Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies

Volume 4, Number 2 (2018) pp 102-114 doi 10.20448/807.4.2.102.114 | Research Articles

 

Social Interactive Behavioral Problems of Social Studies Students of Cabiao National High School

Bernardo A. Zabala Jr 1Claire Ann Zabala Penol 2
1 Associate Professor 5, Head, Extension Services/ Guidance Counsellor, Graduate School/College of Nursing, Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology, Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
2 Guidance Coordinator/ Teacher, Cabiao National High School, Cabiao Nueva Ecija, Philippines

ABSTRACT

Student misbehavior is a problem affecting schools across the nation and around the world. The study focused on students’ misbehavior in the context of personal, emotional, social, spiritual, economic and psychological influences and the degree of seriousness of aggressive, delinquent, withdrawing and non-compliant behavior of Social Studies students of Cabiao National High School, Cabiao, Nueva Ecija. Descriptive research was employed using questionnaire, personal interviews and observation in gathering data. It employed both quantitative and qualitative processes. Samples were composed of students and teachers drawn from 6,730 total populations of students and 20 Social Studies teachers. The teachers assess the degree of seriousness of the different behavioral problems manifested by the student. The students manifest serious or intense aggressive, delinquent, withdrawing and non-compliant behaviors. There is no significant difference between factors that contribute to the behavioral problems of Social Studies students in personal, emotional, social, spiritual, economic and psychological factors.

Keywords: Aggressive behavior, Behavioral problems, Delinquent behavior, Withdrawing behavior, Non - compliant behavior.

DOI: 10.20448/807.4.2.102.114

Citation Bernardo A. Zabala Jr; Claire Ann Zabala Penol (2018). Social Interactive Behavioral Problems of Social Studies Students of Cabiao National High School. Global Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 4(2): 102-114.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 29 June 2018/ Revised: 13 August 2018/ Accepted: 13 August 2018/ Published: 5 November 2018

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

1. INTRODUCTION

“Citizens are realizing that a society cannot operate unless its citizens follow certain moral principles, and schools are realizing that without character education, which can help establish a good learning environment, education itself may not be effective”. It explains the significant role and responsibility of educational institution in building good character in their clientele – the students. Changing behavioral patterns, and the attitudes manifest themselves through this character in external action (Stain, 2012 ).

Behavioral problems have been constant in the school environment for centuries. Recently, as the disruptiveness is impeding the learning and safety within the school environment the problem has begun to receive more attention. The lack of discipline encourages students to act out with little or no fear of consequences (Lansbury, 2010 ).

It showed that bullying is the most common form of school violence and 10% to 30% of students are involved in bullying regularly. However, little is known about the differences among bullying participants (i.e., bullies, victims, bully/victims and non – bully/non – victims) on specific behavior characteristics (i.e., Inattention, Hyperactivity, Withdrawal/shyness, and Pro – social Behavior) (Bradshaw et al., 2007 ).

Public schools are designed to provide instructional programs that foster the educational success of all students and shape citizens who can contribute in positive ways to society. Working to promote successful school experiences for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) can be a particularly challenging task because of the necessity for multi-faceted and cohesive programming to effectively meet multiple needs. Emotional or Behavioral Disorder (EBD) refers to a condition in which behavioral or emotional responses of an individual in school are so different from his/her generally accepted, age appropriate, ethnic or cultural norms that they adversely affect performance in such areas as self-care, social relationships, personal adjustment, academic progress, classroom behavior or work adjustment (National Association of School Psychologists, 2004) cited by Lehr and McComas (2005 ).

All parents want what is best for their children. But not every parent knows how to provide his child with the tools to be successful, or how to help him avoid the biggest adolescent behavior problems: substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy and violence (Haggerty et al., 2013 ). Aggressive children worry their parents and teachers. They disrupt lessons in school and hurt, intimidate and frighten other students. They may be argumentative and verbally aggressive. Aggressive behavior children may also have difficulty in controlling their temper and are easily upset and annoyed by others. They are often defiant and may appear angry and resentful.

Most educators are aware of the damaging effect bullying can have on an entire school environment. It is detrimental to school climate, academic performance and even to the health of students. True, students who bully do tend to fit some stereotypes. According to the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, students who bully their peers are more likely to get into frequent fights, steal and vandalize property, use alcohol and other drugs, receives poor grades, engage in sexual activity, be abusive to romantic partners, have criminal records and carry a weapon. Given that schools are rightfully cracking down on bullying, they should be at the forefront of encouraging students to be respectful to each other and to all those around them (Wong, 2012 ).

1.1. Objectives

This study focused on the social interactive behavioral problems of Social Studies students of Cabiao National High School in Cabiao, Philippines. It focused on the social interactive behavioral problems of Social Studies students in terms of aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior; withdrawing behavior; and non – compliant behavior. It also delved on the degree of effects on the following factor to the social interactive behavioral problems of the respondents in terms of personal, emotional, social, spiritual, economic, and psychological aspects. And to determine if there is a significant difference among the students’ responses of different levels as to the degree of effects of factors cited?

