American Journal of Education and Learning

Volume 5, Number 2 (2020) pp 190-197 doi 10.20448/804.5.2.190.197 | Research Articles

 

Virtual Approach in Teaching Anglo-American Literature and Students’ Comprehension Skills

Sahera Dalimbang Andao 1Cristobal Millenes Ambayon 2
1 Department of Education, Columbio National High School, Poblacion, Columbio, Sultan Kudarat, Philippines.
2 College of Teacher Education, Sultan Kudarat State University-ACCESS Campus, EJC Montilla, Tacurong City, Sultan Kudarat, Philippines.

ABSTRACT

This paper worked on the use of Virtual Approach in Teaching Anglo-American Literature and Students’ Comprehension Skills. The study tested the acceptability of the instructional module and virtual materials in terms of its content, relevance and instructional quality that was validated as highly acceptable. The researchers used experimental method of research to the 33 grade 9 students of Columbio National High School and 33 for the control group, randomly selected. Findings revealed that students from the control group did not meet the expectations in their pre-test and post-test, while the experimental group performance did not meet the expectation in the pre-test and very satisfactory after the integration of Virtual Approach. These results were further explained through the use of t-test using 0.05 level of significance. It revealed that there was a significant difference between the mean gain score of control and experimental groups which mean that the experimental group improved better and learned more using virtual approach in teaching Anglo-American Literature than the use of book, board and chalk in the control group. This concluded that the use of Virtual Approach in teaching, improved students’ comprehension skills and recommended the use of Virtual Approach in teaching literature.

Keywords: Anglo-American literature, Comprehension skills, Virtual approach, Information technology-oriented teaching.

DOI: 10.20448/804.5.2.190.197

Citation | Sahera Dalimbang Andao; Cristobal Millenes Ambayon (2020). Virtual Approach in Teaching Anglo-American Literature and Students’ Comprehension Skills. American Journal of Education and Learning, 5(2): 190-197.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 18 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020/ Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020.

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • The acceptability of virtual approach in teaching.
  • The difference between student’s comprehension with an integration of virtual approach.
  • The impact of virtual approach in teaching Anglo-American Literature to the student’s comprehension skills.

1. INTRODUCTION

Education is the most important investment of all the countries around the world. In spite of this, numerous issues and problems were being faced by the Department of Education. K to 12 had been introduced years ago but it is still visible that most learners are greatly left behind with what they supposed to learn at their age. One of the most challenging part on educators is the language learning. Common learning materials had been made available in all grade level that is made accessible and readily available to all the teaching force all over the country. In just a click of a button you got everything you need. But still it is still a great quest for the mentors on how they would deliver it well in the class where most of the learners could get what they want to instill.

Comprehension is an unending battles to the teachers, especially those who were teaching English language because students nowadays, rarely pay full attention to what the teacher is teaching. Castañeda and Arcila (2012) stated that teachers assume an active critical role when using virtual classrooms in an institution. It should be a responsibility of all teachers involved and should take responsibility towards it, get engaged in proposing activities in the virtual classroom, and be critical towards the ways in which these virtual environments can effectively be used and fully exploited to enhance learning. As technology advances rapidly, Columbio National High School is trying to embrace the new trends in the teaching- learning process. From blackboards to Digital Light Processing (DLP) projectors, chalk to markers, classroom to virtual rooms, groupings to social networking sites and many more. Most are struggling to keep abreast with these innovations in IT. School administrators, including teachers, are facing technical challenges in this digital economy. Information Technology-Oriented teaching would greatly aid the teachers’ need of students’ focus and attention. Nowadays, learners are interested in animated visual aids especially in teaching literature that needs a thorough scrutinization of the text so that better understanding would be elicited.

The Department of Education strongly pushes for the 21st century learning for a 21st century teachers that provide 21st century learners. This also means that every school nationwide should have to cope up with this change. The utilization of highly recommended technological application is greatly encouraged. The basic education institutions in the Philippines acknowledge that they must move quickly with the technology driven changes in society and economy according to Boholano (2017). Educators can use web-based communication tools to help students collaborate with one another, sharing and constructing knowledge added by Lombardi (2007). So, to answer in this Department’s call, Columbio National High School initiated to provide one projector per classroom, so as to the teachers to do their part in upholding 21st century teaching. With this, the researchers wanted to find out the difference in students’ comprehension skills using the virtual approach in teaching Anglo-American Literature.

