Volume 1, Number 1 (2016) pp 45-52 doi 10.20448/804.1.1.45.52 | Research Articles
The technology of instructional television is dynamic. It is improving and hopefully it is here to say. Universities and college teachers will never be able to claim that they really care about the learning process until professors and administrators are required to exhibit knowledge and proficiency in the teaching process including the ability to use instructional television. Even though the University teachers have expressed their opinion about Educational Television programmes, many of the University teachers are not in the habit of viewing ETV programmes. Hence the University authorities or the U.G.C. may take initiative to see that the University teachers developed a tendency to view the ETV programmes and make use of it.
Keywords: Opinion of educational television programmes, University’s science and arts college teachers.
Citation | R. Jayakumar (2016). Opinion of the University Teachers towards Educational Television Programmes. American Journal of Education and Learning, 1(1): 45-52.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Funding : This study received no specific financial support.
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
History : Received: 2 June 2016/ Revised: 13 June 2016/ Accepted: 18 June 2016/ Published: 22 June 2016
Publisher: Online Science Publishing
Television is a powerful medium of communication with a tremendous potency to inform, to entertain and to educate. It is Improved technology of mass communication are confronting educators with the opportunity for a scientific revolution in the field of teaching and learning. Actually, mass communication has helped to make a new kind of society. It has given the teacher a different kind of student to teach. It has modified the role of the teacher and of the administrators. It has provided educators with new tool which can improve teaching and increase learning. The advent of commercial television has had considerable influence in this field. What could be more logical than to employ the same medium, which has also greatly contributed to this new age, in helping to provide some of the improved concepts in education demanded by times?. This philosophy is reflected in the statement by Benjamin C.Willis. “It is only fitting that education, which creates technological advance, which makes it possible for our engineers, scientists and scholars to invent and create new media should take advantage of some of its products and attempt to use these new advances in the instructional process”. Despite its tremendous potential however, valid consideration of television in education must go beyond the more study of this new instructional tool. The development must be viewed within the very framework of the educational process. It cannot be overemphasized that television is a means and not end in itself. There are no simple or final solutions to the many problems that exist in the conditioning intellect improvement of mankind. Great through the potential of educational television might be the medium presents the profession with new questions regarding teaching and learning, providing appropriate answers continuous to dominate the thoughts and explorations of many responsible educators. Henry Carrier of UNESCO points out that printed media can no longer convey the messages required in today’s instructional procedures. His opinion: Pictures and TV are now regarded much as visual aids. We can best use verbal aids to enrich the picture instead of the reverse, as it is traditional. Printing crystallizes into static notions that which should be seen only in motion. We need both the word and the picture, combined into a single whole, to convey many of today’s developments and problems. This is one concept we must explore and develop concept of TV as a different type of aid, not simply as an additional one in the usual sense. To evaluate television in relation to other media of learning requires familiarity with the limitations and capabilities of each. Television is not thoroughly and efficiently employed if it does only what other tools and other media can do. The need is for quality education economically achieved, not cheaper education. If electronic devices are an important factor in the education of American youth, then practitioners who are competent in these areas must accept the responsibility of implementing acceptable techniques in improving the process. One of the complicating factors in introducing new tool into the educational process is the need for facing attitudes established long before the innovation was conceived. Some of television’s most enthusiastic supporters have actually related its acceptance by school personnel because of irresponsible claims and unfounded predictions.
Such ill-considered generalization as “The master teacher will replace the regular class room teacher” and “Television will eventually eliminate most teacher positions!” are still prevalent. There are still other spectators raised involving the “doubtful quality of televised education” and the fear that future generations will tend to become only dependent on this new medium. Television is a powerful media of communication with a tremendous potency to inform, to entertain and to educate. Television can communicate visually through persons, objects, models, pictures, dioramas, diagrams etc. It can communicate aurally through spoken word, music and sound effects. It can also present text, which uses the visual effects, sound effect, It can reproduce the animates and in animates. It can reproduce rest as well as motion. Television, particularly the digital television can reproduce reality to a large extent. Thus television can produce comprehensive views mixing different stimuli. Educational administrators look at TV as a means of functional curricula, of upgrading teachers, and bringing about significant changes in educational practices.
