Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops

Volume 5, Number 1 (2020) pp 7-24 doi 10.20448/803.5.1.7.24 | Research Articles

 

Evaluation of Instant Pounded Yam Flour Produced from Yellow Yam (Dioscorea Cayenensis)

Olumurewa J. A. V. 1 , Alejolowo I. A. 1 
1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at determining the chemical, pasting, functional and organoleptic properties of instant pounded yam flour (IPYF) produced from Dioscorea cayenensis. Fresh yams obtained from a market in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, were peeled, washed, sliced to 2, 4 and 6 mm thicknesses with FUTA Slicer. A half portion was blanched at 90 °C and other at 100 °C for 10, 15 and 20 minutes, drained, dried using hot air oven at 60 °C and the dried chips were milled, sieved and package in white polythene bag. Control samples were prepared using Dioscorea rotundata. The samples were analysed for physicochemical, functional, pasting, minerals and organoleptic properties. All data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The result of the study showed that IPYF produced from Dioscorea cayenensis had significant higher values in all parameters than the once from Dioscorea rotundata, except in fat, dispersibility and organoleptic properties. It indicates that, Dioscorea cayenensis has good qualities than Dioscorea rotundata when processed to IPYF based on physicochemical, functional and pasting properties. IPYF of 4 mm at 100 oC for 10 minutes is recommended from yellow yam.

Keywords: Instant pounded yam flour, Yellow yam, White yam, Drying, Milling.

DOI: 10.20448/803.5.1.7.24

Citation | Olumurewa J. A. V.; Alejolowo I. A. (2020). Evaluation of Instant Pounded Yam Flour Produced from Yellow Yam (Dioscorea Cayenensis). Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 5(1): 7-24.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019 .

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • This study reports the potentials of using Dioscorea cayenensis for Instant pounded yam flour instead Dioscorea rotundata that is commonly used.
  • Dioscorea rotundata was found more suitable in terms of physicochemical, functional and pasting properties.

1. INTRODUCTION

More than six hundred species of yam tuber exist, but few are important as staple food in the tropics. According to Ike and Inoni [1] these include white yam (Dioscorea rotundata), yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), water yam (Dioscorea alata), trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum), aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) and Chinese yam (Dioscorea esculenta). Yam consists of high energy, protein and iron content, but low Calcium and Zinc. It also provides protein three times more superior than the one of cassava and sweet potato. Apart from food, yams are also sources of nutraceutical compounds like saponins and sapogenins, which are precursors of cortisone used medically in the treatment of arthritis and some allergies [2].

Yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis) is the major variety of yam produced in Southwest Nigeria mainly by traditional farmers [3-5] . Yam undergoes many challenges such as, high production cost, post-harvest losses and low yields. During its planting and growing seasons, yam is scarce and expensive because, it is a seasonal crop that is mostly available during the harvesting period [6-9] . Storage life of yam is limited to their dormancy period, after which it begins to sprout and quickly lose dietary value. Yams are eaten mostly as boiled, pounded yam and amala [10, 11].

Yam is processed into pounded yam; this is regarded as the Yoruba’s dough meal but eaten across tribes in Nigeria and Africa. It is made from cooked yam tubers by peeling fresh yam, boiling and pounding until a sticky elastic dough is formed. But, the perishability nature of yam due to its high moisture content suggests its low shelf life. Hence the need to process it into less perishable product like instant pounded yam flour (IPYF) [12]. IPYF is yam processed into flour by peeling, washing, cutting, blanching or boiling, drying, grinding into flour and then turned in boiling water to form a stiff dough meal. It is assessed for texture, which consists of smoothness, elasticity, consistency, stickiness and hardness [13].

According to Djeri, et al. [14] Dioscorea cayenensis has been relegated to the background as a result of traditional bias which fails to recognise its unique qualities: rich in carotene, possess high potential to elasticity when cook, a good property for acceptability of pounded yam and it is very adaptable to temperate region and highly resistant to drought [15, 16]. But it is more susceptible to deterioration than white yam. Therefore, according to Barau, et al. [17] converting it to IPYF after harvest will enable its better utilization and preservation.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Material Used for the Study

The yam species used for this study was yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis). The tubers were procured from a yam market in Akure. All chemicals were of analytical grade.

