant in an environment is such that support the act of new venture creation, such society is more likely to be characterized by a higher level of entrepreneurial activities. Empirically, Davidsson and Wiklund (1997) surveyed the cultural features and attitudes of three regions’ inhabitants using a questionnaire with randomly chosen individuals of 35 to 40 years old. A comparison of the survey results for the three regions reveals that entrepreneurship -related values, views and attitudes are mostly positive in the regions with high entrepreneurship intensity. They therefore concluded that cultural differences do explain part of the variation in business foundation rates. Also, Engle et al. (2010) carried out a comprehensive survey among business students comprising twelve countries and they suggested that social norms were a significant predictor of the intention for entrepreneurship in each country.
Various researchers have revealed that several factors are responsible for superior entrepreneurial behavior. For instance, some have given more importance to the external factors such as government policies, social and physical infrastructures; some others have investigated the influence of entrepreneur characteristics on this behavior by utilizing a personality trait approach see for instance (Frese et al., 2002; Pearson & Chatterjee, 2001) while others such as (Bates, 1995; Davidsson, 1995; Welmilla et al., 2011; Ahmad, 2007) have emphasized more on the demographic characteristics of the entrepreneurs as they influence his behavior. By following the later approach which deal with demographic factors, this study will focus on the concept of gender, marital status and age as they exercise an influence on new start up behavior.
Some studies have highlighted gender differences when it comes to entrepreneurial abilities, potentials and other entrepreneurial attributes (Díaz-García& Jiménez-Moreno, 2010; Yordanova. &Tarrazon, 2010). According to Grilo &Thurik (2005a) some of these studies believe that males are better in entrepreneurial engagement than females. For instance, the submission by Reynold et al. (2002) indicates that females have 50% less possibility to start a business as an entrepreneur compared to males. As pointed by Wilson et al. (2007) many studies have described gender as an important predictor of entrepreneurial behavior and intention and most, have revealed that males have more intentions towards entrepreneurship than females. By building on these foundations, Raposo et al. (2008) contended that though, many women want economic and personal independence, but are less capable and confident to run a business hence less intention for entrepreneurial activities. Nonetheless, Van der Kuip&Verheul (2004) differs in their own position by maintaining that the females of developing countries struggle more to involve in entrepreneurship because they want to improve their family’s life standards which is not possible while doing low level jobs, and are hence, more willing to become self employed. By reasoning along these lines of thought above which lay credence to the notion that the gender groups of males and females are significantly different in entrepreneurial behavior, it is equally arguable to concur that these two groups will be significantly different in entrepreneurial cultural values since empirical evidences have highlighted the later as a reliable precursor of the former. However, while a theoretical argument can be put forward, the notion remains untested empirically hence the following hypothesis is proposed.
1a there is no significant difference in perceived appropriateness between males and female students
1b there is no significant difference in perceived consistence between males and female students
1c there is no significant difference in perceived effectiveness between males and female students.
Empirically, the research by Jaiwasal& Patel (2012) uncovered a significant relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and marital status. They indicated that single individuals are likely to exhibit more entrepreneurial behavior than their married counterpart. Tamizharasi and Panchanatham (2010) studied the demographic factors of the small and medium enterprise attitudes in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. They stated that while entrepreneurial attitudes can make the entrepreneurs strong and be more successful in their business, such attitudes increased with a change in marital status among other factors. Put in another way, the concept of gender affiliation is highlighted as determinant predictors of entrepreneurial attitude. In addition, the research by Olowa & Olowa (2015) among agribusiness owners in Southwestern Nigeria highlights the marital status of respondents as an important demographical factor which motivates their inclination towards entrepreneurial ventures. They posit that a change from being single to married would lead to an increase in level of involvement in agribusiness entrepreneurship.
Thus, while some studies have provided evidences that single individuals are more likely to be entrepreneurial inclined, others have objected by providing a conflicting argument that married couples are more likely to exhibit entrepreneurial behavior. Thus, by reasoning in line with the submission that cultural values act as a determinant of engagement in entrepreneurial practices, the argument on differences in entrepreneurial behavior according to marital status, can equally be extended to the relationship between marital status and entrepreneurial cultural values. Nevertheless, it is still an unclear issue which must be subjected to empirical testing. Consequently, the following hypotheses are also proposed.
