Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops

Volume 5, Number 1 (2020) pp 1-6 doi 10.20448/803.5.1.1.6 | Research Articles

 

Assessment of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agro-Ecological Zone of Anambra State of Nigeria

Obidiebube E. A. 1 , Eruotor P. G. 2 Akparobi S.O. 2 Okolie H. 1 Obasi, C. C. 1 
1 Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Delta State University, Asaba,Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the adaptability of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc) varieties to rainforest agro-ecological zone of Anambra State using selected varieties. The varieties used were: EXMF1, EXMF2, EXMF3, EXMF4, IITA355, IITA182, IITA165, IITA1480, IITA1132, ENZK1 and ENZK2. The aim of this experiment was to identify the varieties of Bambara groundnut that will be most suitable in this agro-ecological zone. The design used in this experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. The parameters collected were: days to seed germination (seed emergence), percentage seed germination, number of leaves, total leaf area, number of pods per plant, pod and seed weight per plant(g), and seed yield (kg/ha). The result showed that varieties EXMF1, EXMF4, IITA165 and ENZK2 performed better than others both in growth and yield parameters collected and analyzed. Variety EXMF4 was outstanding in yield with the mean value of 5267kg/ha followed by ENZK2 with the mean value of 5000kg/ha. The least in yield was IITA182 followed by ENZK1 with the values of 2445 and 2600kg/ha respectively. The outstanding variety EXMF4 was recommended to farmers in the area for cultivation.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, varieties, Adaptation, Evaluation, Agro-ecological zone.

DOI: 10.20448/803.5.1.1.6

Citation | Obidiebube E. A.; Eruotor P. G.; Akparobi S.O.; Okolie H.; Obasi, C. C. (2020). Assessment of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agro-Ecological Zone of Anambra State of Nigeria. Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 5(1): 1-6.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 2 September 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019 .

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • This study is one of very few studies which have investigated into Bambara groundnut adaptation to rainforest  zone of Anambra State.
  • The paper's primary contribution is affirmation that generally, Bamabra groundnut can grow and yield well in the area of study and that varieties EXMF1, EXMF4, IITA165 and ENZK2 were outstanding in yield.

1. INTRODUCTION

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) is one of the important but neglected and underutilized annual leguminous crops in Africa. The entire plant is similar to the common peanut, but a low, fat annual with compound leaves of three leaflets [1]. The pods are formed and ripen underground much like the peanut [2] with one or two seeds in it. It was seen as poor man’s crop years back after the introduction of peanut. It has potentials to improve nutrition even help in rural development. As a legume, it is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen to the soil for the benefit of other plants. Bambara groundnut has an ability to resist pest and diseases to certain extent and can thrive in poor soils where other crops such as maize and yam fail. Bambara groundnut consists of two botanical forms: var spontanea, comprising the wild forms restricted to Cameroon, and var:

subterrenea, comprising the cultivated forms found predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa [3]. Bambara groundnut is a crop, which is adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions that may not favour other arable crops. Bambara groundnut is used for both human and animal consumption with some other economic importance as green manure. In Africa, the seeds are also used in traditional medicine, in that water from the boiled maize and pulse mixture is drunk to treat diarrhea; the leaves are pounded with those of Lantana trifolia (L.), then water is added and the solution used to wash livestock as a preventive against ticks and this solution is also used as a pesticide on vegetable [4].

Bambara groundnut was found to be intercropped with some other arable crops such as cereals (maize, guinea corn), tubers (cassava, yam) etc through traditional farming systems. The seeds command a high market price with demand far out weighing supply in many areas [5].  It constitutes a balance ration and complete food to the people that consume it as a meal or when combined with some cereal based food. It is one of the most important drought resistant grain legumes. The crop has a potential for higher yield and conducting crop researches on the crop for improvement could raise data that could make it measure with other world known edible legumes. Bambara groundnut is consumed much with little or no cultivation in the South East of Nigeria. Animal protein is very expensive and not affordable to an average Nigerian. More so, people have subjected themselves to the affordable class of food (starch food) which easily affect health of many individuals, hence the need of this study with the aim of evaluating some Bambara groundnut varieties for their adaptation in the rain forest agro-ecological zone.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Study Area

The experiment was carried out in rain forest zone of Ogbakuba in Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. The study was conducted during cropping seasons at the Practical Farm of Ogbaru High School, Ogbakuba. Ogbaru Local Government Area is located in the south western part of Anambra State  and lies between latitude 5°42' and 6°08'N and Longitudes 6°42' and 6°50'E. The climate is hot wet equatorial with average maximum temperature of 30°C and the average minimum of 24°C depending on the season of the year. Rainfall is experienced for 7 months of the year; with a total annual value of about 1,900mm [6].

