Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies

Volume 2, Number 1 (2016) pp 39-50 doi 10.20448/807.2.1.39.5 | Research Articles

 

Assessment of the Impact of Section 9 of the Nigerian Road Traffic Act 2004 on the Rate of Accidents/Road Crashes in Nigeria

Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu 1Lazarus I. Okoroji 2  Declan N. Dike 2 
1 Department of Maritime Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Transport Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Abstract

Road Traffic Act 2004 section 9, is an Act which amended and extended the Road Traffic Acts 1961 to 2003. The Act made bye-laws ("special speed limit bye-laws") specifying in respect of any specified public road or specified part of a public road or specified carriageway or lane of a public road within its administrative area the speed limit ("special speed limit") which shall be the speed limit on that road or those roads for mechanically propelled vehicles. The problem of implementation of this section of the Act has become worrisome to both the Agencies involved in road safety and the public in general. This research therefore generally seeks to assess the level of implementation of the Act and reasons for poor implementation. Four hypotheses were constructed to address the research objective. Data was collected from the relevant agencies and transport operators. The data were analysed using simple percentage ratio, while the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square. The findings revealed that there is a relationship between road crashes and violation of section 9 of road traffic Act 2004 and that there are impediments towards the implementation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004. The study also revealed that there is low level of compliance to Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004. Traffic education would help in curbing road traffic and road crashes menaces. The study therefore recommended that there should be increased awareness of traffic education to both drivers and other road users. Also violators of the Act should be meant to face the full weight of the law. The approach to minimize road traffic accident should be multi factorial. The government's agencies responsible must enacts enforce laws and prosecute where such laws are broken. The law enforcement agent must be conscious of the fact that the money he or she may collect as bribe is not worth endangering human lives.

Keywords: Demographic factors, Entrepreneurial culture, University students, Metropolitan Kano.

DOI: 10.20448/807.2.1.39.50

Citation | Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu; Lazarus I. Okoroji; Declan N. Dike (2016). Assessment of the Impact of Section 9 of the Nigerian Road Traffic Act 2004 on the Rate of Accidents/Road Crashes in Nigeria. Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 2(1): 39-50.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 4 June 2016/ Revised: 20 June 2016/ Accepted: 29 June 2016/ Published: 6 July 2016

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

1. Introduction

Road transportation is by far the commonest means of transportation in Nigeria compared to other means; air, rail and water. The technology has made life easy compared to the hitherto means of transportation such as animals. Nigerian economy despite its harshness, has afforded millions of its populace the means to own cars making road traffic a major problem. It was estimated that the number of registered vehicles in Nigeria rose between 1988 - 2004 from 600,000 to 6,000,000, despite the happiness and change of quality of family lives associated with owning a vehicle, its possession has made so many families bereaved of their breadwinners or lovely ones due to unprecedented rate of road traffic accidents (RTAs). The lawlessness in our society has provided an enabling ground for lack of obedience to road rules and regulation. The causes of road traffic accidents are conventionally ramped into human, mechanical and environmental factors.

The human factor accounts for up to 90% of accidents in fact, the mechanical and environmental factors are subservient to it. Lack of knowledge of road signs and regulations, illiteracy, health problems like poor eye sight, excessive speeding, alcoholism, drug abuse, arrogance, over-confidence are some of the human factors too numerous to mention that cause RTAs.

2. Statement of the Problem

According to Road Traffic Act 2004 section 9, which amended the Road Traffic Acts 1961 county council or a city council may make bye-laws ("special speed limit bye-laws") specifying in respect of any specified public road or specified part of a public road or specified carriageway or lane of a public road within its administrative area the speed limit ("special speed limit") which shall be the speed limit on that road or those roads for mechanically propelled vehicles.

