American Journal of Education and Learning

Volume 5, Number 1 (2020) pp 96-111 doi 10.20448/804.5.1.96.111 | Research Articles

 

The Relationship between Psychological Resilience, Psychological Adaptation and Purpose in Life among University Students in the Preparatory Year

Rihab Aref Alsadi 1 , Ahmad Ismail Drabie 1 
1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Al-Istiqlal University, Jericho, Palestine.

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to show the correlational  relationship between psychological resilience and both of psychological adaptation and purpose in life among university students in the preparatory year, and to make sure of the relative contribution of psychological resilience in predicting psychological adaptation and purpose in life. The sample  of the study consisted of(304) university students in the preparatory year from both sexes. They were chosen by the random cluster sample method, and their ages ranged between(18-19) years. The study concluded that there is a strong and positive relationship between psychological resilience and psychological adaptation for preparatory year students, where the level of significance (0.000) and correlation coefficient (0.491),  and there is a strong and positive relationship between psychological resilience and purpose in life for preparatory year students, where the level of significance (0.000) and correlation coefficient (0.549). The results of the study also showed that psychological resilience interprets a percentage of(24%) of psychological adaptation. Also interprets psychological resilience interprets a percentage of (30%) of purpose in life.

Keywords: Psychological resilience, Psychological adaptation, Purpose in life, Meaning of life, Satisfaction with life, Quality of life.

DOI: 10.20448/804.5.1.96.111

Citation Rihab Aref Alsadi; Ahmad Ismail Drabie (2020). The Relationship between Psychological Resilience, Psychological Adaptation and Purpose in Life among University Students in the Preparatory Year. American Journal of Education and Learning, 5(1): 96-111.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 24 March 2020 / Revised: 27 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020.

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • The study aimed to show the correlational  relationship between psychological resilience and both of psychological adaptation and purpose in life among university students in the preparatory year, and to make sure of the relative contribution of psychological resilience in predicting psychological adaptation and purpose in life.

1. INTRODUCTION

Life pressures are considered the prevailing trait in this age of ours. Human societies are replete with  many various and interlocking problems, specially under the scientific and technological developments , which require of man big challenges in order to confront these pressures  with  the positive psychological traits which he possesses and which make him able to confront these pressures.

Through the daily challenges, we can discover the successful adaptation mechanisms in order to confront these difficulties(Ong, Bergeman, & Bisconti, 2006). Thus  interest and research have increased  in the concepts of positive psychology(Wigtil & Henriques, 2015) which focus on positive aims, protection and adaptation abilities(Masten, 2011; Navrady, Adams, & Chan, 2017) and their clear connection  with health and prosperity results(Gupta et al., 2017; Harris, Brett, Starr, Deary, & McIntosh, 2016). The concept of psychological resilience is considered as one of the concepts of positive psychology which focuses on resources and points of strength instead of focusing on illnesses and symptoms of illnesses after the shocking  events, and how to manage crises. This is considered as a model change in psychology and health(Choudhry, Park, Golden, & Bokharey, 2017; Gupta et al., 2017; Kong, Ma, You, & Xiang, 2018; Peter et al., 2015; Windle, Bennett, & Noyes, 2011) .

This concept is characterized by complexity, having many aspects and having many meanings (Joyce et al., 2018; Rodriguez-Llanes, Vos, & Guha-Sapir, 2013) while others defined this concept as being the ability  to stay in functional stability and good health despite continuous pressures(Bonanno, 2004).

Psychological resilience is a positive natural personal trait which is characterized by flexibility (Cusack et al., 2016; Färber & Rosendahl, 2018; Hanfstingl, 2013; Kilic, Dorstyn, & Guiver, 2013; O’Dowd et al., 2018) .
It is a dynamic process having multiple dimensions in which biological, knowledge , personal and cognitive factors  interact(Kong et al., 2018; Surzykiewicz, Konaszewski, & Wagnild, 2019). It is also a series of individual traits which are able to confront the pressuring events (Li, Chi, Sherr, Cluver, & Stanton, 2015; Sarrionandia, Ramos-Díaz, & Fernández-Lasarte, 2018). It is also capable of resilience and healing from the dangers of threats and to preserve the  natural bodily and mental performance and to avoid mental illnesses (Connor & Davidson, 2003; Parsons, Kruijt, & Fox, 2016; Robertson, Cooper, Sarkar, & Curran, 2015; Ward & Pasinetti, 2016) .

