Volume 1, Number 1 (2016) pp 16-24 doi 10.20448/804.1.1.16.24 | Research Articles
The Kenyan government provides financial and technical help for the provision of teaching learning resources in secondary schools Despite the government’s effort to allocate resources to secondary schools, there is still underutilization of these resources. The purpose of this study was to establish factors affecting utilization of time as a selected resource in public day secondary schools in Nyacheki Division, Nyamache District, Kisii county of Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population was all teachers and students in public day secondary schools in Nyacheki Division. Purposive sampling was used to select respondents who comprised of 87 Heads of departments. Krejcie and Morgan’s formula was used to obtain the sample of 341 students from 20 selected schools. Two questionnaires were used for data collection; the teachers’ questionnaire and the students’ questionnaire. The research instruments were pilot tested in two randomly selected public day secondary schools. The reliability coefficients of the instruments of this study were estimated using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient as 0.89 and 0.83 for teachers and students questionnaires respectively. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study indicate that poor institutional policies, management skills and planning lead to ineffective utilization of time. Further, the poor attitude of the teachers and students play a key role in the ineffective utilization of this resource. The study has recommended that, there should be continuous skills upgrading for teachers, disciplined team spirit, and creation of a healthy working environment.
Keywords: Effective resource utilization, Education, Time utilization, Dropout rate, Secondary education, Active learning, Student centred.
Citation | David. O. Omae; Peter Omae Onderi; Henry Marita Mokogi; Edward Bantu; Samson Barongo; Risper.S. Miroro; Mokaya N. Evans (2016). Factors Affecting the Utilisation of Time as a Selected Teaching/Learning Resource in Public Day Secondary Schools in Nyacheki Division, Kisii County, Kenya. American Journal of Education and Learning, 1(1): 16-24.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Funding : This study received no specific financial support.
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
History : Received: 19 May 2016/ Revised: 26 May 2016/ Accepted: 30 May 2016/ Published: 4 June 2016
Publisher: Online Science Publishing
According to Mwiria (1985) the availability and use of resources in secondary schools is ranked among the most influential factors which affect examination performance. Maundu (1986) has noted that good performance demands that every school is equipped with appropriate resources more especially library, science laboratory, enough teachers and enough time set aside for learning. Psachalopoulos and Wood Hall (1985) have noted that whereas evidence on the effect of class size and resource variables on student achievement is often conflicting, the evidence of relationship between the resource utilization and student achievement is clear and consistent. Ayot and Briggs (1992) assert that the ever growing demand for education, the resultant expansion of educational systems, rising costs in education and the need for more sophisticated equipment have all led to massive increase in spending on education all over the world. The reasons for the rapid expansion after independence include; increase in demand for more educational facilities because of the increasing population, the government commitment to make education accessible to all Kenyans and the pressing need for educated and trained labour and human resource (GoK 1988). Court and Kinyanjui, (1998) assert that the erosion of quality of education in secondary schools is due to underutilization of resources. A major consequence of the underutilization of resources is the deterioration of performance in secondary schools. They further assert that manageable classes often approaching fifty pupils and adequate teaching- learning resources characterize secondary schools. They have also noted that resources and teachers are available and adequate in schools. Grade repetition, low transition rate from primary to secondary, secondary to tertiary and drop out are common. It is certain that there has been a decline in average academic performance because of deterioration of effective resource utilization.