The special speed limits that may be specified in bye-laws under this section are

(a)        30 kilometres per hour, which shall only be applied in respect of a road or roads (other than a motorway) in accordance with guidelines issued by the Minister under this section,

(b)        50 kilometres per hour, in respect of any road other than a road in a built-up area,

(c)         60 kilometres per hour,

(d)        80 kilometres per hour, in respect of a motorway, a national road or a road in a built-up area,

(e)        100 kilometres per hour, in respect of a motorway, a non-urban regional or local road or a road in a built-up area, and

(f)         120 kilometres per hour, in respect of a dual carriageway that forms part of a national road that is not a motorway in accordance with guidelines issued by the Minister under subsection (9).

The problem of implementation of this section of the Act has become worrisome to both the Agencies involved in road safety and the public in general. Drivers violets traffic rules and regulations, there is ease with which Driver's Licenses can be illegally procured in Nigeria ensures the steady supply of unskilled drivers on her roads. The driving habits are so bad people tailgate other drivers at high speeds causing major difficulties for the vehicles when things go wrong with any of the vehicles in the convoy. Speed limits are never adhered to on the roads and the vehicles are commonly used well in excess of the design load capacity. This makes it difficult for drivers of such vehicles to control them in a safe and reasonable manner (FRSC, 2008).

2.1. Objectives of the Study

This study seeks to assess Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004. From this, the following objectives were raised.

  1. To assess the level of compliance to Section 9 of the Nigerian Road Traffic Act of 2004.
  2. To find out the impediments towards the implementation of Section 9 of the Nigerian Traffic Act of 2004.
  3. To examine the main causes of road crashes in Nigeria
  4. To suggest ways of curbing Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) and or road crashes menaces.

2.2. Research Questions

From the above purposes of the study, the following research questions were highlighted.

  1. What is the level of compliance to Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004?
  2. Are there impediments towards the implementation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004?
  3. What are the main causes of road crashes in Nigeria?
  4. To suggest ways of curbing Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) and or road crashes menaces?

2.3. Research Hypotheses

Based on the stated research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated in other to assist in addressing the objectives of this study.

  1. There is low level of compliance to Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004.
  2. There are no impediments towards the implementation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004
  3. There is no relationship between road crashes and violation of section 9 of road traffic Act 2004.
  4. Traffic education would not help in curbing road traffic and road crashes menaces.

3. Review of Related Literature

3.1. Concept of Road Safety

Safety is used widely in the context of protection from personal harm. It can be described as an experience of personal security, freedom from danger and situations that can cause harm, injury or health-related problems (Lawal, 2012). It is a protection against injury and traumatic issues. An accident is an unplanned, unexpected and undesired occurrence that disrupts the flow of normal interactions and relationships, which may result in inconveniences, injuries, property damage or death. Accidents on the road are caused by interaction of human, vehicular and environmental factors which the driver found incomprehensible at the moment (Balogun, 2006). This is because the victim might have committed the offence more than 1000 times uncaught. It is the cumulative effect of these offences that cause accident (Onakomaiya, 1988). Road traffic safety deals exclusively with road traffic crashes described above- How to reduce their number and their consequence (Wikipedia, 2009). This does not include a person falling down on the road. That is, for a pedestrian to be involved in traffic crash, a vehicle must have hit the victim. Beginning from late 1960’s however, the world ‘accident’ was being replaced with crash because the former conveys a sense that the loss are due exclusively to fate and lack predictability whereas all crashes have some elements of human error hence due to certain action(s) or inaction(s) of an or some individuals which engineered the crash. To this extent it cannot be said not be said not to be planned; even if not unconsciously. Road traffic crash is unarguably a major killer of men.  The magnitude and trend of the crash worldwide is heartbreaking, yet unfortunately, the rising tide of this global problem has continued to outstrip effort to curtail it. Traffic crash is presently the 11th leading cause of death and it may rise to 3rd position by 2020. In Nigeria one person is killed in less than two hours as at 2008, one RTC occur every 58 minutes and 54 deaths occur in every 100, 000 population (Balogun, 2006). Road safety is a strategic response to the risk associated with road traffic crash. It is a shared responsibility and a multsectorial problem. According to Trincta et al, 1988, three era’s of road safety in the world are;