It is also a basic component for achieving  a suitable level of mental health(Davydov, Stewart, & Ritchie, 2010; Navrady. et al., 2018). It reflects the ability of the individuals to adapt , to overcome distresses positively and to deal actively with the challenges of life(Green, 2014; Masten.. 2013; Paban, Modolo, Mheich, & Hassan, 2019; Park et al., 2018; Rees et al., 2016; Sarrionandia et al., 2018; Wu, Wang, Lee, Lin, & Guo, 2019) and to respond positively after they had been exposed to cases of fatigue such as shocks and sicknesses (Bilgin & Tas, 2018) filling the resources and to successfully adapt with severe hardships (Bellido-González et al., 2019; Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000; Masten. & Narayan, 2012; Rees., Breen, Cusack, & Hegney, 2015) . It also reflects  the individual’s ability to change his behavior  in order  to adapt  with the changing environmental orientations, and  to improve the individual’s ability to adapt and to reinforce the individual development(He, Cao, Feng, Guan, & Peng, 2013). This includes a number of knowledge and behavioral strategies which are used in managing crises(Navrady. et al., 2018).

It is connected with a positive relationship also with positive feelings(Kuhl & Fuhrmann, 1998)  whereby achieving mental health  including mental, social and biological aspects  is considered as one of the biggest challenges which face societies and health care institutions(Rudwan & Alhashimia, 2018) whereby  psychological resilience  is connected with the state of health of the individuals who are exposed to pressuring events(Cengiz, Ergün, & Cakici, 2018) and their ability to bypass  successfully the negative experiences and to adapt with the new life circumstances resulting from them, and to deal  actively with the new challenges(Doğan, 2015; Fayombo, 2010; Fletcher & Sarkar, 2012; Paban et al., 2019; Rodriguez-Llanes et al., 2013) .

The concept of psychological resilience can be defined as  being a mental social structure which points out to the individual’s ability to adapt  positively  and to preserve  mental and bodily health  in confronting pressures(Harris et al., 2016; Matzka et al., 2016; Peter., Tran, Michalski, & Mosr, 2018; Yi, Vitaliano, Smith, Yi, & Weinger, 2008; Yin et al., 2019) and the ability  of mental resistance(Hanfstingl, 2013). It consists   to a large extent of preventive processes( biological, knowledge, and spiritual ) which help in finding a positive meaning in  grave situations(Green, 2014). The concept of psychological resilience emphasizes  reinforcing healthy performance and growth instead of focusing on mental problems(Li et al., 2015).

The first researchers supposed that psychological resilience is considered as a biological trait or a behavioral trait. However, the modern theories view that Psychological resilience is a functional state which consists of the personal traits and the protection factors which reinforce adapting with the pressures (Green, 2014).

Psychological resilience is considered  a main indicator for the success of the individual in adapting with the circumstances of life(Abolghasemi & Varaniyab, 2010). Through the psychological resilience  man can overpass challenges and difficulties which face him and overcome the feelings of anxiety, depression and mental disturbances(Liu et al., 2018; Sood, Prasad, Schroeder, & Varkey, 2011).

The definition of psychological resilience  includes three main topics which are : pressuring circumstances, positive adaptation  and taking risk (Wu et al., 2019).

This ability of the individual develops with the passage of time in the scope of the interactions of the individual with the environment(Fletcher & Sarkar, 2012) and which might have special effect in the following stages  of old age (Harris et al., 2016; Yin et al., 2019). There is a group  of psychological and social factors which contribute in psychological resilience including: effective dealing, knowledge reevaluation, positive social behavior, social support and others (Liu et al., 2018).