2.CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This study was anchored at Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development where centering on a youth’s improvement in terms of information dispensation, intangible means, perceptual dexterity, linguistic erudition and other phases of developed fully-grown understanding and cognitive psychology.   Cognitivism has been considered a reaction to the “rigid” emphasis by behaviorists on predictive stimulus and response (Harasim, 2012). Cognitive theorists promoted the concept that the mind has an important role in learning and sought to focus on what happens in between the occurrence of environmental stimulus and student response. The future of cognitivism is particularly interesting as more advanced online software evolves into adaptive and personalized learning applications that seek to integrate artificial intelligence and learning analytics into instruction.

The use of ICT has increased during the last years both at home and school. More schools and universities are using technological tools for students to work on different subjects or only as a matter of reinforcement for some topics, Dudeney and Hockly (2007). Virtual classrooms according to Segovia (2006) have been spread all over the world by universities and other institutions that provide education to those who cannot attend traditional universities because of the distance, time, or other factors. According to Camarao (1998) the importance and need of technology education in the Philippines has long been recognized. Technology education in the form of handiwork was included in education curriculum. In this study, it is presumed that the virtual approach in teaching Anglo-American Literature would greatly affect the students’ comprehension skills.


Figure-1. Conceptual Framework of the Study. SKSU, 2019.

Source: Castañeda and Arcila (2012).

3. OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Generally the study evaluated and determined the effectiveness of Virtual Approach in Teaching Anglo-American Literature and the Students’ Comprehension Skills.
Specifically, this study sought to answer the following:

  1. What is the extent of the acceptability  of virtual approach in developing  the students’ comprehension skills in terms of its content; relevance; instructional quality; and presentation.
  2. What is the level of comprehension skills of Grade 9 students in the control and experimental groups in their pre-test and post-test results?
  3. Is there a significant difference on the students’ comprehension skills between the control group and experimental group in the pre-test and in  the post-test?
  4. Is there a significant difference between the mean gain scores of the control group and experimental group in terms of students’ comprehension skills?

4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1. Research Design

The experimental method of research was used in this study. It tested the acceptability of virtual approach in teaching Anglo-American Literature in terms of content; relevance; instructional ability; and presentation of virtual material as well as the comprehension skills of the respondents in Anglo-American Literature class.

4.2. Locale of the Study

The study was conducted at Columbio National High School, the biggest public high school in the Municipality of Columbio, Province of Sultan Kudarat which was established on January 01, 1980.

4.3. Participants of the Study

The researchers utilized the Grade 9 students of Columbio National High School, Columbio, Sultan Kudarat who were enrolled for the school year 2018-2019. Thirty three students were included in the control group and thirty three students for the experimental group regardless of sex and section. This study also included experts in the field of teaching English such Master Teachers, English Department Head, English Instructors/Professors and Education Supervisor, who validated the developed instructional materials used in the conduct of this study.

4.4. Sampling Technique

The researchers selected randomly students by draw lots from the two sections.  They picked a piece of paper marked with E and C. Those who picked E were group and served as experimental group and all those who got C served as control group. The control group was taught using the text from the book, board and paper method, and the experimental group utilized virtual approach in learning the Anglo-American Literature.

4.5. Data Gathering Instrument

Survey questionnaires rated by the experts in the field of teaching English such as Master Teachers, English Department Head, English Instructors/Professors and Education Supervisor, validated the developed virtual materials that included developed module and disk containing the compilation of video clips and movie counterpart of the Anglo-American literary masterpieces that were found in the Grade 9 learning module issued by the Department of Education were used in the conduct of this study in terms of content, relevance, instructional quality and presentation which was copied and modified from the work of Abelito (2018). This was further interpreted using the given scale below.