  1. 1940-1950 when RTC increased (Traffic safety increased proportionately with the vehicle population-Motorisation)
  2. 1950-1970 when RTC decline (Traffic safety more than the decline in vehicle ownership-Motorisation)
  3. 1970-Date when RTC decline (Traffic safety) in spite of population growth in vehicle traffic

4. Crime and Road Crashes Prevention in Public Transportations System in Nigeria

The increasing loss of lives on the road in Nigeria has become a worrisome experience. In 2006, about 4, 944 deaths occurred in 9,114 road crashes with 17,390 persons injured. The situation in 2007 was 4,673 killed in 8,477 crashes leaving 17,794 injured. In the three (3) states covered by this study, a total of 498 and 391 people were killed in the year 2006 and 2007 respectively. This resulted from 402 and 413 crashes respectively. The injured persons for the same period were 1,142 and 1,486 respectively. (See Table 1)

Table-1. Road Traffic Crashes by state 2006-2007
Source: Federal Road Safety Corps, Nigeria - (Policy, Research and Statistics Department) 2007

It is important to mention that the highway connecting the Northern and Southern parts of the country. The vehicular volume on the highway is high. The fact that drivers of transit vehicles speed and such vehicles are suspected to carry passengers with money and other valuables leave the states vulnerable and breeding grounds for many traffic related criminal cases resulting in loss of lives and property, FRSC (2009). (See Table 2)

Table-2. Crash along the Selected Routes 2006-2007
Distance in Kilomete
Source: Nigeria Police Force, Lagos 2007 and Federal Office of Statistics, Lagos, 2008

According to a survey conducted by researchers and their research assistants in August 2010, the incidences of high rate of crime were directly linked to the presence of road blocks mounted by the men of the Nigeria Police. Table 3 shows the routes where road blocks are mounted by the Police during the time of the study. The study as shown in Table 3 below indicates a direct relationship between crime and presence of Police checkpoints on the highways.

Table-3. Police checkpoints on some major highways in Geo-political Zone in Nigeria
Total checkpoint
Source: Federal Road Safety Crops (2008)

5. Road Traffic Accident Deaths And Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria

Several schools of thought have arisen in an attempt to describe the causes of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs). One of such is the concept known as the epidemiological model of road accident. An important relationship exists between the concept of risk and accident. The concept of cost is inextricably linked to epidemiological and anthropological notions of risk. Epidemiologists and Clinicians have generally divided risk factors into three categories when addressing the issue of road traffic accidents. The three categories are - human, vehicle and physical/social environmental factors (Mishra et al. 2010). Five 'human' factors have been identified as area where clinically based interventions may have positive outcomes - use of alcohol, use of drugs, morbidity, use of occupant restraints (seat belts) and advanced age. Epidemiological research has tended to focus on human risk factors because they are most relevant to the search for preventive measures and because they have been identified as the most frequent cause of crashes (Polen and Friedman, 1988).A strong positive association between increasing blood alcohol concentration and the risk of road traffic accident involvement has been documented by researchers for many decades. Alcohol use is generally seen as contributing to traffic injuries by impairing driving capabilities and thus increasing the risk of crash involvement (Pludemmann et al. 2004). Although alcohol is generally thought to be the most important risk factors among all drugs, some evidence has also linked the use of minor tranquilizers such as benzodiazepines to increase risk of crash involvement (Gururaj, 2008). Studies have also linked certain chronic medical conditions to elevated risks of crash involvement while other studies have presented evidence suggesting that those medical conditions represent a negligible risk in reference to automobile injuries or fatalities (Barbone et al, 1998).

5.1. FRSC Records Reduction in Road Accidents

The Federal Road Safety Corps, FRSC, Zone 4, Jos, recorded “significant reduction in fatal accidents’’ in the early part of this year in the zone.

“The zone, which comprises Nasarawa, Plateau and Benue states, has recorded less accidents when compared to the early part of 2013 accident rate,’’ the corps said.

Yakubu Attah, the FRSC Zonal Commanding Officer, disclosed this while briefing journalists on their activities in Jos.

“In January 2014, the zone has recorded 38 fatal accidents that claimed the lives of 55 people while 434 people sustained injuries.