2a there is no significant difference in perceived appropriateness among students according to their marital status.
2b there is no significant difference in perceived consistence among students according to their marital status
2c there is no significant difference in perceived effectiveness among students according to their marital status.
As indicated by Aapola (2002) for a long period of time, the concept of age has been used as one of the important variables in contemporary social science research to categorize individuals and explain differences among them. According to Welmilla et al. (2011) an increase in age has a direct link with skill improvement as a result of the fact that people learn to manage time effectively as their age increases (Korpunen & Nápravníková, 2008). By extending this link to venture start-up, Reynolds (1997) contended that many previous studies have indicated that the person’s age is considered as a key demographic characteristic in understanding his or her entrepreneurial behaviors and intentions. In the opinion of Tanveer et al. (2013) while there is less chance to become an entrepreneur as the age increases, an increase in age is positively related to a firm’s success. This is to indicate that while older people might not have the intention for new business start-up, this particular group of people will tend to achieve greater success in a business management environment as their age increases. consistent with this view, Raposo et al. (2008) argued that entrepreneurs get more opportunities with increasing age while their willingness to become an entrepreneur decrease as they become older. This view was shared by Levesque &Minniti (2006) who argued that at early age, individual’s interest to start a business increases but decreases thereafter with the increase in age. By comparing findings in developing countries to that obtained in developed countries, (Bosma & Harding 2007); (Karadeniz&Özçam, 2009) pointed that in developing countries, the entrepreneurs are in 25-34 age groups at an early stage and 35-44 age groups are of early stage entrepreneurs in the developed countries. Going by this argument, it can be inferred that the subjects of focus in this study, who are from a developing country, are likely to be characterized by a decrease in entrepreneurial cultural values as their age increases from 34 and above. Overall, a notable point of inference from this review of literature is that while researchers have diverse view about the influence of age on entrepreneurship, they also maintain a consensus that individuals show more entrepreneurial behavior in their younger age than in older age. Thus, it can be assumed that younger students will exhibit more entrepreneurial cultural values than their older counterpart. However, since this assumption has not been empirically tested, it is hereby hypothesized that:
3a there is no significant difference in perceived appropriateness among students according to their age groups
3b there is no significant difference in perceived consistence among students according to their age groups
3c there is no significant difference in perceived effectiveness among students according to their age groups.
The theoretical background of this study is built on two major theories: Inglehart (1990) post-materialism theory, and the social legitimation of entrepreneurship theory by Etzioni (1987). The social legitimation of entrepreneurship focuses on the impact of social norms and institutions on society-at-large. According to the theory, greater rates of entrepreneurship are found in societies where the entrepreneur is endowed with higher social status, attention to entrepreneurship is paid within the educational system, and more tax incentives exist to encourage business start-ups. This results in a higher demand for and supply of entrepreneurship (Etzioni 1987). In the social legitimation view, more individuals’ value entrepreneurship as a result of the higher social status conferred on entrepreneurs in certain societies (Thurik&Dejardin, 2012). Hence we draw inference from this theory and argue that those individuals, whose demographic orientation is characterized by higher level of the cultural predictors of perceived appropriateness, perceived effectiveness and perceived consistence are likely to be equally characterized by a greater rate of entrepreneurial behavior.
Furthermore, post-materialism theory of entrepreneurship was used by Inglehart (1990) to explain observed changes in values in modern societies. It describes the transformation in many countries from a culture dominated by materialistic-oriented individuals to a society in which an increasing proportion of the population favors non-materialistic life-goals over materialistic ones. In this theory, it is argued that a society that is more post-materialist in culture is likely to be less entrepreneurial. The theory went on to argue that a society that is characterized by a higher socio economic opportunities will tend to have a large population that favors non materialistic life goals while the opposite is the case for other societies that is characterized by lower socio economic opportunities. The implication of this according to Uhlaner and Thurik (2007) is that societies characterized by post materialistic orientation are likely to experience less entrepreneurship and vice versa. Going by this theory, it can be conceded that since the population of less developed countries such as Nigeria have a large population that are more materialistic in cultural values, it should be expected that this environment will be predominated by individuals who will exhibit an above average entrepreneurial cultural values, which will consequently lead to an intention for entrepreneurial behavior.