The concept of resilience has been connected with  personal prosperity(Harms, Brady, Wood, & Silard, 2018; He et al., 2013) satisfaction with life, influence, the concept of the self, and participation(Bajaj & Pande, 2016), personal efficacy and ideal criteria, persistence , secure relations, control and spiritual influence(Sarrionandia et al., 2018) whereas  some researchers considered that psychological resilience  as the balance between pleasure and satisfaction with life(Kong et al., 2018).

Researchers have pointed out that there are common psychological traits among the individuals who have  psychological resilience including; they are very optimistic, they feel that life is full of hope and they have  curiosity for a new life(He et al., 2013).

In the recent period, Liu et al. (2018) have suggested  a multi-system  model of psychological resilience consisting of three structures which include:

  • Physiological, biological and demographic features.
  • Internal factors  such as the family, friends and personal experiences.
  • Obtaining health care and social services.

Man takes recourse to adaptation if  his mental balance  is upset due to not fulfilling his needs or not achieving his objectives. So he takes recourse to adaptation with the purpose of recovering his mental balance and lowering  the anxiety and tension in him(Serebryakova et al., 2016).It also points out to the behavioral process in which the individual achieves balance between his needs and the needs of the surrounding environment(Mahmood, 2015). Through these behavioral patterns, man can achieve  psychological social balance between him and between the others, in a life which is devoid of conflicts that is adapting with society (Serebryakova et al., 2016).

The successful adaptation is reflected through man’s ability  to preserve positive results when confronting difficult situations(Ong et al., 2006) the ability to quickly recover from environmental pressures(Davidson, Jackson, & Kalin, 2000) preserving the personal value, restoring relations with others, and reinforcing the image of the individual personally and socially(Santon, Revenson, & Howard, 2007).

Psychological adaptation is defined as being the ability of the individual to adapt with the social environment, or changing this environment to suit himself (Wojujutari, Alabi, Emmanuel, & Olugbenga, 2018). It can also be defined as the existence or non-existence of a diagnosed mental disturbance or psychological symptoms or a negative temperament (Santon et al., 2007).

Social support affects adaptation from the physiological, knowledge and psychological aspects. Through support, the negative results of   the difficult situations, and the physiological reactions resulting from tension can be lessened(Santon et al., 2007). However, low self respect can  increase the possibility of bad psychological adaptation  after the pressuring situations, and this is due to non-existence of positive feelings in self estimation(Zeigler-Hill & Wallace, 2012).

Among the positive indicators of adaptation  are preserving the positive temperamental state and aim in life(Santon et al., 2007) satisfaction with life , feeling happy, preserving the functional pefprmance, and preserving the daily activities(Ibrahim & Dahlan, 2015; Schaefer et al., 2013).

The concept of  purpose in life is one of the important concepts in the positive psychology. It is an internal force which is responsible for the internal state of the individual(Verduin et al., 2008). The essence of human existence is that man should have purpose in life or what is called the life task (Ventegodt, Andersen, & Merrick, 2003).

Purpose in life  is the psychological-social structure which  embeds the feeling that the individual’s life has an orientation and a meaning, and it is a basic component of the elements of psychological prosperity(Hill, Edmonds, Peterson, Luyckx, & Andrews, 2016; Wilson et al., 2018; Yiu et al., 2015) .

The feelings of the purpose in life might be a psychological resource for the prevention of psychological pressures. For the individuals who have big purpose in life have the ability to use more effective adaptation strategies(Hill., Sin, Turiano, Burrow, & Almeida, 2018; Polenick, Kales, & Birditt, 2018). Thus this concept has acquired importance as being treatment mechanism, whereby the modern treatment interventions concentrate on helping people to develop, clarify and follow up the aim from organizing their life and their behaviors (Mcknight & Kashdan, 2013).