“Whereas in January 2013, the zone recorded 41 fatal accidents that claimed the lives of 66 persons and 536 sustained injuries.

“In February 2014, the zone recorded 33 fatal accidents, while in the same month in 2013 the zone recorded 39 fatal accidents.

“In the same February 2014, 37 people lost their lives through road crashes while 41 died within the same period in 2013,’’ he said.

Mr. Attah said that 686 people sustained injuries during 166 road crashes in the first quarter of 2014, while 983 persons were injured during 232 road accidents in 2013.

“it also recorded 234 serious road crashes as well as 21 minor accidents in 2014, while in 2013 we recorded 348 serious road crashes and 30 minor accidents,” Attah (2014)

The official attributed the reduction in accidents to aggressive patrols and public enlightenment by the FRSC personnel in the zone.

6. Research Methodology

According to Anyanwu (2002) research design is a frame work of plan that is used as a guide in the collection and analysis of data for the study. Research methodology explain in detail the techniques used by the researcher to gather useful data that are used for the research work, so that appropriate decision could be made where necessary. The population is the group of people or object the researcher is studying. In this study, the population comprises the regulatory bodies which involved the Ministry of Transport Owerri, Imo Transport Company, Owerri, Federal Road safety Commission, Owerri, ABC Transport Owerri, Chisco transport, Owerri, Peace Transport, Owerri, Abia Line, Owerri, RTC, Owerri

7. Method of Data Analysis

Statistical method will be used in analyzing the data. These statistical methods will include percentage analysis and empirical test of the hypothesis using chi-square. Adamu (2009) observed that the purpose of collecting and analyzing data is to find a reasonable and objective criterion for deciding on a proper line of action.

8. Analysis and Interpretion of Data

8.1. Sex Distribution of Respondents

The distribution of the questionnaire with respect to sex is as follows:

Table-4.2. Shows The Distribution Of Questionnaire Between Sexes.
Source:Source: Researchers’ field survey

From the table above, the total number of males is 38 and that of females is 26.

ANALYSIS OF REPONSE OF QUESTIONS IN THE QUESTIONNEIRE. QUESTION ONE

9. Analysis of Response of Questions in the Questionneire.Question One

Are you a driver/ know how to drive?

Table-4.3. Shows The Response To Questions One
Sources: Researchers’ field survey

From Table 4.3 above, the percentage of positive and negative response was obtained as:

52/64 x 100/1 = 81.3% and 12/64 x 100/1= 18.7%. This shows that 52or 81.3% respondents agree that they are drivers/ know how to drive while 12 or 18.7% disagree with the situation.

.

Question Two: Do you believe that the Nigerian Road Traffic Act of 2004 as regards to' special speed limit is has low level of compliance by road drivers/ and other users?

Analysis is given in the table below

Table-4.4. Shows Response to Question Two
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From Table 4.4 above, the percentage response was calculated and facts obtained. It shows that 50% or 78.1% agree to the question while 14 or 21.9% disagreed.

Question Three: Do you have enough knowledge of the speed limit as stipulated by the Road Traffic Act of 2004?

Table-4.5. Shows The Response To Question Three
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From Table 4.5 above, it was obtained that 56 or 87.5% agreed that they have enough knowledge of the speed limit as stipulated by the Road Traffic Act of 2004while 8 or 12.5% disagreed that they do not have enough knowledge of the speed limit as stipulated by the Road Traffic Act of 2004

Question Four: Do you believe that violation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004 or Special Speed Limit is responsible for the major cause of road crashes in Nigeria?

Table-4.6. Shows Responses to Question Four in the Questionnire
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From the table 4.6 above, it was obtained that 42 or 65.6% agree that violation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004 or Special Speed Limit is responsible for the major cause of road crashes in Nigeria with the question while 22 or 34.4% disagree.

Question Five: Did you pass through driving school with safety rules and regulations enshrined?

Table-4.7. Shows Response to Question Five
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From Table 4.7 above, it was obtained that the number of responses that they pass through driving school with safety rules and regulations enshrined is 52 or 81.3% while 12 or 18.7% said that they did not pass through driving school with safety rules and regulations enshrined.