The Television in general and Educational Television in particular are widely used in the day to day life of many people. The organizations like IGNOU, UGC in order to promote education both in Formal and Non-formal involved in the production and telecast of Educational programmes. Also the Doordharshan at National level and at regional level telecasts educational programmes. Further recently Doordharshan at the national level opened up a separate channel to provide educational programmes. Under such circumstances the researcher is very much interested in knowing the impact of these efforts among the teachers at University level. And thus prompted the researcher to take up this research work.
Television in the classroom is truly what UNESCO has often called it: 'a window on the world’. The programs allow students to transcend the boundaries of space and time, and to see society in new and diverse ways. All the children whether rural, urban or suburban experience the life in all the regions through TV screen; various patterns of consumption and economic structure, alternative religious forms, cultural patterns, and sexual role models become available. Television can bring models of excellence to the students. They can view and hear the work and talk of an eminent educationist, renowned teacher, creative scientist, and excellent demonstrator, Musician or artist. Their presence on the TV screen may provide them due warmth and nearness for drawing maximum educational and psychological advantages.
Phutela, R.L., (1980) A study on the utilization and comprehensibility of school Television programmes in Delhi and found that many teachers did not find ETV programmes useful. The quality of the programme was not high. The number of programmes per class was not adequate. About 38% schools in the sample processing TV sets were utilizing STV programmes. The results of four out of the five comprehension tests should reveal difference in the learning of the subject matter, indicating that these lessons were well understood. A study was conducted in Madras to find the effect of TV on the class room achievement. Though no discernible difference was noted between non viewers and viewers groups, longer duration of viewing was found to have more effect than those viewing for a short time. The different age group showed different score patterns. Kanade, (1982)conducted a study on the impact of instructional television on the behaviour of rural elementary students and found that creative behaviour of rural elementary school children developed through exposure to ITV. TV have no impact on children exploration aspect of curiosity, motivation in learning, reinforcement in language but impact on inquisitive aspect of curiosity. Ellis, Lee, Mathis and Dan (1985) conducted a study of college student learning from televised versus conventional classroom lectures. In a controlled experiment, students in two sections of introductory sociology were exposed either to conventional classroom lecturer or to identical lectures broad cast live in an adjacent room on a television monitor. Class attendance and learning under the two modes were statistically equivalent.
Opinion polling is essentially a method of finding out the attitudes and values of a specified population. It has become a specialized field of study and practice. Opinion polling has been concerned also with a great variety of subjects dealing with social, economic, international, military, and other questions, and also with questions of consumer preferences, usually called “Market research" and called by some, " Motivational research".
Although some opinion studies use several questions in surveying an issue, many employ only a single question. The question may be given in one or of several forms: Some require merely a yes or no answer; some require a rating of intensity or degree, such as strongly approve, approve, etc., or very much etc.; at times the respondent is asked to check or rank item in a given list; sometimes the respondent selects one of two alternatives; occasionally the question is of the "open-end" type, in which the respondent completes statement or sentence to suit himself. The mailed questionnaire, which had been in use long before opinion polling become popular, is another form of opinion gauging. This form of questioning however, presents several serious disadvantages, so that it is not as widely used as formerly.
ETV Refers to transmission of educational (or) information programmes or material by Television.
The sample was selected from the population of the university teachers of various departments of Annamalai University. Pilot study was conducted among 90 university teachers. This helped in constructing and validating the tool to measure the opinion of the ETV programmes from university teachers. The university teachers drawn from some selected department were considered for pilot study.
The investigator developed an opinionnaire to study the opinion of University teachers about educational Television Programme. The opinionnaire also consists of the personal data about the University teacher.
The method of study adopted by the investigator is normative survey. The research tool for the present study consists of two parts i.e.,
The study is limited to the Lecturers, Readers and Professors of Departments of Arts and Science of Annamalai University.
The statistical techniques used in the present study were descriptive analysis and differential analysis (‘t’ - test) on the basis of the obtained t - values the hypotheses were tasted. Henry E. Garrett (1981)
The investigator has started his analysis by studying the- different measures of the opinion of the University teachers towards Educational television programmes, namely Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Quartile Deviation, Skewness and Kurtosis (table -1).