2. METHODOLOGY

The descriptive method of research was employed in this study. It utilized the techniques of using questionnaire, personal interviews and observation in gathering data in behavioral problems of Social Studies students in Cabiao National High School in Cabiao, Philippines. This also employed both quantitative and qualitative processes. It involved measurable variables as respondents and it is qualitative because the researcher made a deep analysis of the respondents’ behavior.

The samples were drawn from 6,730 total populations of students and 40 Social Studies teachers. The teachers assessed the degree of seriousness of the different behavioral problems manifested by the student. The Slovin’s formula was utilized.

The actual number of student – respondents is 765 which are proportionally allocated within the 4 groups of respondents. Grade 7 has an actual number of respondents of 156 (11.30%), Grade 8 166 respondents (11.25%), Grade 9 221 respondents (11.66%) and Grade 10 with 222 respondents (29.02%).

The actual number of teacher – respondents is 20 which are proportionally allocated within the 4 groups of respondents. Grade 7 has an actual number of respondents of 4 (20%),

Grade 8 4 respondents (20%), Grade 9 6 respondents (30%) and Grade 10 with 6 respondents (30%).

The instruments used are survey questionnaire, structured and unstructured interviews, and observations. This was administered to the 805 randomly selected participants.

The statistical tools used are Frequency, Percentage, Rank distribution and weighted mean, and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Behavioral Problems of Social Studies Students

The students committed serious behavior in the following: having disruptive conversation with seatmates/classmates during class with a weighted mean of 3.30, doing personal stuff while in class 3.13, bullying 3.13, rudeness 2.83, speaking foul/vulgar language 3.00, being too noisy 2.65 and disrespect authority 2.65. Their moderately serious behavior was indicated in the following items; arguing with teacher have a weighted mean of 2.40, talking back 2.50, refusing to carry out instruction 2.53, vandalism 2.43, interrupting talks or discussion 2.58, angry outburst 2.48, arguing over simple matter with teacher or classmate 2.48, stealing/theft 2.18 and sexually motivated 2.18. This moderately serious behavior means mild. Mild means not harsh, not severe or strong, however this should be given extra attention on how to minimize and should not be ignored.

Based on this research analysis and interpretation, the weighted mean of 2.64 for aggressive behavior, most students manifested serious aggressive behavior which means it is intense. Intense means feeling or showing strong and deeply felt emotions in a serious way. Showing the result of serious aggressive behavior is quiet alarming so these should be given concern and be corrected by teachers, administrator and guidance counselor; otherwise students may become more aggressive. Ignoring aggressive behavior or unknowingly reward it, can further encourage it. Intense aggressive behavior of Secondary students may impede learning as a skill deficit. Student need to understand that all their feelings are acceptable and normal and wants to do hurtful things. As teachers, we can help students how to stay in charge of their behavior.

3.2. Delinquent Behavior

The following delinquent behavior to be serious: taking liquor/alcohol garnered a weighted mean of 3.38, destroying school property 2.65, cutting classes 3.18, staying away from the classroom during considerable length of time 2.68, taking projects that belong to other 2.70, disobeys teacher 2.85, leaving a room without permission 2.90, and gang fraternity and membership 3.00. Other factors such as constant lying obtained 2.48, smoking 2.43, taking marijuana 2.10, cheating in Social Studies subject 2.33 and engaging in physical fighting while in Social Studies subject 2.33 were found to be moderately serious which means it is mild which means it is not harsh or serious but should not be ignored because these may lead to a very serious or extreme behavior if not given proper action.

The interview revealed that student which is reported for coming to school drunk, smoking in the school premises and a gang/fraternity member, they learn to smoke and drink from their parents, because they were the one who was told to buy it in store for their mother or father, grandfather or uncle, so they tried it out of curiosity and becomes a habit.

Result of the survey revealed that students who manifest delinquent behavior such as taking alcohol, smoking, taking marijuana and fraternity and gang membership belong in a poor family and broken home or parents are separated. Some of these kinds of students are living with their step mother/step father who doesn’t treat them well.

3.3. Withdrawing Behavior

Considered serious were the following withdrawing behaviors: shyness/timidity obtained a weighted mean of 2.95, too quiet 2.75, lack of confidence 2.85, displays nervousness 2.78, oversensitive 2.68, daydreams 2.83, doesn’t listen 2.98, resents criticism 2.80, and doesn’t participate in class 2.68. The only moderately serious from withdrawing behavior is doesn’t mingle with others with a weighted mean of 2.45. Withdrawing behavior shows to be serious which means it is intense and happens almost in every class.

Survey and interviews revealed that the majority of students who appeared shy/timid, too quiet, lacks confidence, displays nervousness, oversensitive, daydreams, doesn’t listen, resents criticism, and doesn’t participate in class are not violent and may be in need of other types of specialized help.