The literature  in this domain indicates that the feeling of purpose in life is connected with the bodily  and mental health and the quality of life in general (Alimujiang et al., 2019; Liu et al., 2018) whereby the individuals who have high purpose in life feel more power in their health (Kim, Strecher, & Ryff, 2014; Peter et al., 2015). Some physiological studies indicated that individuals having high purpose in life might live a longer life  and the danger of being struck by weakness decreases among them. As for the mental state, they are less exposed to depression, sleep disturbances, knowledge lowering, and they have a good level of psychological health and more   psychological and social adaptation  to the sickness (Polenick et al., 2018; Schaefer et al., 2013). Socially, purpose in life among the individuals is connected positively with social integration and the quality of social relations (Li. et al., 2016).

The use of the meaning and purpose is used synonymously . The meaning and the purpose in life represent a group of positions and opinions which make the world understandable, such as the  existence of aims for seeking  through creative  work, or performing the work or the task which  is feasible, findings solutions in the difficult positions of life, loving a certain person, the experience of nature and culture, and a permanent suffering. It also works as an incentive  and vital force for the aims in  human life (Drageset, Haugan, & Tranvåg, 2017) and it  reinforces healthy behaviors (such as relaxation and athletic exercises) which gives meaning to life(Alimujiang et al., 2019; Li. et al., 2016; Polenick et al., 2018; Zilioli, Slatcher, Ong, & Gruenewald, 2015) . Although the development of purpose in life might begin in the childhood stage , the individuals do not look at it seriously until they reach the adulthood stage. Also the direct preventive influence of purpose in  life protects  the psychological prosperity of the individual via reinforcing the positive personality traits, and moving away from the source of tension  and  distress such as thinking of suicide (Law, 2012; Zhang, Mou, Tong, & Wu, 2018). This forms an important source for the prosperity of man (Drageset et al., 2017).

Purpose in life is an intention or a certain aim which the individual seeks to achieve (Drageset et al., 2017; Ibrahim & Dahlan, 2015). Finding a meaning is feeling that life has an importance, and it  is worthy of interest. In case those fail  in finding purpose in life, they suffer from the state of no meaning, and this is what Frankl called the existential vacuum (Drageset et al., 2017; Ventegodt et al., 2003).

This is a conceptualization which includes the satisfaction of the individual with the pevious and current daily activities of the individual(Chun, Heo, Lee, & Kim, 2016). Ryff and others pointed out to Purpose in life as being a feeling that life has a direction and the aims are applicable, whether on the short tern or on  the middle  turn or the long turn. This is connected with a more positive outlook to life, conceptualizing the personal growth, happiness, satisfaction, self respect, the motive for living and performing the daily activities(Boyle, Barnes, Buchman, & Bennett, 2009; Ribeiro, Neri, & Yassuda, 2018). The individuals who lack these aims in their life feel desperate , and they have no motivation for life in an active and healthy state (Alimujiang et al., 2019).

Purpose in life can be attained through creative work or art or science , from deep experiences and personal relations, and the difficult positions of suffering which cannot be avoided (Law, 2012). Education is a social tool  which makes the individual faith and the future(Mahmood, 2015).

From the previous literature, the present study seeks to discover the relationship between psychological  resilience and both of psychological adaptation and purpose in life, and to verify the relative contribution of the psychological Resilience in predicting psychological adaptation and pur in purpose in life among university students in the preparatory year.

From here it is possible to define the problem of this study through answering the following hypotheses:

  • There is a positive  statistically significant  correlation between psychological resilience and adaptation among the sample of the study.
  • Psychological adaptation can be predicted through psychological resilience among the sample of the study.
  • There is a positive statistically significant correlation between psychological resilience and the purpose in life among the sample of the study.
  • purpose in life can  be predicted through psychological resilience among the sample of the study.