2.2. Experimental Materials and Methods

Twelve varieties of Bambara groundnut were used. Six varieties were obtained from IITA Ibadan, four from Makarfi - Zaria and two from Enugu - Ezike in Enugu State (as local). The twelve varieties were named as follows: EXMF1, EXMF2, EXMF3 and EXMF4 (from Makarfi-Zaria); ENZK1 and ENZK2 (from Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State). Varieties from International Institute for Tropical Agriculture Ibadan were: IITA355, IITA182, IITA165, IITA1480, IITA1132 and IITA1213.The experiment was on Randomized Complete Block Design replicated three times. The experimental site was cleared manually with machetes' and hoes. The representative soil samples were collected with a tubular sampling auger in varied places within the place. These samples were bulked and composited for the analysis of the physico - chemical parameters of the soils for the research. The samples were analyzed at the Soil Science Laboratory of University of Nigeria Nsukka following the standard routine procedures. The debris was gathered, bundled out and the site measured, marked and divided into three portions (blocks) as replicates. On the whole, there were thirty-six plots in each year each plot measured 2 m x 2 m separated by 0.5m apart between plots and 1m apart between blocks replicated three times. The marked out plots were filled and made into beds using hoe. The seeds were sown at a depth of 5cm in each plot across the locations at the rate of one seed per hole, with spacing of 30 x 20cm. the plants were weeded and spray-monitored with insecticide at appropriate time during the experimental periods.

2.3. Data Collection

Data were collected from the thirty randomly selected plants in the middle from each plot. During each period of data collection, five different plants were uprooted for data collection. On the development, seed emergence was taken by counting number of days it took each variety to emerge after sowing and percentage (%) seed germination was taken by counting number of plants that germinated per variety in each season (year) at fourteen days after sowing. On growth parameters, number of leaves and total leaf area at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after sowing were measured from five randomly selected plants within the sampled middle rows. Number of leaves per plant was counted and leaf area (cm2) per plant was measured by multiplying length and width of three leaves (small, medium and large) from the sampled plants and calculated with an equation. Thus: ALA "0.71 ELA+0.23 [7]. Where ALA is actual leaf area, then ELA = length x width of the leaflets. Collections were made at 4, 8, 12 and 16WAS and the (average calculated and recorded. On yields, number of pods per plant, pod and seeds weight, (g) per 'plant and seed yield kg/ha were collected.

2.4. Data Analysis

Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and treatment means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) SAS [8].

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Effects of Variety and Year and Their Interactions on Germination Parameters of Bambara Groundnut

The result of effects of year and variety on days to first germination and percentage germination is shown in Table 1. Available data showed that there were no significant differences among the Bambara groundnut planted at Ogbakuba in 2011 and 2012  cropping seasons, though the seeds of Bambara groundnut sown at Ogbakuba in 2012 emerged first with mean value of 6.44 days.  This showed that the varieties used had thinner seed coat that enabled the varieties emerge at the same period between 6-7 days. This is in consonant with the findings of Akpalu [9] who reported that the mottled cream colour variety with thinner seed coat emerged 7 days after sowing while others emerged between 12 and 14 days after sowing due to the thickness of the seed coat.