According to the Government of Kenya (2001) developing countries have been quite successful in expanding enrolment in education especially at primary and secondary school levels. The Government of Kenya further highlights that for a high level of efficiency, increased enrolment requires increased resources and their effective utilization in order to maintain quality of education provided. If these resources are not forthcoming, the increase in enrollment may come at the expense of quality.Lousdale (2003) asserts that effective learning begins with first hand or concrete experiences and proceeds towards more abstract experiences. Thus a student who has the advantage of accessing well selected and wisely used materials can learn more effectively than one who is provided with large verbal information and materials. Proper planning should also be done to ensure that clear and prioritized annual and operational work-plans are in line with the school’s objectives and goals. There should be clear specification of the criteria for measuring success (performance indicators) to ensure one is focused and does not engage in activities whose output is low. One should use a daily action plan (task list) to prioritize and manage the daily tasks and make realistic deadlines and stick to them. Todaro (2004) notes that assessing the day’s work accomplishments and planning for the next day and following up tasks to ensure their completion should be done by head teachers. Head teachers should have effective delegation to save time, have clear job description for teachers and specify the level of authority to exercise.Lousdale (2003) asserts that a library is for the student use. It should be a centre for active learning and not simply a repository of books and resource materials. It is also to be seen as a centre for production and storage of materials including low cost teaching aids. The borrowing rate and number of books per student are the best indicators of the quality of the school library and its utilization. The Government further highlights that a teacher as resource is one of the most important inputs in the education system and therefore their efficient management and utilization is critical to the quality of learning outcomes. It further notes that continuous improvement in the quality of educational services should also entail continuous skills upgrading for teachers. This will empower teachers to deliver the changes that have been made in the existing school curricular. Teachers should always have a clear vision, set achievable goals and objectives and achieve them. They should also plan organize and set standards. The head of science department should ensure provision of a timetable extracted from the master timetable showing the schedule for laboratory lessons for each subject (Hazel, 1990). Laboratory sessions should be carried out in laboratory and each student is expected to be occupied during the session. Learning should therefore be practical oriented and more of student centered.According to Government of Kenya, (2005a) one of the core functions of the Directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards (DQAS) is ‘quality assurance’. This entails good monitoring of curriculum delivery in schools to ensure quality education. To realize effective curriculum delivery, DQAS is expected to provide advisory services to schools on how best to improve their learning through effective resource utilization. The advice also goes to all the stakeholders such as teachers and parents. With the new policy that emphasizes partnership, DQAS has increasingly become a team player and not a policing service, as it has been perceived in the past. As such it needs adequate capacity to be able to help institutions put in place effective quality assurance mechanisms. The Government of Kenya, (1997) has noted that resources are essential to get work done. The report further asserts that, the four main types of resources are: time, human resource, library and laboratory. Some of the principles that need to be applied in management are as follows: All resources should be identified and used appropriately, there should be effective use of available resources, local resources should be utilized and the use of resources should be carefully monitored and controlled. The principal mechanism for developing human skills and knowledge is the formal education system. Most developing countries have been led to believe or have wanted to believe that rapid quantitative expansion of educational opportunities is the key to development (Todaro, 2004).
Government of Kenya, (2004) asserts that resources are valuable because teachers can use them to motivate learners, create learning experiences for under achievers or meet the needs of each learner’s preferred way of learning. The Government of Kenya further indicates that resources are being underutilized leading to low internal and external efficiencies. Mogeni (2005) noted that the provision of resources in secondary schools is the responsibility of the local communities, parents and sponsors. Teachers can also play a crucial role in influencing what is to be acquired and utilized. Experience shows that the provision of resources in schools usually occurs on the teachers’ advice. In some cases teachers themselves acquire the resources. Mogeni further explains that, availability of resources in schools, just as utilization, can be influenced by the teachers’ awareness and opinions towards these resources. Availability or lack of resources can influence their utilization. Resources cannot be utilized unless availed. The Government of Kenya, (2005b) outlines time, laboratory, library and a teacher as the most essential resources in a school. Studies carried out by Kimuyi (1988); Nyongesa (1990); Gacegoh (1990); Kimani (1999) and Orina (2002) in Kenya on availability and utilization of resources indicate that the country’s secondary schools have adequate instructional resources but are underutilized. It is on this basis that this study seeks to establish factors affecting utilization of time in public day secondary schools in Nyacheki Division, Nyamache District, Kisii county of Kenya.
The Kenyan government has over the years demonstrated its commitment to the development of education and training through sustained allocation, management and utilization of resources to education sector. Recent government education policy initiatives have focused on improved educational quality and relevance through resource utilization. School resources are essential for the improvement of internal and external efficiency in the education system hence achievement of quality education. Effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools is closely related to the resources which are available and most important how well they are utilized. Despite the government’s effort to allocate resources in secondary schools and the notable achievements attained, the education sector especially in Nyacheki Division, Nyamache District still faces challenges of effective resource utilization. This study, therefore, sought to establish factors affecting utilization of time, as a school resource in Nyacheki Division, Nyamache District, and Kisii county of Kenya.
The purpose of the study was to investigate factors affecting utilization of a selected teaching learning resource in public day secondary schools. The study investigated utilization of time.
The study was guided by the following specific objective:
To establish factors affecting utilization of time in public day secondary schools in Nyacheki Division, Nyamache District of Kenya.
The study attempted to answer the following research question:
What factors affect utilization of time in public day secondary schools in Nyacheki Division,Nyamache District of Kenya?
The findings of this study would benefit teachers in all secondary schools in improving utilization of time. The findings may also benefit the Ministry of Education in understanding the factors affecting utilization of the selected resource and take necessary measures to improve it.
In the study the basic assumption made was that the teachers’ and students’ responses would reflect their true and accurate perceptions on factors affecting utilization of the selected resource in public day secondary schools.