The mean score of the opinion of the University teachers towards ETV programmes is found to be 15.01 with the standard deviation 3.21. The median and mode of the distribution are 15.48 and 16.42 respectively. The quartile deviation of the distribution is 2.47. The co-efficient of skewness and kurtosis of the distribution are -0.439 and 0.265. It is negatively skewed and platykurtic in nature. Hence the opinion of the University teachers towards the ETV programmes forms the negatively skewed platykurtic distribution.
To test the significant difference between male and female teachers in their opinion towards ETV programmes, V value was calculated (Table No: 2) There are 75 male and 35 female University teachers in the entire sample. The V value is found to be 0.51 which is less than the table value 1.98 for the 108 df, and it is not significant at 0.05 level for the respective df. It is concluded that the male and female University teachers do not differ in their opinion towards the ETV programmes.
To test the significant difference between Science and Arts University teachers in their opinion towards ETV Programmes the V value was calculated (Table No: 3) There 52 Science and 58 Arts University teachers in the entire sample. The t value is found to be 0.37 which is less thou the table value 1.98 for the 108 df which is not significant at 0.05 level for the respective df. It is concluded that the Science and Arts University teachers do not differ in their opinion towards the ETV programmes.
To test the significant difference between Professors and Readers of University teachers in their opinion towards ETV programmes the V value was calculated (Table No: 4). There are 19 Professors and 23 Readers in the entire sample. The V value is found to be 1.06 which is less than the table value 2.03 for the 40 df. It is not significant at 0.05 level for the respective df. It is concluded that the Professors and Readers of University teachers do not differ in their opinion towards the ETV programmes.
To test the significant difference between Professors Lecturers of University teachers in their opinion towards ETV programmes, the V value was calculated (Table No-5) There are 19 Professors and 68 Lecturers of University teachers in the entire sample. The V value is found to be 1.95 which is less than the table value 1.99 for the 85 df and is not significant at 0.05 level for the respective df. It is concluded that the Professors and Lecturers of University teachers do not differ in their opinion towards the ETV programmes.
The following are the major findings arrived from the present study.
5. It is found that there is no significant difference between Professors and Lecturers of University teachers in their opinion towards ETV programmes for the V value 1.95 for the respective df.
The technology of instructional television is dynamic. It is improving and hopefully it is here to say. Universities and college teachers will never be able to claim that they really care about the learning process until professors and administrators are required to exhibit knowledge and proficiency in the teaching process including the ability to use instructional television.
Based on the study the following are suggested. Even though the University teachers have expressed their opinion about Educational Television programmes, many of the University teachers are not in the habit of viewing ETV programmes. Hence the University authorities or the U.G.C. may take initiative to see that the University teachers developed a tendency to view the ETV programmes and make use of it.
The following topics are suggested for further study in view of the present study.
Ellis, L., & Mathis, D. (1985). College students learning from televised versus conventional classroom lectures: a controlled experiment. Higher Education, 14: 165–173.
Henry E. Garrett et.al., Statistics in Psychology and Education. David me day company, INC., New York., 1981.
Kanade, H.M., (1982), "A Study of the Impact of Instructional Television on the Behaviour of Rural School Children", Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, M.S. University, Baroda.
Phutela, R.L. (1980) A Study into Utilisation and Comprehensibility of School Television Programmes in Delhi (Mimeographed), NCERT, New Delhi.
Ananthasayanam R et.al., Journal of Research in Educational Media (ICREM) July 1994, volume 1 Number 4.
Janardan Prasad et.al., (2004) Advanced Educational Technology, Kanishka Publishers, New Delhi-02.
Jayakumar. R., ‘Opinion of the University Teachers’ towards Educational Television Programme’, Lambert Academic Publishing, Haroldstr. 14, D – 40213 Düsseldorf, Germany, 2016. (ISBN 978-3-659-86079-9).
Mohanty J. Educational Broadcasting: Radio and Television in Education, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd , New Delhi-16,1984.
Onkar Singh Dewal Fifth Survey of Educational Research Volume-1., 1988-92 Educational Technology.
Passi B.K et. al "Education Television" Bhargava Research Monograph Series 59 National Psychological Corporation. Agra-04 (India) First Edition 1991.
Passi B.K et. al "Education Television" National Psychological Corporation. Agra-04 (India) First Edition 2000.