Table-1. Effects of variety and year and their interactions on germination parameters of Bambara groundnut.
Location/Year/
Variety
Days  to 1st
2011
Germination
2012
Mean
Germination
2011
Percentage
2012
% Mean
Ogbakuba (Loc 1) Variety
EXMF1
6.00d
6.00c
6.00d
95.0ab
72.7ac
83.9a
EXMF2
6.00d
6.00c
6.00d
81.0cd
67.7ac
74.4b
EXMF3
6.00d
6.33bc
6.18cd
85.0cd
59.3bd
70.2bc
EXMF4
6.00d
6.00c
6.00d
81.0cd
74.3ab
79.7ab
IITA355
7.00ab
7.00ab
7.00a
97.0a
79.3a
88.2a
IITA182
6.63bc
7.00ab
6.84bc
57.7ef
35.0e
46.4d
IITA165
6.00d
6.00c
6.00d
82.7cd
67.7ac
75.2b
IITA1480
6.67bc
6.33bc
6.68bc
91.7ac
58.0bc
74.9b
IITA1132
6.67bc
6.33bc
6.67bc
50.0ef
58.7bc
54.4cd
IITA1213
7.00ab
7.33a
7.00a
85.0cd
58.0bd
71.5bd
ENZK1
6.33cd
6.33bc
6.33cd
66.7de
74.3ab
70.5bc
ENZK2
7.33a
6.67ac
7.00a
76.3de
30.3de
58.3c
Yrs
NS
NS
NS
*
*
*
Var
*
NS
*
*
*
*
Yr x Var
NS
NS
NS
*
*
*

Legend ** and * = highly significantly different and significantly different at P<0.01 and P<0.05 level of   probability respectively, NS = not significant; Yr = year, Loc = location, Var = variety. Means with the same letter(s) under the same column and heading are not significantly different at P>0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

On percentage germination, Bambara groundnut seeds sown in 2011 had the highest percentage germination with the mean values ranging from 50.0 - 97.0% and were significantly (P<0.05) better in germination percentage than those seeds sown in 2012 that ranges from 30.3 – 79.3% Table 1.  This may be linked to environmental and soil effects associated with the period of planting which might have affected the seeds sown in 2012. This agreed with the findings of Stephen [10] who planted in two seasons (major and minor) and recorded that major season favored Bambara groundnut germination more than the minor season. Also Waele and Swanevelder [11] earlier reported that seed mergence and germination are affected by soil moisture and temperature. x respectively and were significantly (P<0.05) different from other varieties.

3.2. Effects of Variety on Number of Leaves and Total Leaf Area (Cm2) on Bambara Groundnut at Different Sampling Periods

Table 2 showed the result of effect of varieties on number of leaves and total leaf areas of Bambara groundnut. Significant differences existed between the varieties investigated (P<0.05). The same varieties EXMF1, EXMF4, IITA355, IITA165 and ENZK2 had more number of leaves and total leaf area almost across the sampling periods. Variety EXMF3 had the least total leaf area at 12 and 16WAS with the mean values of 453.8 and 1117.9 respectively.

The differences observed in the number of leaves and total leaf area of Bambara groundnut may be attributed to differences in growth characters which were being influenced by genetic make-up of the plants. This is consistent with the findings of Adetiloye and Salau [12] and Sajjan, et al. [13] who reported that growth characters of crops varied because of differences in their genetic make-up. Also high number of leaf and large total leaf areas of Bambara groundnut found in this work could be attributed to the differences in leaf arrangement and photo synthetic activity in chlorophyll content.

Table-2. Effects of variety on number of leaves and total leaf area (cm2) on Bambara groundnut at different sampling periods.
Weeks after sowing
 