3.4. Noncompliant Behavior

All noncompliant behavior problems described in the study were found to be serious; untidy/poor way of dressing while in laboratory obtained a weighted mean of 2.63, often late in Social Studies subject 2.65, disorderly in Social Studies tools and equipment 2.68, over playful in laboratory work, neglects social studies as a subject by not doing projects, assignments and laboratory works 2.85, doesn’t accomplish work in doing laboratory works 2.78, very lazy 2.78, exhibits improper way of dress or clothing 2.73, wearing make – up 3.08, gossiping 3.28, having boyfriends and girlfriends, showing affection in public 3.08 and constant absences 3.18. They are found to be serious which means they are intense because they have to strongly deal with it on a regular basis inside the classroom.

The general description of the behavior of the student respondents. Data shows that aggressive behavior with a weighted mean of 2.64, delinquent behavior with a weighted mean of 2.68, withdrawing behavior with a weighted mean of 2.68 and noncompliant behavior with a weighted mean of 2.64 were found serious which means it is intense based on its grand mean of 2.68. This indicates that the administrator, guidance counselors and teachers must make it clear that there is a zero - tolerance rule for behavioral problems on school grounds.

If students who already manifest behavioral problems which will not be modified or readdressed, then the secondary level might be producing potential problem students who will be misfit in the implementation and success of the K - 12 Basic Education Curriculum, most especially to the Social Studies subjects which provides technical and vocational competency that produces a globally competitive individuals.

4. FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS

4.1. Personal Factors

Personal factor was found to have a serious effect on students in Grade 7 for showing pretensions with a weighted mean of 3.40, while inability to have fun obtained a weighted mean of 3.02, feelings of inferiority 3.22, day dreaming 3.03, lack of interest in doing anything 3.01, and unwholesome fears 2.90 show moderate effect on their behavior. Being irresponsible got a weighted mean of 2.43, self – consciousness 2.15, easily gets frustrated 2.47, lack of attention 2.26, lack of confidence 2.58 have slight effect on their behavior. It only shows that the following personal factors can cause grade 7 students a moderate effect on their behavior based on its weighted mean of 2.77. Moderate effect means it has an average effect as a contributing factor to students’ behavioral problems.

Grade 8 students assessed serious effect on lack of attention with a weighted mean of 3.72. Serious means that personal factor has a great or remarkable effect on their behavior. Other factors such as pretensions got a weighted mean of 3.40, feelings of inferiority 3.10, lack of confidence 3.20, shows a moderate effect. Being irresponsible got  a weighted mean of 1.92, daydreaming 1.86, unwholesome fears 2.39, self – consciousness 2.15, easily gets frustrated 2.47, lack of interest in doing anything 2.50 and inability to have fun 2.51 have a slight effect on their behavior. Slight effect means that there is a very small effect on their behavior.

It revealed that the following personal factors can cause grade 8 students a moderate effect on their behavior based on its weighted mean of 2.64. Moderate effect means it has an average effect as a contributing factor to student’s behavioral problem.

Third year students revealed that lack of attention obtained a weighted mean of 3.83, self – consciousness 3.62, and being irresponsible 3.41 have a serious effect on them based on its adjectival rating and weighted mean. Other factors such as inability to have fun garnered a weighted mean of 2.78, feelings of inferiority 2.86, lack of confidence 3.00, easily gets frustrated 3.03 shows to have a moderate effect. Other factor such as daydreaming got a weighted mean of 2.58 is the only factor that shows a slight effect on them. Other factors such as lack of interest in doing anything got a weighted mean of 1.73, unwholesome fears 1.69, and pretensions 1.26 shows to have no effect on them. No effect means that it has nothing to do with their behavior.

Fourth year students assessed that inability to have fun obtained a weighted mean of 2.67, self – consciousness 2.65, feelings of inferiority 2.81, lack of confidence 2.87, easily gets frustrated 2.72, daydreaming 3.09, unwholesome fears 2.90, and lack of attention 2.72 shows to have a moderate effect on them. Other factors such as pretensions got a weighted mean of 1.26 and being irresponsible 2.28 was found to have a slight effect on the behavior of fourth year level.

Results indicated that grade 7 obtained a weighted mean of 2.77, Grade 8 2.64, third year 2.71, and fourth year 2.73 which resulted to have a moderate effect on their behavior. It only means that personal factors have an average effect as a contributing factor to student’s behavioral problems.

Interview revealed that, excessive feelings of inferiority and lacking of confidence contribute to students behavioral problems. Student who lack attention reinforce violent tendencies.

4.2. Emotional Factors

As per item analysis the following factors have moderate effect on Grade 7 students such as being anxious with a weighted mean of 2.89, ashamed 2.80, mad 2.84, sad 2.69 and being glad 2.81. Grade 8 revealed that anxious got a weighted mean of 3.32, ashamed 3.07, sad 2.82 and being mad 2.66 have an adjectival rating of having moderate effect, while sad 2.15 and being glad 2.27 have slight effect on the behavior of grade 8 students. The following factors have a moderate effect on third year students: being anxious with a weighted mean of 3.14, ashamed 2.74, and the rest such as mad 2.39, and glad 2.21 have a slight effect. The following factors have an adjective rating of moderate effect on all of the emotional factors such as anxious with a weighted mean of 2.88, ashamed 2.76, mad 2.80, sad 2.64 and being glad 3.15 on the behavior of fourth year students.