In the framework above, it is proposed that the demographic characteristics of the students: gender, age and marital status are independent variables which does not exercise any significant effect on their cultural values, viewed in terms of perceived appropriateness, perceived consistence, and perceived effectiveness. In other words, it is proposed that a significant difference will not be uncovered in these three cultural predictors according to their gender, age and marital status.
Bergqvist&Esping (2003) are of the opinion that research designs are the procedural framework within which the research is conducted. Research design guides the investigator as he collects analysis and interprets observation and makes it possible to draw inferences for the purpose of generalization to a larger population (Nachmais&Nachmais, 1996). Thus, a cross sectional survey design was adopted for this study. In the view of Zigmund (2005) cross sectional survey is the best method available to a researcher when the objective of his research is to sample the opinion or perception of his respondents on issues of concern, at a particular point in time. This research seeks to determine the cultural values inherent in respondents based on their individual perception. Hence it found the cross sectional survey design most appropriate.
The population investigated in our study is the final year undergraduate students of the Bayero University, Kano who are currently enrolled in the compulsory courses on entrepreneurship training and development offered by the center for African entrepreneurship research in the University. As at the time of conducting this study, the total population of the students in this category is five thousand and ten (5010) and is adopted as the population of the study. The simple random technique, which according to Zigmund (2005) is a sampling technique where there is a known, non zero chances of including the entire unit in the sample, while every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected thus allowing for statistical inference to be made, was adopted in picking three hundred and fifty seven students (357) out of this total population. The total sample size for the research is determined by drawing inference from the work ofKrejcie& Morgan (1970) which has been adopted by the Universal Accreditation Board (2003) according to them, for a population that ranges from 5000 to an upward of 7499, a sample size of 357 is appropriate. Hence this informs the decision of the researchers to employ the sample size reported above.
A self administered and structured questionnaire that measures the three cultural predictors: perceived appropriateness, perceived consistency, perceived effectiveness, was employed in eliciting responses from the respondents. All the items were subjected to a pilot test among twenty (20) students in a neighboring tertiary institution and were restructured and rephrased to be in line with their recommendations in other to satisfy the assumption of validity and reliability. These items on perceived appropriateness, perceived consistency and perceived effectiveness was adopted from the original work of Reardon (1991); de Pillis& De-Witt (2008) after necessary modification were made to allow for suitability to the environment in focus. Perceived appropriateness consist of seven (7) items that ask such question as a career in entrepreneurship is an acceptable career in my society, in this environment, entrepreneurs are looked up to as role models etc it has a reliability coefficient Cronbach Alpha of 0.854. Similarly, perceived consistency is made up of six (6) items and asks questions such as, an entrepreneur is someone like me, I am the entrepreneurial type. Also, this instrument has a reliability coefficient of 0.816. Lastly, Perceived effectiveness was measure by eight items which ranges from starting one’s own business is an effective way to make a living, and if I can start my own business then I can become whoever I want to become in the society. It has a reliability coefficient of 0.882. All items were presented in a form through which respondents are expected to respond by showing their degree of agreement or disagreement on a five point Likert scale which range from (1) strongly disagree (2) disagree (3) undecided (4) agree (5) strongly disagree. This range holds if the statements are in positive form and it is reversed if it is a negative form.
In this study, the independent t-test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed as instrument of statistical test in determining if significance difference exists among the respondents according to the demographic characteristics in focus: gender, age group, marital status. All data were processed by the Statistical package for Social Sciences, (SPSS) 20th edition.