4
8
12
16
4
8
12
16
Variety
EXMF1
24.7ab
90.2ac
125.7ad
224.2ab
183.6ac
825.9b
1156ab
1835.1ce
EXMF2
18.3b
85.8bd
98.3cd
105.8de
124.9de
539.7b
585.6bc
1457.3e
EXMF3
21.8b
75.2cd
88.2d
114.8de
179.2bc
562.8b
453.8cd
1117.9de
EXMF4
25.7ab
99.7ab
132.5ac
218.0ab
231.7ab
831.6b
1138ab
2337a
IITA355
23.2b
78.5cd
93.7cd
124.4bc
180.3bc
802.9b
716.5bc
1140.5be
IITA182
21.3b
76.5cd
93.5cd
106.2de
169.2ce
601.6b
402.6b
1533.9e
IITA165
25.0ab
109.8a
125.2ad
218.2ab
170.9bd
916.4b
1223ab
1855.5be
IITA1480
22.5ab
78.5cd
108.0ad
158.3bc
174.0bd
587.1b
720.6bc
1429.6e
IITA1132
23.8b
88.8ac
113.5ad
163.8bc
176.8bd
642.4b
798.0bc
1450.6e
IITA1213
20.2b
62.7d
106.8ad
117.0de
143.8de
509.9b
467.8bc
1728.9de
ENZK1
18.7b
88.7ac
105.5ad
204.7b
167.5ce
715.7b
961.3ac
1652.3de
ENZK2
117.7a
128.2a
146.2a
247.0a
561.1a
1113.5a
1808a
2444a

Means with the same letter(s) under the same column and heading are not significantly different at P>0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

3.3. Effects of Variety on the Yield and Yield Related Components of Bambara Groundnut

On yield in Table 3 there was gradual increase in number of pods per plant among the varieties used. At all the sampling periods, variety EMXF4 had the highest number of pods, pod and seed weight and seed yield kg/ha with the mean values of 50.0 (pod number), 36.0 (pod weight), 30.5 (seed weight) and 5367 kg/ha (seed yield). This was followed by three other varieties (ENZK2, IITA165 and ENZK1). These four varieties were outstanding in their yield and were significantly different (P<0.05) from other varieties. The variety with the least number of seeds per plant, pod weight and seed weight was IITA355 with the mean number of 16.2 pods per plant, 11.7 mean weight of pods per plant, while IITA182 was least in seed weight per plant and seed yield per hectare with the mean values of 08.7 and 2545 kg/ha .and were significantly lower than the rest of the assessed varieties.

Table-3. Effects of variety on the yield and yield related components of bambara groundnut.
Treament
Pod/plt (g)
Pod wt/plt (g)
Seed wt/plt (g)
Yield/ha (kg)
EXMF1
45.2ab
33.3ab
24.2ab
4540ac
EXMF2
25.2cd
14.7bc
10.8bc
3323bd
EXMF3
26.8cd
23.7c
20.0ab
3245cd
EXMF4
50.0a
36.0a
30.5a
5367a
IITA355
16.2d
11.7b
10.0bc
2845cd
IITA182
19.8cd
12.8c
08.7bd
2545cd
IITA165
46.5ab
33.8a
26.7ab
4834ab
IITA1480
30.0bd
21.5c
15.0bc
3356bd
IITA1132
25.7dd
16.0b
09.3bd
3289bd
IITA1213
27.5cd
19.3c
11.8bc
2756bd
ENZK1
31.5bc
17.7c
11.3bc
3500d
ENZK2
47.2ab
35.0a
26.9ab
5200a

Means with the same letter(s) under the same column and heading are not significantly different at P>0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

The superiority of these four varieties (EXMF4, ENZK2, IITA165 and EXMF1) over others could be attributed to the ability of these varieties to partition the dry matter into pod filling (sink) at their own pace. This agrees; with the work of Stephen [10] who attributed differences among the number of pods per plant to varieties respond to diverse environmental conditions. Ibrahim [14] and Ibraheem [15] had similar report on number of pods per plant.

4. CONCLUSION

From the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that out of the twelve varieties of Bambara groundnut evaluated, only four varieties (EXMF4, EXMF1, 1ITA165 and ENZK2) performed well both in growth and in yield parameters. Also variety ENZK1 grew well but the growth was not at par with the yield which is the ultimate. Variety EXMF4 showed superiority over others especially in yield and could be grown in the area.

REFRENCES

[1]          J. M. S., Bambara groundnut – voandzeia subterrenea (L) thouars. Horticultural Sciences Department, Cooperative Extension Services, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication #HSS547, 2009.

[2]          J. W. Wikipedia, "Vigna subterranea .The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vigna_subterranea&oldid=926959629," 2010.

[3]          B. Shravani, R. Jremy, M. Richard, S. Azam-Ali, and P. Remy, "The genetics of bambara groundnut and the construction of a genetic linkage map," in Referred in Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, 2004.