2. METHOD

2.1. Participants and Procedure

The present study followed the descriptive correlational methodology which attempts to discover the relations among variables. This study was conducted at Al-Istiqlal University in Palestine which  includes (1200) male and female students from the different geographical areas in Palestine and who are registered for the school year 2019/2020. The sample of the study consisted of (304) students from both sexes. They were chosen by the random cluster sample method according to the variables: gender and place of residence. All the questionnaires were retrieved and all of them were valid for statistical analysis. Table 1clarifies the characteristics of the demographic sample. Demographic characteristics of case study participants.

Table-1 . Demographic characteristics of the participants (n=304).
Variable
n(%)
Gender
Male
208(68.4)
Female
96(31.6)
Place of residence
Village
184(60.5)
Camp
39(12.8)
City
81(26.6)

Source:Field survey, 2019.

2.2. Instruments of the Study

After reviewing many measures which suit the Arab environment, researchers adopted the following instruments:

2.3. Measure of Psychological Resilience

Researchers used the Measure of  Psychological resilience which was prepared byKhaleel (2017). It consists of( 30) items, whereby the items include the concept of psychological resilience. Response was defined by five alternatives ( always, much, sometimes, rarely , and never). The validity of the measure  was verified through calculating the correlation coefficient  between the mean of each item of the items of the measure with its total mean ,and examining  the level of its significance at the statistical significance level  of (α≤ 0.05). It was indicated that the correlation coefficient for all the items of the measure  with its total degree are statistically significant at (α≤ 0.05)and they ranged between (.314 and .755).

2.4. Measure of Psychological Adaptation

Researchers used this measure which was developed  by Jibreel (1996). It consists of (40) items which are answered according to the five-stage Lickert  Scale (always, most of the time, sometimes, little, never). The total degree of the measure ranges from(40 -200). The correlation coefficient was calculated between  the mean of each item of the items of the measure with its total mean , and examining  the level of its significance at the statistically significant level of(α≤ 0.05), on the individuals of the sample of the study. It was indicated that the correlation coefficients for all the items of the measure with its total degree was statistically significant at (α≤ 0.05),and they  ranged between (.524 and 665).

2.5. Measure of  the Purpose in Life

Researchers  used  measure of purpose in life which was prepared by Mu’awwdh and Mohammad (2005). It consists of (36 )items, the degrees  of which range from (36-120) degrees. They are answered according to the five-stage Lickert Scale (Strongly agree, agree,  somehow, disagree, strongly disagree). The measure  consists of four dimensions( meaning of life, bearing responsibility, satisfaction with life, and quality of life). The correlation coefficient was calculated between the mean of each item of the items of the measure with its total mean, and examining  the  level of its significance at the statistically significant  level  of  (α≤ 0.05). It was indicated  that the correlation coefficients  for all the items of the measure with its total degree is statistically significant at (α≤ 0.05), and they ranged between (.424 and .705).

The validity degree  of the instruments was verified  through following  the Internal Consistency method by using the validity coefficient  of (Cronbach Alpha). The value of the validity coefficient  for these measures is as indicated in the following Table 2:

Table-2.Value of  validity coefficient for the instruments, psychological resilience, psychological adaptation, and purpose in life.
Dimension
Number of Items
Alpha Value
Psychological resilience
30
0.827
Psychological adaptation
40
0.804
Dimensions of the measure purpose in life
Meaning of life
15
0.794
Bearing responsibility 
9
0.872
Satisfaction with life   
6
0.764
Quality of life
6
0.804
Purpose in life total degree
36
0.850

Source: Field survey, 2019.

2.6. Statistical Treatments of the Data

The arithmetic   means and the standard  deviations were calculated for answering the questions of the study. The (Pearson Correlation) coefficient was calculated, and the (Simple Regression) test in order to examine  the hypotheses of the study, while the correlation coefficient of the  instrument of the study was calculated by means of the Cronbach Alpha  validity equation.

3. RESULTS

The First Hypothesis: There is  a statistically  significant positive correlation between psychological resilience and  psychological adaptation among the university students.