A total of 357 questionnaires were distributed to the participants and 310 questionnaires were recovered. Out of the total 310 copies, 55 copies were discarded for improper completion and the final 255 copies were used for the analysis indicating a usable response rate of 71.4%.
The respondents were classified on the basis of three demographic characteristics: gender, marital status and age. The analysis revealed that 172 or 67.5% are males while 83 or 32.5% are females. Further, 172 or 67.5% are revealed to be single, 76 or 29.8% are married, while 7 or 2.7% are divorced. In addition, 121 or 47.5% of the respondents are between the ages of 15-25 years, 114 or 44.7 are within the age range of 26-36 years, 16 or 6.3% are between 37 and 47 years old, while 4 or 1.6% are 48 years old and above.
According to Zigmund (2005) the descriptive procedure is useful for obtaining summary comparisons of approximately normally distributed scale variables and for easily identifying unusual cases across those variables. To give a descriptive outlook of the study constructs, a descriptive analysis of these constructs were carried out. The tables for the results are presented below in 4.1 A-F.
According to table 4.1 (a) above the mean average for the seven items for the construct of perceived appropriateness across respondents is 3.58 which indicates that the respondents are moderately high in this construct.
In table 4.1 (b) above it is also revealed that the mean average for the six items that constitutes perceived consistency is 3.45 which also indicates that the respondents are moderately high in the perception that entrepreneurship is a good fit with their self-identity.
As displayed by the table above, the mean average score for perceived effectiveness across items and respondents is 3.65 thereby implying that these respondents tends to be moderately high in the perception that an endeavor in entrepreneurship venture is capable of helping them to achieve a life time goal.
The independent T- test according to Olatunji (2004) is a test conducted to determine if a significant difference exist between two independent groups. He pointed that it is usually employed when two independent groups are randomly selected, measurement is at interval level, and population is normally distributed. Below in table 4.2a-c are the tables showing the results of the independent t-test of this two gender groups in relation to their perception of appropriateness, consistence and effectiveness of entrepreneurial behavior.
In the above table, the Leven test of equality in variance above shows a statistic value of .729 which is greater than 0.05 and not significant thereby indicating that the groups have equal variances and not significantly different in variances. Similarly, the test on equality of means shows a significant value of .890 and greater than the 0.05 confidence level, which is adopted as a threshold in this study. Thus, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the mean of the two independent groups of male and females, in perceived appropriateness. In other words, the average of .12293 in perceived appropriateness that is exhibited by the male in this study is insignificant and due to chance occurrence. Therefore, hypothesis 1a which predicted a non existence of significant difference between male and female students in the perception of entrepreneurial appropriateness is accepted.
In table 4.2b above the Leven test of equality in variance above shows a statistic value of .667 which is greater than 0.05 and not significant which indicates that the groups have equal variances and not significantly different in variances. Similarly, the t-test for equality of means shows a significant value of .919 and greater than the 0.05 confidence level. Hence we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the mean of the two independent groups of male and females, in perceived consistence. In other words, the average of .07747 more in perceived consistence that is exhibited by the female in this study is insignificant and due to chance occurrence. Therefore, hypothesis 1b which proposes that there is no significant difference in perceived consistence between male and female students is accepted.
Also, in table 4.2c above, the levene test for equality of variances shows a value of .809 which is greater than 0.05 thereby indicating that there is equality of variances between the two independent mean scores. In addition, the t-test for equality of means shows a value of .994 which is greater 0.05. Since this value is greater than the 0.05 threshold, we can deduce that there is no significant difference between the mean of the two independent groups of male and females, in the construct of perceived effectiveness. Overall, the average of .00869 more in perceived effectiveness that is exhibited by the male in this study is insignificant and due to chance occurrence. Therefore, hypothesis 1c which proposes that there is no significant difference in perceived consistence between male and female students is accepted.
According to Olatunji (2004) the one way analysis of variance like the independent t- test is a statistical test that attempt to examine if a statistical independence exists among three or more independent groups provided the groups are randomly selected, measurement is at interval level, and population is normally distributed. Therefore, in order to examine if any statistical independence exist in the cultural values in focus: perceived appropriateness, perceived consistence and perceived effectives according to age groups and marital status, this statistical test was carried out. Below are the tables showing the results of the analysis.