4.6. Interpretation

4.21 – 5.00            Very Highly Acceptable                     90-100 % observed and implemented
3.40 – 4.20            Highly Acceptable                                              80-89 % observed and implemented
2.61 – 3.40            Acceptable                                            70-79% observed and implemented
1.81 – 2.60            Less Acceptable                   50-69% observed and implemented
1.00 – 1.80            Not Acceptable                    30-49% observed and implemented
A researchers-modified virtual materials was downloaded from the internet, specifically, video graphic presentations, video clips, and movies that were anchored from the Anglo-American literary pieces that were included in the Learning Materials given by the Department of Education. The virtual classroom had laptop, projector and speakers being utilized during the delivery of the lessons. The comprehension ability of the students were measured using a pre-test and post-test items that varies in every lesson. These were analyzed based on the transmutation table stated in the DepEd Order no.8 s. 2015 and  interpreted using the following:

4.7. Interpretation

Grading Scale      Description                                          
90 – 100                                                Outstanding (O)                  
85 – 89                                  Very Satisfactory (VS)                       
80 – 84                                  Satisfactory (S)   
75 – 79                                  Fairly Satisfactory (FS)                    
Below 75                                               Did Not Meet Expectations (DNME)

4.8. Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers sought first the assistance of Language experts to validate the virtual materials used in testing the comprehension skills of students in Anglo-American Literature class. Before the study was conducted, letters were sent to proper authorities seeking permission to utilize the school especially the Grade 9 students to administer the instrument of the study. The administration of the questionnaire was done personally by the researchers so that proper responses will be elicited. The retrieval of the questionnaire was done right after the respondents answered the questionnaire weekly after every lesson. After such, the data was compiled and interpreted.

4.9. Statistical Treatment and Data Interpretation

The information gathered by the researchers was analyzed through the use of frequency count, percentage, mean and t-test. The frequency count, percentage, and mean were used to describe the acceptability of the tool being used in terms of content, relevance, instructional quality and presentation as well as to determine the comprehension ability of the students wherein their raw scores were divided with the total number of items then multiplied by 100 and interpreted using the transmutation table of DepEd Order no.8 s. 2015, its results represented the comprhension skills of the students. On the other hand, t-test was used to analyze the significant difference between the pre-test and post-test results of both the control and experimental groups. Same statistical tool was utilized to interpret the significant difference on the comprehension skills of the control group and the experimental group in their mean gain scores.

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5.1. Acceptability  of Virtual Approach in Developing the Students’ Comprehension Skills

The content, relevance, instructional quality and presentation of the virtual material were validated by the experts is determined and interpreted using grand mean. The results were shown in Table 1.

Table-1. Acceptability  of virtual approach in developing the students’ comprehension skills.
Indicators             
Mean
Interpretation
Content
4.13
Highly Acceptable
Relevance
4.03
Highly Acceptable
Instructional Quality
4.08
Highly Acceptable
Presentation
4.05
Highly Acceptable
Over-all Mean
4.07
Highly Acceptable

The table shows that among the given indicators, content got the highest grand mean of 4.13 which means it is highly acceptable. In addition, all the other indicators namely relevance, instructional quality, and presentation also gain the description of highly acceptable with a grand mean of 4.03, 4.08, and 4.05 respectively. The grand mean of 4.07 implies that the virtual material is highly acceptable as an approach in teaching Anglo-American Literature, wherein 80 – 90 % of the indicators are observed and implemented. This is supported by Isola (2010) when he correlated material resources with academic achievements of students in all the learning areas and he concluded that material resources have significant effect on student’s achievement in all subjects.

5.2. Level of Comprehension Skills of Grade 9 Students

In determining the comprehension skills of the control and experimental group the grand mean is used, it is also interpreted with the use of transmutation table stated in DepEd Order no. 8 series of 2015 (refer to Appendix J). The results are shown in Table 2.

Table-2. Comprehension skills of grade 9 students in the control and experimental groups in their pre-test and post-test results.
Pre Test                          Post Test
Group
n
Mean
Description
Mean
Description
Experimental
33
14.04
DNME
79.58
VS
Control
33
14.98
DNME
47.72
DNME

Note: Legend: DNME - Did Not Meet Expectations; VS - Very Satisfactory.