Results indicated that grade 7 students got a weighted mean of 2.81 and fourth year students are moderately affected with a weighted mean of 3.15. It only means that it has an average effect on the behavior of Grade 7 and fourth year level.

Grade 8, on the other hand, a third year students are slightly affected by emotional factors that contribute to their behavioral problems with a weighted mean of 2.27 and 2.21 respectively. Slight effect means that emotional factors have a very small effect on their behavior.

The findings show that emotionally disturbed students such as being rejected humiliated, disgusted, frightened, embarrassed and helpless, and being hurt may lead to behavioral problems, however, proved that the emotional factors that may contribute to behavior problems have only a moderate effect on the respondents.

4.3. Social Factors

It is indicated that those social factors namely: broken homes/parents are separated got a weighted mean of 3.46, have a serious effect on their behavior. Other social factors such as mother and father deprivation due to work abroad obtained a weighted mean of 2.77, frequent quarrels between parents 3.27, poor parental guidance 2.77, overprotectiveness of parents 3.03, quarrel with siblings  3.11, lack of privacy (no room of his own) 3.22, spoiled by grandparents 2.86. Lack of love and care 2.67, have moderate effects on the respondents. Cruel parents who inflict physical injuries garnered a weighted mean of 2.54, too many home chores 2.53, lack of attention from parents 2.51, pressure from parents with high expectation 2.58, indicated to have a slight effect on student which means that it has a mild effect on the behavior of Grade 7 students.

Grade 8 students showed to have a very serious effect for the lack of privacy (no room of his own) with a weighted mean of 4.47. The interpretation very serious means that the social factors have an extreme effect on the behavior of the respondents. Cruel parents who inflict physical injuries gained a weighted mean of 3.78, mother and father deprivation due to work abroad 4.13, and pressure from parents with high of expectation 3.44 shows a serious effect. Those who came from broken home and separated parents rated this indicator with a weighted mean of 2.64, overprotectiveness of parents 2.80, spoiled by grandparents 2.92, lack of love and care 2.61 and frequent quarrel 2.64 shows moderate effect. Poor parental guidance garnered 1.86, quarrel with siblings 1.89 have a slight effect, too many home chores 1.00, lack of attention from parents 1.24 have no effect on their behavior.

Results proved that the social factor “lack of privacy” has the highest weighted mean of 4.47. This is not surprising because the respondents are in their social adjustment stage and transition period which means they are socially inclined to mingle but they also want to be alone want to be alone in their room at home to process their adjustment problems.

Third year level students considered broken homes/parents are separated as strong factors with a weighted mean of 4.86, and frequent quarrels between parents is noted 4.76 interpreted as serious effect. Cruel parents who inflict physical injuries is rated 3.40 interpreted as serious effect. Lack of privacy (no room of his own) obtained a weighted mean of 3.19, spoiled by grandparents 2.89, lack of attention from parents 2.19, pressure from parents with high expectation 2.69, and lack of love and care 2.83 to have moderate effect. The indicator too many home chores got a weighted mean of 2.13 on slight effect, poor parental guidance 1.51, overprotectiveness of parents 1.00, and quarrel with siblings 1.13 have no effect on the behavior of third year level.

Fourth year level students indicated to have broken homes/parents are separated got a weighted mean of 3.81, cruel parents who inflict physical injuries 2.91, frequent quarrels between parents 3.16, poor parental guidance 2.64, too many home chores 2.86, overprotectiveness of parents 2.88, quarrel with siblings 3.22, lack of privacy (no room of his own) 2.82, spoiled by grandparents 2.92 and pressure from parents with high expectation 2.86 have a moderate effect, while lack of attention from parents 2.22, and lack of love and care 2.35 have slight effect on the behavior of fourth year students.

It revealed that grade 7 students obtained a weighted mean of 2.87, grade 8 2.72, third year 2.67, and fourth year 2.89 social factors (home) have moderate effect to their behavior. This implies that social factors are not serious factors as reasons of behavioral problems among students.

The findings imply that it is not uncommon for students in a broken home situation to have behavioral issues to school. The first teacher in every child’s life is his parents. Students with parents who nurture learning in a positive encouraging way have a better chance of succeeding in school. Frequent quarrels between parents affect student’s motivation in their studies. They also tend not to accomplish their works during laboratory hours, disobey teacher, display nervousness and speaking foul and vulgar language. Negative parenting is evitable in enabling poor child behavior.

Results showed that for grade 7 level the following school factors have moderate effect on their behavior: boring lessons with a weighted mean of 3.11, difficult lessons 2.60, dislikes teachers 2.84, afraid of teachers 2.65, inconsiderate teachers 2.64, unapproachable school staff 2.76, and disruption of study 3.12. This implies that the school factors have average effects on the students’ behavior. Other factors such as inadequate school facilities obtained a weighted mean of 3.00, strict teachers 2.47, teacher favoritism 2.42, classroom not conducive to learning 2.46 and too short break time 2.56 were verbally interpreted to have slight effect which means that there is a very slight effect on their behavior.