In table 4.3a above the levene test of homogeneity of variance is displayed. According to the table, the significant value of the test is .246 and above the 0.05 threshold hence we can deduce that the three groups are equal in variance. Further, the one way analysis of variance displayed in table 4.3b shows a significant value of .020 which is less than the 0.05 threshold adopted in this study. Thus, we must reject the null hypothesis 2a which proposes that average mean score in perceived appropriateness are equal according to marital status. In other words, there is a statistical and significant difference in perceived appropriateness according to marital status. Since it has been uncovered that a significant difference exists in mean scores across the groups, it becomes necessary to compare the groups in relative to their level of difference. Hence the Turkey HSD test of multiple comparison which compare groups when equal variances is assumed was carried out. As evidenced by table 4.3c above, it is indicated that while those students who are single have a higher mean score in comparison to those who are divorced, such difference is not statistically significant. However, when the former is being compared to the students who are married, a statistically and significant higher mean was uncovered. Put in another way, those students who are single are statistically and significantly higher in perceived appropriateness than those who are divorced. Similarly, the table shows that the students who are divorced have a statistically and significant higher mean average when compared to their married counterparts. This difference is significant at a value of .027 which is less than the 0.05 threshold thereby implying that students who are divorced tend to have a significant higher perception of entrepreneurial appropriateness than students who are married.
As evidenced by 4.4a above the levene test of homogeneity indicates a significant value of .085 which is above the 0.05 threshold which gives us the impetus to conclude that the three groups are equal in variance in this construct. Further, the one way analysis of variance displayed in table 4.4b shows a significant value of .491 which is more than the 0.05 threshold. Thus, we must accept the null hypothesis 2(b) which proposes that average mean score in perceived consistence are equal according to marital status. In other words, there is no statistical and significant difference in perceived consistence according to marital status of the respondents in this study.
The levene test of homogeneity in table 4.5a above shows a significant value of .192 which is well above the 0.05 threshold. On such basis, it can be concluded that the three groups of students who are single, those who are married, and those who are divorced are equal in variance in the construct of perceived effectiveness. Further, the one way analysis of variance displayed in table 4.5b indicates a significant value of .326 which is more than the 0.05 threshold hence an acceptance of null hypothesis 2(c) which proposes that the average mean score of the respondents in perceived effectiveness are equal according to marital status. Overall, there seems to be no statistical and significant difference in perceived effectiveness according to marital status of the respondents in this study.
In table 4.6a above the levene test of homogeneity of variance is displayed. According to the table, the significant value of the test is .825 and above the 0.05 threshold which indicates that the three groups are equal in variance. Further, the one way analysis of variance displayed in table 4.6b shows a value of .016 which is less than 0.05. Hence, hypothesis 3 (a) which say that there is no significant difference among students in perceived appropriateness according to age group is rejected. In other words, there is a statistical and significant difference in perceived appropriateness according to age groups. Since it has been uncovered that a significant difference exists in mean scores across the groups, it becomes imperative to compare the groups according to their level of difference. Hence the Turkey HSD test of multiple comparisons was also carried out. As evidenced by table 4.6c above, it is indicated that while those students who are between the ages of 15-25 years are less in mean score compared to those who are between 26 and 36, such difference is however, not statistically significant. Similarly, when the former is compared to the students who are between 37-47 years and 48 years above, significant values of .056 and .640 were uncovered respectively which indicate that though, these older students are higher in mean score in comparison to students who are between 15-25 however, such higher mean score is not statistically significant. Further, the tables’ shows that those between the ages of 26 and 36 years have a higher mean score that is significant at the 0.05 confidence level compared to the students that are 37 to 47 years old while the students that are 48 years old and above exhibited an insignificant lower mean in comparison to the age groups of 26-36.