The results show that the control group did not meet the expectations in the pre-test that was indicated by their grand mean score of 14.98, while their post-test result gain a grand mean of 47.72  which also implies that they did not meet the expectations. On the other hand, the pre-test performance of the experimental group did not meet the expectation with a grand mean of 14.04 and improved relatively on their post-test that gains a grand mean of 79.58 which signifies that the performance of experimental group is very satisfactory. Segovia (2006) emphasized that the use of activities designed to be used in virtual classrooms offer some advantages teacher must keep in mind. For example, activities designed to be used with technology can provide students interactivity and, at the same time, can enhance critical thinking, creative thinking, research skills, and social skills.

5.3. Analysis on Students’ Comprehension Skills Between the Control Group and Experimental Group in their Pre-Test and Post-Test Results

In analyzing the difference between the pre-test and post-test results of the cexperimental and control group the grand mean score is being utilized and tested its difference with the use of t-test. The results are in Table 3 and 4.

Table-3. Analysis on students’ comprehension skills between the control group and experimental group in their pre-test results.
Group
n
Mean
df
tcalculated
tcritical
Interpretation
Experimental
33
14.04
64
1.03
1.67
Not Significant
Control
33
14.98

Note: *.05 level of significance.

The results reveal that the students in the experimental group have a comparable pre-test result with a mean of 14.04 with the students in the control group that obtain a mean of 14.98. It further explains that there is no significant difference between the pre-test scores of the experimental and control groups as indicated in the table, since its t-calculated value of 1.03 is not greater than t-critical value of 1.67 tested using the 0.05 level of significance.

Table-4. Analysis on students’ comprehension skills between the control group and experimental group in their post-test results.

Group
n
Mean
df
tcalculated
tcritical
Interpretation
Experimental
33
79.58
64
20.09
1.67
Significant
Control
33
47.72

Note: *.05 level of significance.

The table shows that the students in the experimental group have higher post test results obtaining a mean of 79.58 than the students in the control group having mean of47.72. Thus, the table further presents that there is a significant difference between the post test scores of the experimental and control groups as indicated by the t-calculated value of 20.09 that is greater than t-critical value of 1.67 tested in 0.05 level of significance. This is further supported by Ausubel (2000) that the relationship should exist between what is known and what is to be learnt should be neither arbitrary nor literal. That is, meaningful learning is reached when individuals do not memorize concepts by repetition (rote learning).

5.4. Analysis on the Difference Between the Mean Gain Score of the Control and Experimental Groups

The difference between the mean gain score of the control and experimental groups is determined using t-test analysis with 0.05 level of significance. Results are presented in Table 5.

Table-5. Analysis on the difference between the mean gain scores of the control group and experimental group in terms of students’ comprehension skills.
Group
n
Mean
df
tcalculated
*tcritical
Interpretation
Experimental
33
65.54
64
28.89
1.67
Significant
Control
33
32.74

Note: *.05 level of significance.

The table shows that the experimental group has a relatively higher mean gain score 65.54 than the mean gain score of the control group which is 32.74. This also reveals that the t-calculated value of 28.89 is greater than t-critical value of 1.67 tested using 0.05 level of significance, this means that the null hypothesis is rejected. This further portrays that there is a significant difference between the mean gain score of the control and experimental groups. This is supported by the study of Castañeda and Arcila (2012) they mentioned that the use of technology in education is a current demand and, as such, we teachers are being called to integrate them in our everyday practices. The use of a virtual classroom is just a way of accomplishing this goal. However, as this study has shown, the use of this tool represents some extra-challenges of a different nature (pedagogical, technological).

6. SUMMARY

Generally the study evaluated and determined the effectiveness of Virtual Approach in Teaching Anglo-American Literature and The Students’ Comprehension Skills. This was conducted at Columbio National High School in the municipality of Columbio, province of Sultan Kudarat, and in the Region XII - SOCCSKSARGEN. The school is gradually coping with technological advancement through purchasing projectors for every classroom for the utilization of the teachers in the teaching-learning process. There’s a very slow internet connection in the locality but the researchers utilized pre-downloaded videos and movies to make it readily available for the learners.

The experimental method of research was used in this study. It tested the acceptability of virtual approach in teaching Anglo American Literature in terms of content; relevance; instructional ability; and presentation of virtual material as well as the comprehension skills of the respondents in Anglo-American Literature class.