Grade 8 level assessed school factors have very serious effects especially difficult lesson with a weighted mean of 4.37 and to short of break time 7.99. The verbal description of “very serious” means it has an extreme effect on their behavior. They have a serious effect on dislikes teachers with a weighted mean of 3.50 and inadequate school facilities 3.89 which means that it has a great or remarkable effect on their behavior. While other factor such as boring lessons got a weighted mean of 2.80, afraid of teachers 3.28, classroom not conducive to learning 2.86 and disruption of study 3.00 were found to have a moderate effect. It means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Strict teachers got a weighted mean of 2.35 and unapproachable school staff 2.00, were found to have a slight effect. It only means that it has a very small effect on their behavior. Showing no effect is teacher’s favoritism which got a weighted mean of 1.00 and inconsiderate teacher 1.35, which means that it has nothing to do with the behavior of grade 8 students.

Third year level students are seriously effected on difficult lessons with a weighted mean of 3.56, and too short break time, 3.46. While those who dislike teachers got a weighted mean of 2.88, afraid of teachers, 3.39, inadequate school facilities, 2.76, and disruption of study, 2.78, have a moderate effect. Those that have slight effect are the following; boring lessons got a weighted mean of 2.54, strict teachers 2.56, teacher favoritism 1.98, classrooms not conducive to learning 2.54, and unapproachable school staff 2.46 and inconsiderate teacher 2.32.

Fourth tear level indicated to have a moderate effect on the following; boring lessons got a weighted mean of 3.20, difficult lessons 2.63, dislikes teachers 2.81, afraid of teachers 2.81, inadequate school facilities 2.93, unapproachable school staff 2.63, and disruption of study 2.82. Strict teachers obtained a weighted mean of 2.56, inconsiderate teachers 2.64, teacher favoritism 1.98, classroom not conducive to learning 2.54, and too short break time 3.26 has a slight effect on the behavior of fourth year students.

Grade 7 got a weighted mean of 2.68, Grade 8 2.94, Third year 2.78 and fourth year 2.79 indicated to have a moderate effect based on their weighted mean and adjectival rating which means that social factors such as school has an average effect on their behavior.

This research interview revealed that school factors can contribute to students’ behavioral problems. A student who dislikes a teacher’s way of teaching a managing classroom usually tends to cut classes, he/she stays away from the classroom during class hour for considerable length of time and comes back when his/her teacher has left the classroom. Difficult and boring lesson is one of the reasons for them to cheat, refuse to carry out instruction and by not doing assignments, projects and laboratory work. These problems influence intellectual and academic standing of students. Teachers should keep in mind that education is not a “one size fits all” proposition.

Results indicated that grade 7 level in community was found to have a moderate effect on the following; exposure to community problems got a weighted mean of 3.05, populated and crowded place 2.66, poor sanitation and hygiene 3.07, and peer pressure 3.06. Unpleasant neighborhood got a weighted mean of 2.28, house is very far from school 2.37, lack of recreational facilities, 3.95, and house is very far from school 2.37, lack of recreational facilities 2.30, and peace and order not stable 2.40, showed a slight effect on the behavior of grade 7 level.

Grade 8 levels shows to be very seriously affected by peer pressure with a weighted mean of 4.89 which means that it has an extreme effect on their behavior, lack of recreational facilities, 3.95, and house is very far from school 4.12, show serious effects. It means that it has a great or remarkable effect on the behavior of the respondents. Other factors such as exposure to community problems got a weighted mean of 2.12, unpleasant neighborhood 2.10, and poor sanitation and hygiene 2.00 has a slight effect. It only means that it has a very small effect on their behavior. Showing no effect are: peace and order not stable obtained a weighted mean of 1.05, populated and crowded place 1.00, which means that it has nothing to do on the behavior of grade 8 level.

Third year level shows to have a moderate effect on the following; peer pressure with a weighted mean of 3.25, exposure to community problems 3.21, unpleasant neighborhood 3.18, poor sanitation and hygiene 3.16, peace and order not stable 2.88, populated and crowded place 2.71. Other factors such as house are very far from school got a weighted mean of 2.27, and lack of recreational facilities 2.49 show a slight effect.

Fourth year level indicated to have a moderate effect on all community factors such as exposure to community problems with a weighted mean of 2.98, unpleasant neighborhood 2.79, lack of recreational facilities 2.60, peace and order not stable 2.80, populated and crowded place 2.86 and peer pressure 4.92, while house is very far from school got a weighted mean of 2.27 shows to have a slight effect on the behavior of fourth year level.

Results indicated that grade 7, grade 8, third year and fourth year are moderately affected by social factors such as community which has a moderate effect on their behavior with weighted mean of 2.64, 2.65, 2.94 and 2.74 respectively. These social factors are not significant and serious as far as normal behavior is concerned.

Psychiatrists attribute the power of peer pressure on a child’s growing desire to fit in to a group particularly if the group has a social status within the school. School – age children spend most of their time surrounded by their peers. Classmates, teammates and fellow club members far outnumber the adults in students’ lives. Peer pressure can become a formidable influence in the lives of children in grades two through twelve. Socialization is the drive for acceptance that encourages students to imitate their peers and join groups, from clubs to cliques to gangs. Students want to belong somewhere.