In order to test the existence of a correlational relation between the level of psychological resilience and the level of psychological adaptation among the university students through  the Pearson Correlation Test. The following clarifies this:

Table-3. Relationship between the level of psychological resilience and the level of psychological adaptation.
Psychological Resilience
Psychological Adaptation
Correlation coefficient
.491**
Significance level
.000
Number
304

Note:** Value of the Pearson correlation coefficient, statistically significant at the significance level of ( α≤ 0.01).

The Second Hypothesis: Psychological adaptation can be predicted through psychological resilience among the university students.

In order to test this hypothesis, the test of   the Simple Linear Regression was conducted. The following clarifies this:

Table-4. The test of the simple linear regression for the level of psychological resilience in the level of psychological adaptation.
Independent Variable
R
R2
Coefficients
Statistical significance
Constant
B
Psychological resilience
.491
.241
1.877
.420
.420
0.000

Source: Field survey, 2019.

There is a statistically significant positive correlation at the significance level of (α≤ 0.05) between psychological resilience and psychological adaptation among the students of the university. This indicates  the strength of the relationship between the two variables. It is  also clear that   the coefficient of the influence of psychological resilience in the psychological adaptation is(.420), and it indicates the existence of  a direct linear  relationship between psychological resilience and psychological adaptation. Also the value  of the definition coefficient was(.241), and this clarifies that psychological resilience can interpret more than (24%) of the psychological adaptation among the students of the university.

Third Hypothesis: There is a statistically positive correlation between psychological resilience and purpose in life among the students of the university.

In order to test the existence of a correlational relationship between the level of psychological resilience and the level of purpose in life among the students of the university, this was done through  the Pearson Correlation  test. The following clarifies this.

Table-5. The relationship between the level of psychological resilience and the level of purpose in life.
 
Psychological resilience
Meaning of life
Correlation coefficient
.339**
Significance Level
.000
Number
304
Bearing responsibility
Correlation coefficient
.473**
Significance level
.000
Number
304
Satisfaction with life
Correlation coefficient
.365**
Significance level
.000
Number
304
Quality of life
Correlation coefficient
.414**
Significance level
.000
Number
304
Purpose in life
Correlation coefficient
.549**
Significance level
.000
Number
304

Note:** Value of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, statistically significant at the significance level of(α≤ 0.01).

There is a linear relationship between the level of psychological resilience  and the dimensions of purpose in life among the students of the university, and between the psychological resilience as a whole, whereby the significance level for all of these dimensions was (.000). This value is smaller than (0.05). It is also clear that this relationship is positive and relatively strong, whereby the correlation coefficients  for the dimensions were  successively( .339, .473, .365, .414, .549).

Fourth Hypothesis: purpose in life can be predicted through psychological resilience among the students of the university.

Table-6. The test of simple linear regression for the level of purpose in life.
Independent Variable
R
R2
Coefficients
Statistical significance
Constant
B
Psychological resilience
.549
.301
1.626
.633
0.000
.549

Source: Field survey, 2019.

There is a statistically significant  positive correlation  at the significance level of (α≤ 0.05) between  psychological resilience and purpose in life among the students of the preparatory year. This indicates the strength of the relationship between the two variables. It is also clear that the coefficient of the influence of psychological resilience in purpose in life is(.633). This indicates the existence of a direct linear relationship between psychological resilience and purpose in life. The value of the definition coefficient was(.301), this clarifies that psychological resilience can interpret more than(30%) from purpose  in life among the students of the preparatory year.

4. DISCUSSION

University life is considered a difficult stage  for the students, whereby the student moves from the school environment  to the university environment, which  requires of him to deal efficiently with hard situations which confront him. This gives an incentive for him to achieve self organization and self efficacy(Bingöl, Batik, Hosoglu, & Firinci Kodaz, 2019).

From the results of the present study, it was indicated   that there is a positive correlational relationship between  psychological resilience and both of psychological adaptation and purpose in life among the students of the preparatory years. It was also indicated  the ability of the psychological resilience to predict  psychological adaptation  and purpose in life. The researchers  view that this is a logical result in the relationship of psychological resilience with the variables of the study.