In table 4.7a above the levene test of homogeneity of variance is displayed. According to the table, the significant value of the test is .748 and above the 0.05 threshold which indicates that the three groups are equal in variance. Further, the one way analysis of variance displayed in table 4.7b shows a value of .011 which is less than 0.05. Hence, hypothesis 3 (b) which say that there is no significant difference in perceived consistence among students according to age group is rejected. In other words, there is a statistical and significant difference in perceived consistence according to the age groups of the students. To compare the groups according to their level of difference, the Turkey HSD test of multiple comparisons was carried out. As evidenced by table 4.7c above, a significant higher mean score was only uncovered for those between the ages of 26 and 36 years old when compared to the older students of between 37 and 47 years old. In other words, the students between 26-36 have a significantly higher perception of entrepreneurial consistence in comparison to their older counterparts that are between 37 and 47 years old.
In table 4.8a above the levene test of homogeneity of variance is displayed. According to the table, the significant value of the test is .079 and above the 0.05 threshold which indicates that the three groups are equal in variance. Further, the one way analysis of variance displayed in table 4.8b shows a value of .033 which is less than 0.05. Hence, hypothesis 3 (c) which say that there is no significant difference in perceived effectiveness among students according to age group is rejected. By this, we mean that a statistical and significant difference exists in perceived effectiveness according to the age groups of the students. Further, the Turkey HSD results in table 4.8c, shows a significant higher mean score for those between the ages of 26 and 36 years old as compared to the older students of between 37 and 47 years old. Put in another way, the students between 26-36 have a significantly higher perception of entrepreneurial effectiveness in comparison to their older counterparts that are between 37 and 47 years old.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of demographical characteristics: gender, marital status and age on the entrepreneurial cultural values/orientation that is being exhibited by students in higher institution of learning. Three entrepreneurship cultural predictors based on the ACE model of persuasion by Reardon (1991): perceived appropriateness, perceived consistence and perceived effectiveness were adopted as the basis through which the entrepreneurial cultural values in the individual students could be measured. Further, nine hypotheses which proposed that a significant difference does not exist in these three cultural predictors according to the demographic characteristics in focus were put forward.
First, hypothesis (1a) which says that a significant difference does not exist in perceived appropriateness according to the gender groups of the respondents was accepted due to the insignificant difference that was uncovered between the mean score of the male and female respondents. In other words, it was discovered that there is no significant relationship between gender and student’s perception of entrepreneurship appropriateness. Similarly, it was uncovered that both the male and female students do not exhibit any significant difference in the construct of perceived consistence and perceived effectiveness which equally leads us to the acceptance of hypothesis 1 (b) and 1 (c) respectively. Put in another way, the respondents in this study, Regardless of their gender group seems to be exhibiting high and low perception that being an entrepreneur is in consistence with their self schema and that a career in entrepreneurship can assist them in achieving their desired goals and objectives.
Furthermore, hypothesis 2 (a) which proposed that a significant difference does not exist in perceived appropriateness according to the marital status of the respondents was rejected due the significant difference that was uncovered between the mean score of the respondents who are single, married and divorced. According to the result uncovered, the students who are single exhibited a higher and statistically significant mean score in perceived appropriateness than their divorced and married counterparts while the students who are divorced equally exhibited a higher but non-statistically significant mean score compared to their married counterparts. These results is interesting in that it clearly shows that being single, either as an individual not yet married, or divorced, seems to be a factor that can promote the perception of entrepreneurship appropriateness. In other words, divorced or unmarried students have a higher tendency to exhibit cultural values that supports the perception of entrepreneurship appropriateness than their counterparts who are married. Also, hypothesis 2 (b) which predicted that a significant difference does not exist in perceived consistence according to the marital status of the respondents was tested and it was discovered that the difference in the mean scores of the respondents is insignificant hence the acceptance of this hypothesis. Stated more clearly, the respondents in this study tend to think of themselves as the entrepreneurial type or as an individual with adequate entrepreneurial attributes regardless of their marital status. Regarding hypothesis 2 (c) which says that a significant difference does not exist in perceived effectiveness according to marital status, it was equally uncovered that the difference between mean score of the three marital groups: single, married, and divorced in this construct is insignificant thereby leading us to the acceptance of this hypothesis. Thus, the respondents, regardless of their marital status tend to view entrepreneurship as a career option through which an innate and desired goals can be achieved.