Social factors such as Media/Television and technology have moderate effect on the Grade 7 level students. These are: Using cellphone, laptop, ipod, tablet, iphone 3.06, exposure to adult books, magazine, newspapers and violent T.V. series 3.19, and exposure to pornographic materials 2.80 shows slight effect on their behavior.

Grade 7 level shows to have a serious effect on using cellphone, laptop, iPod, tablet, iPhone etc. with a weighted mean of 3.93, which only means that it has a great or remarkable effect on their behavior. Moderate effect indicated on exposure to pornographic materials got a weighted mean of 2.60 which means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Exposure to adult books, magazine, newspapers and violent T.V series 2.16 shows slight effect and exposure to computer games WM = 1.00 shows no effect on them.

Third year level students are seriously affected on using cellphone, laptop, iPod, tablet, iPhone with weighted mean of 3.62, exposure to adult books, magazine, newspapers and violent T.V series obtained 3.58 and exposure to computer games 3.56. It only means that it has a great or remarkable effect on their behavior. Moderate effect indicated on exposure to pornographic materials with a weighted mean of 3.21 which means that it has an average effect on their behavior.

Fourth year level shows to have a moderate effect on exposure to adult books, magazine, newspapers and violent T.V. series got a weighted mean of 3.02, and exposure to computer games 2.67, exposure to pornographic materials 2.83, it only means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Slight effect indicated on using cellphone, laptop, ipod, tablet, iphone etc. with a weighted mean of 2.59, which means that it has a very small effect on their behavior.

Grade 7 obtained a weighted mean of 2.97, grade 8 2.42, third year 3.49 and fourth year 2.78 level shows that social factors such as media/television/technology have a moderate effect on their behavior.

Social factors such as home, school, community, media/television and technology proved that it greatly influence the behavior of grade 7, grade 8, third year and fourth year level.

Students encounter violence in their daily lives through television news, cartoons, sports and games.

For better or worse, the mass media are having an enormous impact on our student’s values, beliefs, and behavior. Unfortunately, the consequence of one particular common element of the electronic mass media has a particularly detrimental effect on student’s well-being.

One of the behavioral problems which the researcher sought an answer to is students who are sexually motivated. Observation and interview revealed that constant watching of pornographic sites and reading adult books and magazine caused them to touch private parts of their classmates. Correspondingly, the recent increase in the use of mobile phones, text messaging, e – mail, and chat rooms by our youth have opened new venues for social interaction in which aggression can occur and youth can be victimized. There are also causes of students watching pornographic videos using cellphone while in class. It is now not just kids in bad neighborhoods or with bad friends who are likely to be exposed to bad things when they go out on the street.

4.4. Spiritual Factors

Grade 7 level below indicated that having faith in God garnered a weighted mean of 2.82, attending church 2.61, reading the bible 2.80, attending retreat or resurrection 3.07, belong in any religious or spiritual group or organization 2.69 are verbally interpreted to have a moderate effect on students behavior. It means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Active in any religious group got a weighted mean of 2.46 and fasting 2.34 indicated a slight effect on student behavioral problems which means that it has a very small effect on their behavior.

Grade 8 level shows that reading the Bible with a weighted mean of 3.73 has a serious effect; it has a great or remarkable effect on their behavior. Having faith in God obtained a weighted mean of 3.72, attending church 2.65, fasting 2.87 is verbally interpreted to have a moderate effect on student’s behavior. Lack of moral values got a weighted mean of 2.24, praying 2.56, belong to any religious or spiritual group or organization 2.11, and attending retreat 2.49 indicated a slight effect on student behavioral problems which means that it has a very small effect on their behavior. Active in any religious group garnered a weighted mean of 1.00 shows no effect which means that it has nothing to do with their behavior.

Third year level indicated that attending retreat got a weighted mean of 3.46 means to have a serious effect, it has a great or remarkable effect on their behavior. Having faith in God got a weighted mean of 2.90, reading the bible 2.97, attending church 2.72, fasting 2.76, lack of normal values 2.92, praying 3.13, belong in any religious or spiritual group or organization 2.99, and active in any religious group 3.32 is verbally interpreted to have a moderate effect on students behavior. It means that it has an average effect on their behavior.

Fourth year level indicated that attending retreat obtained a weighted mean of 3.07, reading bible 2.88, attending church 2.61, lack of moral values 2.79, praying 2.87, belong in any religious or spiritual group or organization 2.71, and are verbally interpreted to have a moderate effect on students behavior. It means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Having faith in God got a weighted mean of 2.48, active in any religious group 2.33, and fasting 2.09 are verbally interpreted to have a slight effect on them. It means that it has a very small effect on their behavior.