The researcher utilized the Grade 9 students of Columbio National High School, Columbio, Sultan Kudarat who were enrolled for the school year 2018-2019. Thirty three students were included in the control group and thirty three students for the experimental group regardless of sex and section. They were grouped randomly. This study also included experts in the field of teaching English such Master Teachers, English Department Head, English Instructors/Professors and Education Supervisor, who validated the developed instructional materials used in the conduct of this study.

The virtual material used in this study obtained a grand mean of 4.07 labeled as highly acceptable in terms of content, relevance, instructional quality, and presentation; The performance of control group did not meet the expectations with a grand mean of 14.98 in their pre-test and 47.72 in post-test while the pre-test performance of experimental group did not meet the expectations that obtained a grand mean of 14.04 and performed very satisfactory in the post test with a grand mean of 79.58; The pre-test result of the control and experimental groups is comparable and has no significant difference. The mean gain score of the control and experimental groups has a significant difference.

7. CONCLUSION

In the light of the findings of the study, the researchers therefore concluded that virtual material used in the study is highly acceptable in terms of its content, relevance, instructional quality and presentation. Performance of the Grade 9 students during pre-test did not meet expectations, however, ends very satisfactory during the post-test. Furthermore, students’ comprehension skill is the same in the pre-test, however, upon the conduct of the study using the module, the result of students’ comprehension improved. Hence, it is grateful to say that the use of virtual approach in teaching, improved students’ comprehension skills.

8. RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are considered:

  1. Virtual materials may be further improve in its content by providing more opportunities for reflection and planning and the instructional quality should employ more appropriate communicative techniques so that a very highly acceptable instructional material would be given to the learners.
  2. Virtual Approach may be considered by language teachers in teaching Anglo-American Literature, as well as other literary genre, to elicit further and deeper understanding of those long passages to achieve higher comprehension results.
  3. The Department of Education, as well as the school administrators, together with the stakeholders may find ways and means to provide ICT materials that could be used in the virtual teaching to assure learning in spite of the learners lease attention to the class.  This is also for the teachers to cope up to the call of technological invasion in the present.

REFERENCES

Abelito, J. T. (2018). Adopt-a-student program and reading performance of grade 7 of Maligaya National High School. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Sultan Kudarat State University, ACCESS, EJC Montilla, Tacurong City, Sultan Kudarat, Philippines.  

Ausubel, D. P. (2000). The acquisition and retention of knowledge: A cognitive view. Norwell, MA, The USA: Kluwer Academic.

Boholano, H. B. (2017). Smart social networking: 21st century teaching and learning skills. Cebu City, Philippines: Cebu Normal University.

Camarao, F. C. (1998). Technology education in the Philippines. Valenzuela City, Philippines: National Bookstore.

Castañeda, J. E., & Arcila, F. C. (2012). Through teachers’ eyes: The use of virtual classrooms in ELT: How, a Colombian journal for teachers of English. Bogotá, Colombia: University of San Buenaventura.

Dudeney, G., & Hockly, N. (2007). How to teach English with technology. New York, USA: Pearson Longman.

Harasim, L. (2012). Learning theory and online technologies. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Isola, O. M. (2010). Effects of standardized and improvised instructional materials students’ academic achievements in secondary school physics. M. Ed Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Retrieved August 24, 2018.  

Lombardi, M. M. (2007). Authentic learning for the 21st Century: An overview. Educause Learning Initiative. Rrtrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI5015.pdf. [Accessed September 2, 2018].

Segovia, N. (2006). Application of ICT to teaching. Practical uses of NNTT in the teaching-learning process. Spain: Own Ideas Editorial.

Online Science Publishing is not responsible or answerable for any loss, damage or liability, etc. caused in relation to/arising out of the use of the content. Any queries should be directed to the corresponding author of the article.

About the Authors

Sahera Dalimbang Andao
Department of Education, Columbio National High School, Poblacion, Columbio, Sultan Kudarat, Philippines.
Cristobal Millenes Ambayon
College of Teacher Education, Sultan Kudarat State University-ACCESS Campus, EJC Montilla, Tacurong City, Sultan Kudarat, Philippines.

Corresponding Authors

Cristobal Millenes Ambayon

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