The study was carried out in Nyacheki Division, Nyamache District, and Nyanza Province of Kenya. The subjects of investigation were teachers who are heads of department and form three and four students in sampled public day secondary schools within the division. The focus of the study was on factors affecting utilization of time.
The study was conducted in Nyacheki Division and so the findings were to be generalized with caution to other public day secondary schools which are not within the Division and elsewhere in Kenya. This is because of the unique characteristics to Nyacheki Division. Tracing other potential and interested respondents such as parents to provide useful information was not easy. Thus the study made use of teachers and students only to supply the data
The study sought to establish from the students factors affecting utilization of time in public day secondary schools. Their responses are presented in table 7 below.
The results in table 7 revealed that there is no enough time allocated for evaluation of students in their schools, this is indicated by a mean score of 3.7462. They also admitted that time for teaching is limited by teaching/learning resources inadequacy with a mean score of 3.7576 indicates. . Most students agreed that their schools being public day have little time the library is open for use indicated by a mean score of 4.4661.Mean scores of 3.7576 and 4.4572 indicated that there no strict timetable set for students to borrow books and they do not respond adequately to time respectively. The standard deviation for each of the test items was between 0.9103 and 1.210. Most of these values were above 1.0 which implied that the items are spread away from the average. The standard deviation for the mean of means was 0.5079 which means that the items are clustered around the average.
The study sought to establish from the teachers factors affecting utilization of time in public day secondary schools. Their views were as presented as in Table 11.
A score of 2.3765 indicate that they attend to all their weekly lessons. However, scores of 3.6824 and 4.5402 indicate that they feel overworked in their teaching activities and extra non-teaching assignment delegated to me not to spend enough time in teaching respectively. A score of 4.5394 indicated that there is little time left for them to prepare for lessons because of their teaching workload while 1.3678 indicated that they denied the fact that most teachers in their schools do not meet deadlines.
A score of 2.3765 indicated that time allocated to evaluation of students in their schools is not little. A score of 3.6786 indicated that Co-curricular activities in most cases affect time spent in learning. They also agreed that students in their schools respond poorly to time as indicated by a score of 3.7143. Neither did the teachers accept that their school principals rarely save time by delegating duties to teachers nor did they agree that they have overstayed in one job group and this demotivates them hence spend little time in teaching. These were indicated by scores of 2.3765 and 2.3810 respectively. The standard deviation for each of the test items was between 0.9164 and 1.9837. Most of these values were above 1.0 which implied that the items are spread away from the average. The standard deviation for the mean of means was 0.5818 which means that the items are clustered around the average.
In this chapter major findings of the study are listed. The conclusions drawn from the findings are presented and their implications discussed. Lastly recommendations for educators and future researchers are given.
The study established factors affecting utilization of a selected resource in public day secondary schools. The selected resource is time. On the basis of the findings, the conclusions which were related to the objective and research question of the study are generalized to secondary schools as:
Lack of proper time management due to inadequate planning, poor administrative practices and institutional policies are the factors affecting utilization of time
The findings of the study could be summarized that; inadequate planning, poor administrative practices as provided by the administration, inadequate institutional policies, negative attitude of teachers towards school administration are the factors affecting utilization of time in public day secondary schools. The findings of this study are in consistent with the findings of other studies which have shown that inadequate planning, poor administrative practices as provided by the administration, inadequate institutional policies, and negative attitude of teachers towards school administration are the factors affecting utilization of time as a resource in secondary schools. Adeogun (2001) discovered high level of instructional resources available in public schools and stated that our public schools are underutilizing both teachers and other and learning resources. He expresses that effective teaching cannot take place within the classroom if basic instructional resources are not well utilized. Fuller (1986) suggested that the quality of instructional processes experienced by a learner determines quality of education.
Mwiria (1985) also supports that students performance is affected by inadequate institutional policies, and negative attitude of teachers towards school administration. The author noted that institutions have adequate facilities but poor planning by the school administration weaken the education quality. A study conducted by Gogo (2002) on the utilization of resources and quality of secondary education in Rachuonyo district found that the quality of education had remained average for the entire period 1996 to 1999.The author concluded that performance could be attributed to the negative attitude of the students towards the use of the laboratory, inadequate planning, poor administrative practices and institutional policies. In addition, Gogo recommended that in order to provide quality education the availability of relevant teaching /learning materials and facilities is crucial and must be effectively utilized.
The results of the study implied that resources in public day secondary schools are underutilized. It implies further that teachers do not have clear vision, set achievable goals and objectives and achieve them. They do not plan, organize and set standards well. There is no proper time management.
The following are the recommendations for all stake holders;
4. Teachers should plan practical work well and understand integrate between theory and laboratory work.
The following areas have been suggested for further research;
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