4.5. Economic Factors

Grade 7 level shows data to have a very serious effect on low family income with a weighted mean of 4.23. It means that it has an extreme effect on their behavior. Lack of allowance got a weighted mean of 4.10 shows a serious effect which means that it has a great or remarkable effect on them. Poor health obtained a weighted mean of 2.99, and clothing deprivation of 2.82 have a moderate effect. It means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Doesn’t have their own house got a weighted mean of 1.90, and food deprivation 2.56 showed a slight effect on them. Poor nutrition garnered a weighted mean of 1.55 and too much allowance 1.05 shows to have no effect which means that it has nothing to do with their behavior.

Grade 8 level indicated below to have a serious effect on “doesn’t have their own house” with a weighted mean of 3.78, and poor nutrition 3.52 which means that it has a great or remarkable effect on their behavior. Low family income with a weighted mean of 3.20 has a moderate effect. It means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Lack of allowance obtained a weighted mean of 2.54, poor health 2.58, and clothing deprivation 2.05 and food deprivation 2.19 showed a slight effect on them. Too much allowance got a weighted mean of 1.54 shows to have no effect which means that it has nothing to do on their behavior.

Third year level indicated to have a moderate effect on doesn’t have their own house got a weighted mean of 2.99, poor nutrition 2.94, low family income 3.24, lack of allowance 3.19, and too much allowance 2.98. It means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Poor health obtained a weighted mean of 2.85, clothing deprivation 2.05, and food deprivation 2.19 showed a slight effect on the behavior of third year students. It means that it has a very small effect on their behavior.

Fourth year level shows to have a serious effect on lack of allowance with a weighted mean of 3.45 which means that it has a great or remarkable effect on their behavior. Doesn’t have their own house got a weighted mean of 2.65, poor nutrition 2.94, low family income 3.28, clothing deprivation 3.07, and poor health 3.34, have a moderate effect. It means that it has an average effect on their behavior. Food deprivation obtained a weighted mean of 2.19 showed a slight effect on them. Too much allowance garnered a weighted mean of 1.54 shows to have no effect which means that it has nothing to do on fourth year behavior.

Socio – economic status of a family plays a role in a student’s behavior. There are numerous educational advantages for children from well – to – do families, even though they may have behavioral issues in school. It is, however, more likely that a child who lives in poverty or in the lower end of the middle – class will repeat a grade, be suspended or may be expelled or dropped out from school. Poverty has an impact on children’s lives, development, and behavior. Low – income families may experience higher levels of stress. Stress has been found to negatively impact children’s development and behavior.

This research interview revealed that students in lower economic communities are more likely to exhibit behavior – related problems because they feel as if they do not belong. These feelings of loneliness and inadequacy often influence the decision to drop out for many students in Cabiao National High School.

4.6. Psychological Factors

As per item analysis in Grade 7 level above, moderate effect showed in the following: anxiety with a weighted mean of 3.06, low self – esteem 2.83, insecurity 3.31, and depression 2.88 which means that it has an average effect on them, while stress got a weighted mean of 2.66 showed a slight effect on them which means that it has a very small effect on the behavior of grade 7 students.

Grade 8 level revealed a serious effect on stress with a weighted mean of 3.49. Anxiety got a weighted mean of 3.37 have a moderate effect which means that it has an average effect on them. Low self – esteem obtained a weighted mean of 2.02 and depression 1.96 showed a slight effect which means that it has a very small effect on their behavior while insecurity which garnered a weighted mean of 1.68 has no effect on the behavior of grade 8 level.

Third year level indicated above have a moderate effect on stress with a weighted mean of 2.68, anxiety 2.98, low self –esteem 2.95, and insecurity 3.20 which means that it has an average effect on them. While depression got a weighted mean of 2.54 which showed a slight effect which means that it has a very small effect on the behavior of third year level.

Fourth year level shows to have a moderate effect on anxiety with a weighted mean of 3.12 and low self – esteem 2.74 which means that it has an average effect on their behavior. While depression got a weighted mean of 2.57, stress 1.91, and insecurity 2.44 showed a slight effect which means that it has a very small effect on the behavior of fourth year level.

It revealed that grade 7 obtained a weighted mean of 2.93, third year 2.87 level shows that psychological factors have a moderate effect on their behavior. It only means that it has an average effect on the behavior of grade 7 and third year. While grade 8 got a weighted mean of 2.50 and fourth year 2.55, level shows that psychological factors such as depression, anxiety, stress, low self –esteem and insecurity have a slight effect on their behavior. It only means that psychological factors have a very little effect on the behavior of grade 8 and fourth year level.

The computed grand weighted mean was 2.75, interpreted as moderate effect. This simply indicates that such factors as personal obtained a weighted mean of 2.71, emotional 2.74, social 2.80, economic 2.79, spiritual 2.73, and psychological 2.71 have moderately effect on their behavioral problems. But the fact that it can cause behavioral problems is more than enough for the teacher, school administrator, guidance counselors, parents and the community to work hand in hand to help, guide and understand the youth.

This research found out that student experience with peers, teachers, family members and neighborhood exerts a much greater influence on their behavior. This process starts with students’ core relationships with parents or primary caregivers in their lives, which form a personality that is either secure and attached or insecure and unattached.