Question Six: Do you believe that drivers on their side must adopt defensive driving techniques whose principle assumed that every other driver on the road is a potential threat so as to reduce road crashes?

Table-4.8. Shows the Response to Question Six
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From Table 4.8 above, it shows that 53 or 82.8% agree that drivers on their side must adopt defensive driving techniques whose principle assumed that every other driver on the road is a potential threat so as to reduce road crashes with the question while 11 or 17% disagree.

Question Seven: Section 9 of the 2004 Road Traffic Act can also be amended to accommodate more traffic rules and regulations?

Table-4.9. Shows Response to Question Seven
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From the table above, 50 or 78.1% agree that Section 9 of the 2004 Road Traffic Act can also be amended to accommodate more traffic rules and regulations while 14 or 21.9% disagreed and said that Section 9 of the 2004 Road Traffic Act need not to be amended to accommodate more traffic rules and regulations

Question Eight: Does the special road limits as enshrined in section 9 of the Road Traffic Act 2004 has regard for safety?

Table-4.10. Shows Response to Question Eight
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From the table 4.10 above, it was obtained that 51 or 79.9% agreed that the special road limits as enshrined in section 9 of the Road Traffic Act 2004 has regard for safety with the question while, 13 or 20.3% disagreed.

Question Nine: The Nigerian road traffic network is in good condition?

Table 4.11. Above, Shows Responses to Question
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From table 4.11 above, it can be seen that 35 or54.7% agree that the Nigerian road traffic network is in good condition and 29 or 45.3% disagreed that the Nigerian road traffic network is not in good condition

Question Ten: Alcoholism, non-functionality of the speed clock/ speedometer and inefficient performance of the gear selector/ gear transmission oil leakage is contributes to the violation of the speed limit?

Table-4.12. Shows Response to Question Ten
Source: Researchers’ field survey

From table 4.12 above, it was obtained that 45 or 70.4% agreed that Alcoholism, non-functionality of the speed clock/ speedometer and inefficient performance of the gear selector/ gear transmission oil leakage contributes to the violation of the speed limit with the question while 19 or 29.7% disagree.
Question Eleven: Do you agree that if traffic violators are being punished or faces equal weight of offences they committed by the relevant authorities it would reduce road crash menace

10. Testing of Hypothesis

HYPOTHESIS ONE (1)

H0:        There is low level of compliance to Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004.

Hi:        There is high level of compliance to Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004.

h0:        Is a null hypothesis while Hi is alternative hypothesis. To test this hypothesis, table 4.4 for question two is used.

Summary

DECISION

From the above summary table, it shows that the calculated X2 is greater than the critical value of X2, (X2C > X2u) we therefore reject ho and accept Hi, and we conclude that there is high level of compliance to Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004.

HYPOTHESIS TWO

ho :    There are no impediments towards the implementation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004.

hA :    There are impediments towards the implementation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004

Summary

DECISION

From the above summary table, it shows that the calculated X2 is greater than the critical value of X2, (X2C > X2u) we therefore reject ho and accept Hi, and we conclude that There are impediments towards the implementation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004.

HYPOTHESIS THREE

h0: There is no relationship between road crashes and violation of section 9 of road traffic Act 2004.

Hi:        There is a relationship between road crashes and violation of section 9 of road traffic Act 2004.

Summary

DECISION

From the above summary table, it shows that the calculated X2 is greater than the critical value of X2, (X2c > X2u) we therefore reject ho and accept hjj and we conclude that there is relationship between road crashes and violation of section 9 of road traffic Act 2004.

HYPOTHESIS FOUR

ho : Traffic education would not help in curbing road traffic and road crashes menaces.

Hi : Traffic education would help in curbing road traffic and road crashes menaces.

Summary

DECISION

From the above summary table, it shows that the calculated X2 is greater than the critical value of X2, (X2C > X2u) we therefore reject ho and accept H, and we conclude that there is relationship between road crashes and violation of section 9 of road traffic Act 2004.