These psychological factors are considered among the important factor for achieving success for the student, for they reflect the extent of his ability to confront the pressuring circumstances in the university environment and positive adaptation with them to achieve what the student aspires to, although the students  in this stage live a disturbed transitional stage which requires of them to confront many personal and academic problems which are represented in quick transformations at the affective, cognitive and social levels.

The researchers believe that university students in the Palestinian society confront a number of difficulties and pressures. There are political, economic and social pressures. They live in a society which lacks political and economic stability, and there are less available opportunities to realize themselves and their ambitions. For they are in need of psychological capacities which enable them to continue with this life in order to achieve their goals through persistence, efficacy, psychological and social adaptation and bearing responsibility. It is as if the daily suffering which they live increases their internal psychological strength. This makes them stronger in confronting the challenges. This indicates that the students have the ability to adapt in a positive psychological way, to confront difficult situations and  they have many aims in life. This reflects a state of  satisfaction with life, meaning in their life and a high degree of psychological resilience. This means that the students  have the ability to change their behaviors in order to adapt with the changing environmental circumstances, their ability to bypass  successfully the negative experiences,  adapting with the new life circumstances resulting from them and to  deal positively with the new challenges. This includes a number of knowledge and cognitive strategies which are used in managing the pressures.

This is what was mentioned by Frankl (1958) who defined that people may develop a sense of goal even when they face  big suffering  (Neville et al., 2018). Life may have a meaning even under pressuring circumstances, and feeling  purpose in life is necessary for preserving  mental health (Boyle et al., 2009; Boyle. et al., 2012). This is what was emphasized  by the study of Ulker-Tumlu and Recepoğlu (2013) ; Yakıcı and Traş (2018). The result of the present study agreed with the study of Wu et al. (2019) which emphasized that individuals who enjoy a high degree of psychological resilience   are  usually more successful in dealing with difficult situations, and they have the ability to take positive positions in the difficult circumstances which surround them.

Confrontation is considered a basic psychological characteristic and one of the important components of resilience(Gillespie, Chaboyer, & Wallis, 2007). These students have high expectations, a meaning for life, their own goals,  the skill of  solving personal problems, persistence, and tolerance(Connor & Davidson, 2003; Fayombo, 2010) and the ability to realize positive adaptation (Luthar et al., 2000).

5. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

It is indicated from this study that there are some restrictions concerning the sample, because it was confined to the students of the preparatory year only. Usually studies focus on the students of the university as a whole. Also there was no equality between the number of males and the number of females  in the sample, and this affects the results of the study. Although the sample of the study was from all the geographical areas  in the Palestinian society, the students from the society of the village were much more than  from the society of the city and the camp. This perhaps  has an effect on the results of the study , because the nature of the daily life and the prevailing social culture in the  village, the city and the  camp may play  a role in defining the results of the study.

However, this study offered contribution in the educational literature through uncovering the predictive relationship of psychological resilience and both of the psychological adaptation and purpose in life.

6. CONCLUSIONS

It was indicated from the present study that there is   a positive correlational relationship between psychological resilience  and  both of psychological adaptation and purpose in life. It was also indicated that the psychological resilience can predict  psychological adaptation and purpose in life among the students of the preparatory year. This increases our understanding  of the relations between psychological resilience and the relevant variables. This study can be  an introduction  for future predictive studies which take interest in the students, and take into consideration  social , political and economic fators which might affect  the power of endurance in them.

7. RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Conducting  predictive studies which deal with social, economic and political factors which might affect the psychological resilience of the students.
  • Conducting similar studies which include all the students with other psychological variables such as psychological  solidity, orientation towards the future, meaning of life and other concepts of positive psychology.

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About the Authors

Rihab Aref Alsadi
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Al-Istiqlal University, Jericho, Palestine.
Ahmad Ismail Drabie
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Al-Istiqlal University, Jericho, Palestine.

Corresponding Authors

Rihab Aref Alsadi

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