Once students are in school, the dual factors of socialization and social status contribute significantly to behavior. The school socialization process typically pressures students to be like their peers or risk social rejection, whereas the quest for high social status drives students to attempt to differentiate themselves in some areas – sports, personal style, sense of humor, or street skills for example.

Socioeconomic status forms a huge part of this equation. Student’s raised in poverty rarely choose to behave differently, but they are faced daily with overwhelming challenges that affluent children never have to confront, and their brains have adapted to suboptimal conditions in ways that undermine good school performance. Lower income students lead to school absences and tardiness.

Personal factors are shown to have an F – value of 0.121 and P – value of 0.947 which is less than F – critical of 2.839 for which, it is interpreted as not significant. Personal factors are not significant factors in disrupting normal behavior of the respondents.

Emotional factors indicated to have an F – value of 0.409 and P – value of 0.749, which is less than F – critical of 3.239 and interpreted to be not significant. Under emotional is anxious that has an F – value of 0.305 and P – value of 0.821, which is less than its F – critical 3.490 which is interpreted as not significant, “ashamed” has an F – value of 0.995 and P – value of 0.428, which is less than F – critical of 3.490 and interpreted to be not significant, “mad” has an F value of 0.295 and  P value 0.829, which is less than F critical of 3.098 and interpreted as not significant, “sad” has an F value of 2.165 and P value of 0.124 and F critical 3.098 and interpreted as not significant, “glad” shows F value of 1.297 and P value of 0.340 which is less than the F critical of 4.066 and interpreted as not significant. Emotional factors are interpreted as not significant to the behavioral problems of the students.

Social factors have an F value of 1.102 and P value of 0.386, which is less than F critical of 3.490 and interpreted as not significant, home factor has an F value of 0.220 and P value of 0.882, which is less than F critical of 2.798 interpreted as not significant, school factor has an F value of 0.472 and P value of 0.703, which is less than its F critical of 2.816 and interpreted as not significant, community factor has an F value of 0.257 and P value of 0.856, which is less than F critical of 2.947 and interpreted as not significant, media/television/technology have its F value of 1.979 and P value of 0.171, which is less than its F critical of 3.490 and interpreted as not significant. Social factors are not significant to the behavioral condition of the respondents.

“Spiritual” has its F value of 1.693 and P value of 0.188, which is less than to its F critical of 2.901 and is verbally interpreted as not significant. Economic has its F value of 0.303 and P value of 0.823, which is less than its F critical of 2.947 and interpreted as not significant. Psychological has its F value of 0.854 and P value of 0.485 which is less than F critical of 3.239 and interpreted as not significant.

Spiritual factors are not significant as far as normal behavior concerned.

There is no significant difference between factors that contribute to the behavioral problems of Social Studies students in terms of personal, emotional, social, spiritual, economic and psychological factors when compared according to their grade/year levels. The respondents are in their significant and critical years of development. Their ages are not very distant or different, which implies that their personal, emotional and other crises are almost similar and there is not much difference regardless of their grade and year level.

5. CONCLUSION

The students manifest serious or intense aggressive, delinquent, withdrawing and noncompliant behaviors due to social and economic factors that largely contribute to the students’ behavioral condition. Personal, emotional, social, spiritual, economic and psychological factors sometimes caused behavioral problems and showed moderate effect on students’ behavior. There is no significant difference between factors that contribute to the behavioral problems of Social Studies students in personal, emotional, social, spiritual, economic and psychological factors.

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to acknowledge all persons whom I indebted their valuable contributions. The University Administrators who gave permission to conduct the study. The respondents who gave their full support until the last moment of my leg work. My assistant, Arvin Angelo I. Cabico, College of Education, my colleagues, and respondents who are in one way or the other helped me in this endeavor.

REFERENCES

Bradshaw, C.P., A.L. Sawyer and L.M. O'Brennan, 2007. Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 36(3): 361-382.

Haggerty, K.P., A. McGlynn-Wright and T. Klima, 2013. Promising parenting programmes for reducing adolescent problem behaviours. Journal of Children's Services, 8(4): 229-243. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/jcs-04-2013-0016.

Lansbury, J., 2010. No bad kids – toddler discipline without shame. Available from https:// www.janetlansbury.com/2010/04/no-bad-kids-toddler-discipline-without-shame-9-guidelines/.

Lehr, C.A. and J. McComas, 2005. Students with emotional/behavioral disorders: Promoting positive outcomes. Impact: Feature Issue on Fostering Success in School and Beyond for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(2).

Stain, E., 2012. The ethos of women's profession. Available from https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1939272017.

Wong, K.S., 2012. Inside the mind of a bully. Olweus bullying prevention program. Available from http://www.pactforfamilies.org/Media/1229201515213Inside%20the%20Mind%20of%20Bully.pdf.

About the Authors

Bernardo A. Zabala Jr
Associate Professor 5, Head, Extension Services/ Guidance Counsellor, Graduate School/College of Nursing, Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology, Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Claire Ann Zabala Penol
Guidance Coordinator/ Teacher, Cabiao National High School, Cabiao Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Corresponding Authors

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