11. Conclusions

In conclusion, this study has tried to assess the level of implementation of Road Traffic Act 2004 section 9, which is an Act which amended and extended the Road Traffic Acts 1961 to 2003. The findings revealed that there is a relationship between road crashes and violation of section 9 of road traffic Act 2004 and that there are impediments towards the implementation of Section 9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004. The study also revealed that there is low level of compliance to Section  9 of the Road Traffic Act of 2004. Traffic education would help in curbing road traffic and road crashes menaces.

'

12. Recommendations

  1. There should be increased awareness of traffic education to both drivers and other road users.
  2. Violators of the Act should be meant to face the full weight of the law.
  3. The approach to minimize road traffic accident should be multi factorial.
  4. The government should repair our railways to serve as alternatives.
  5. The drivers on their side must adopt defensive driving techniques whose principle assumed that every other driver on the road is a potential threat.
  6. Experts have identified the features of defensive driving to include a driver not allowing his own safety to be dependent on the response of another driver not taking the response of another driver for granted, conscious awareness of his or her "Cocoon of safety" giving other road users adequate and advance information about his or her intention, etc.
  7. Defensive driving, coupled with good roads would go a long way in minimizing RTAs.
  8. The use of GSM while driving must be sanctioned by Road Safety Commission.
  9. It is advisable to break after driving for at most 4 hours in order to avoid fatigue.
  10. Every driver is supposed to have a First Aid kits in his or her vehicle.
  11. Hospital on their part whether public or private should not reject patients when rushed to them.
  12. It is hoped that when the Federal Road Safety Commission Act 1990 is amended and fully in place, RTAs rate will be reduced to an acceptable level.

References

Adamu M (2009): The impact Rural-Urban migration on the economy of the rural areas in Wudil Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria Techno. Sci. Afr. J 3(1-9).

Anyanwu, K. (2002). Research Methodology in Business and social sciences. Owerri: Avan Global Press Ltd.

Atta (2014): http://www.premiumtimesng.com/regional/nnorth-east/157097-frsc-records-reduction-road-accidents-official.html.

Balogun, S.A. (2006) Road Safety practice in Nigeria, Abuja BOAAS Resources Nig.

Federal Ministry of Transport (2000), study on the Establishment of Road Transport Regulatory Body, Abuja, NITT.

Barbone et al, (1998): Association of road-traffic accidents with benzodiazepine use. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 9802269 Lancet. 1998 Oct 24; 352(9137):1331-6.

Federal Road Safety Commission (1993), A Brief, Ibadan, Oyinlade Bakare Asso.

Federal Road Safety Crops (2008) Annual Report.

Federal Road Safety Crops (2008), Nigeria Highway Code, Abuja Detail Works.

Federal Road Safety Corps (2009) “Our Today, Our Future” March 2009 Abuja.

Gururaj, G. (2008). Road traffic deaths and injuries in India: current scenario. The National Medical Journal of India, 21(1): 14-20.

Lawal O. (2012) Human Factors and Safety Assessment in Aeronautics Cranfield University Master of Science (MSc), Thesis.

Mishra B, Sinha ND, Sukkla SK, Sinha AK (2010). Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accident Cases from  Western Nepal, Indian J. Community Med. 35(1):115-121.

Onakomaiya, S.O. (1988) Unsafe at any Speed: Toward Road Transportation for Survival: Inaugural Lecture, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

Pludenmann A, Parry CDH, Donson H, Sukhai A (2004). Alcohol use and trauma in Cape Town, Durban and Port Elizabeth, South Africa: 1999-2001, Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 11(4):265-267.

Polen and Friedman, (1988): Automobile injury: selected risk factors and prevention in the health care setting. JAMA 1998. 259:76-80.
Wikipedia (2009): ‘Definition of Road safety’.

 

About the Authors

Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu
Department of Maritime Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
Lazarus I. Okoroji
Department of Transport Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
Declan N. Dike
Department of Transport Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Corresponding Authors

Julius Okechukwu Anyanwu

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