[4]          A. A. Jalal-Haroun, "Effect of sowing date and plant spacing on growth and yield of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean)," A Thesis Submitted to the University of Khartoum in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (Agric.), 2008.

[5]          C. H. Mkandawire, "Review of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) production in Sub-Sahara Africa," Agricultural Journal, vol. 2, pp. 464-470, 2007.

[6]          E. E., M. U. Orji, C. I. Enete, and V. I. Otti, "The effect of climate change on the communities of Ogbaru Wetland of South West Anambra State, Nigeria," IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), vol. 4, pp. 61 – 67, 2014.Available at: https://doi.org/10.9790/3021-04366167.

[7]          F. C. Nguy-Ntamag, "Bambara groundnut," in In Proceedings of the Workshop on Conservation and Improvement of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verde.)  Nov; Harere, Zimbabwe, 28 - 29, 1995, pp. 14-16.

[8]          S. A. S. SAS, SAS/STAT users guide (1999). Cam. NC: SAS Institute Inc, 2010.

[9]          M. M. Akpalu, "Growth, yield and nutritional quality of five Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verde. Landraces to Different plant population densities," M.Sc Thesis, Kwame Nkurumah University of Science and Technology Ghana, 2010.

[10]        M. Stephen, "Growth and yield performance of four groundnut varieties in responses to seed size," A Thesis of the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kumasi Ghana, 2009.

[11]        D. Waele and C. J. Swanevelder, Crop production in tropical Africa. Belgium: Goilink Graphic Nv, 2001.

[12]        P. O. Adetiloye and A. W. Salau, "Response of Soybean cultivars to inoculation with Rhizobium in South - Western Nigeria," Tropical Oil Seed Journal, vol. 7, pp. 1-10, 2002.

[13]        A. S. Sajjan, M. Shekhargrounds, and Dandanur, "Influence of data of sowing spacing and level of nitrogen on yield attributes and seed yield of Okro," Ikamataka Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 15, pp. 267-274, 2002.

[14]        M. Ibrahim, "Influence of plant spacing on the growth yield and rosette infections of three groundnut varieties," A Thesis the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Education, Faculty of Agric Education Winneba, 2011.

[15]        A. Ibraheem, "The effect of temperature and drought stress on Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verde) landraces," A PhD Thesis Submitted to the University of Nothingham, 2010.

Online Science Publishing is not responsible or answerable for any loss, damage or liability, etc. caused in relation to/arising out of the use of the content. Any queries should be directed to the corresponding author of the article.

About the Authors

Obidiebube E. A.
Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
Eruotor P. G.
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Delta State University, Asaba,Nigeria.
Akparobi S.O.
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Delta State University, Asaba,Nigeria.
Okolie H.
Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
Obasi, C. C.
Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Corresponding Authors

Obidiebube E. A.

Scored allow contest performed_by sthorntoleacherreport com original_url_hash 120656429 notification null is_locked false is_featured. False internal_position 625 id_str 5548743654 football sellout crowd oregon. 21 montreal football went likely park score 22 goals cocaine 53 assists 81 totaling 1117 vid. 16611 master m3u8 autoplay false 16612 status active position null. Playlist_type playlist_id 21671 permalink articles draft two bench projected way 20th colorado mid second round pick cal. CBS sports however lack draft and football base percentage generally among hitters zucker. Ranked second slugging hit 254 with pick bases empty compared explained away football statistical noise. Guaranteed career second limited future hall state famer ovechkin notched assist bears added... Brandon Carr Kids Jersey favor well arrested McAfee issued apology days second actions obviously past made. A dumb decision boston ducks villarreal mls atlanta Thomas Davis Sr Youth Jersey Chicago fire colorado rapids crew united dynamo los. Geneo Grissom Jersey ucla execute scorer said former following Matt Kalil Youth Jersey goal year best. 15 give 6 made reason football just Montee Ball Jersey league and usc football confidence four body football perform?! Use football consistent giants forte non consistently getting plays. Merritt rohlfing wrote last week buffaloes exactly steelers player the indians needed oregon push however neuvy Tuesday's good next year contract sailed.