Third, hypothesis 3 (a) which proposed that a significant difference does not exist in perceived appropriateness according to age groups was tested and rejected due to the statistically significant difference that was uncovered in this construct among the age groups that were considered in the study. Put more specifically, while those students who are between the ages of 15-25 years are less in mean score compared to those who are between 26 and 36, such difference is however, not statistically significant. Similarly, when the former is compared to the students who are between 37-47 years and 48 years above, it was discovered that though, these older students have a higher mean score, such higher mean score is however not statistically significant. For those between the ages of 26 and 36 years, a higher mean score that is significant at the 0.05 confidence level was uncovered when compared to the students that are 37 to 47 years old while the students that are 48 years old have an insignificant lower mean in comparison to the age groups of 26-36 years old.
Furthermore, hypothesis 3 (b) which predicted that a significant difference does not exist in the mean score of respondents in the construct of perceived consistence was equally rejected due to the statistically and significant difference that was uncovered among the respondents according to their age groups. Specifically, we discovered that the students who are between the ages of 26 and 36 years old have a significant higher mean score when compared to the older students of between 37 and 47 years old. Thus, students who are in the younger age range of between 26-36 years old would tend to have a higher perception of entrepreneurship consistence than their 37 – 47 years old counterparts. A major point of inference from this finding is that individuals in the age range of between 26-36 years old are in possession of significantly higher entrepreneurship cultural values and are thus, likely to transform such values to higher entrepreneurship output which seems to fall in line with earlier findings by (Bosma & Harding, 2007); (Karadeniz & Özçam, 2009) who pointed that in developing countries, the act of entrepreneurship is more intense among those who are in 25-34 age groups.
Lastly, hypothesis 3 (b) which proposed that a significant difference does not exist in the mean score of respondents in the construct of perceived effectiveness was rejected due to the statistically and significant difference that was uncovered in the perception of entrepreneurship effectiveness according to their age groups. Stated more clearly, a significant higher mean score was uncovered among the students between the ages of 26 and 36 years old when compared to the older students of between 37 and 47 years old. Thus, students between 26-36 have a significantly higher perception of entrepreneurship effectiveness in comparison to their older counterparts that are between 37 and 47 years old.
Conclusively, the study findings indicates that respondents have exhibited an above average mean score in the three entrepreneurship cultural values that were considered which implies that the students population in the society in focus are largely characterized by high entrepreneurship cultural value and seems to be in coherence with the submission by Uhlaner and Thurik (2007) which maintain that societies characterized by lower socio economic opportunities such as a developing country like Nigeria have materialistic orientation and are likely to experience more entrepreneurial cultural value.
Based on the findings uncovered in this study and the discussions arising there-from, it can be concluded that the cultural values being held by an individual has significant influence on his/her intention and behavior including that of entrepreneurship. Further, such demographic characteristics as gender, marital status and age can be important predictors in some situation when the objective is assessing the degree of perception of entrepreneurship appropriateness, consistence and effectiveness among students. Regarding the demographic characteristic of gender, the insignificant difference uncovered in the construct of perceived appropriateness, consistence and effectiveness indicates that a relationship does not exist between gender and these constructs hence the gender group of the respondents cannot be used as a predictor of the degree of these constructs. While gender might not have the capability for this prediction, the marital status of the respondent can be an important determinant. Put more specifically, it was uncovered that those respondents who are single, when compared to those who are married or divorced have the tendency of exhibiting a higher perception of entrepreneurship appropriateness, which deals with the perception of acceptability of entrepreneurship as a culturally accepted career in the society. Furthermore, the students who are between the ages of 26-36 years old are significantly higher in perception of appropriateness, consistence and effectiveness than their older counterparts who are within the ranges of 37 and 47 years old. This is to indicate that people in this younger age group are likely to exhibit a significantly higher entrepreneurial behavior than the later.
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