2.2. Experimental Design

The experimental design was carried out using general factorial design having three factors (thickness, parboiling temperature and parboiling time) (3×2×3) factorial which resulted to 18 samples Table 1.

2.3. Method Used for the Study

IPYF were processed using the production procedures as described by Olaoye and Oyewole [18]. It was processed by removing bruised yellow yam tubers, peeled, washed with water to remove debris and dirt, sliced using Federal University of Technology (FUTA) Slicer to 2, 4 and 6 mm thicknesses, parboiled at temperature of 90 and 100 °C for 10, 15 and 20 minutes, drained with sieve and dried using hot air oven at 60 °C. The dried chips were milled, sieved and packaged in polythene bags.

Table-1. Experimental design; varying thickness, temperature and time of parboiling.
Treatment
Material type
Code
Thickness
(mm)
Parboilin time (min)
Parboiling temperature (°C)
A1
Yellow yam
Y90-2-10
2
10
90
A2
Y90-2-15
2
15
90
A3
Y90-2-20
2
20
90
A4
Y100-2-10
2
10
100
A5
Y100-2-15
2
15
100
A6
Y100-2-20
2
20
100
B1
Yellow yam
Y90-4-10
4
10
90
B2
Y90-4-15
4
15
90
B3
Y90-4-20
4
20
90
B4
Y100-4-10
4
10
100
B5
Y100-4-15
4
15
100
B6
Y100-4-20
4
20
100
C1
Yellow yam
Y90-6-10
6
10
90
C2
Y90-6-15
6
15
90
C3
Y90-6-20
6
20
90
C4
Y100-6-10
6
10
100
C5
Y100-6-15
6
15
100
C6
Y100-2-20
6
20
100
CON
Commercial product
Control

Y90-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-4-15(pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-4-15 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes) and control (commercial product).

2.4. Analyses Carried Out

Determination of the Proximate Composition of IPYF: The proximate composition of the samples was determined using the standard procedures described by AOAC [19].                                           

2.5. Determination of the Physicochemical Properties of IPYF

2.5.1. pH Determination

The pH was determined by the method described by Akpapunam and Sefa-Dedeh [20] and Mbaeyi-Nwaoha and Onweluzo [21] where 10 g of the sample was dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water. The mixture was allowed to equilibrate for 3 minutes at room temperature. The pH was then determined by inserting the electrode of the pH meter in the sample then taking the result displayed on the pH meter.

2.5.2. Total Titratableacidity (TTA)

This was determined by the method described by AOAC [19]. The sample was dissolved in distilled water and mixed thoroughly.1 ml of phenolphthalein indicator was introduced nto10 ml of the mixed solution. It was titrated against standard sodium hydroxide solution until pink colour persisted for about10-15 seconds for complete neutralization.

2.5.3. Amylose and Amylopectin Content

The method of Hoover and Ratnayake [22] was used. It is a colorimetric method in which amylose forms starch iodine complex (dark blue colour) due to its high affinity for iodine. About 0.1 g of the flour sample was solubilized with 1 ml of 95% ethanol and 9 ml of 1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and heated in a boiling water bath for 10 min; 1 ml of the extract was made up to 10 ml with distilled water. To 0.5 ml of the diluted extract was added 0.1 ml I N acetic acid and 0.2 ml iodine solution (0.2 g Iodine+2.0 g KI in 100 ml of distilled water) to develop a dark blue colour. The coloured solution was made up to 10 ml with distilled water and allowed to stand for 20 min for complete colour development. The solution was vortexed and its absorbance was read on a spectrophotometer (Milton Roy Spectronic 601) at 620 nm. Absorbance of standard corn amylose with known amylose concentration was used to estimate the amylose content in the sample using Equation 1 as given below:

% Amylopectin was obtained by subtracting the amylose content from that of starch.

2.5.4. Carotenoids Concentration

Total carotenoids concentration (TCC) was determined by UV/Visible absorption spectrophotometry (uQuant, Biotech Instruments, USA), at absorbance of 450 nm and using the absorption coefficient of ß-carotene in petroleum ether (2592) [23, 24].

2.5.5. Total Soluble Solids

1 g of flour sample was weighed into beaker and dissolved with 10 ml of distilled water. The sample was thoroughly mixed and total soluble solids of the samples were determined by putting a drop on the prism of hand refractometer. The values were expressed as percentage (%) degree brix.

2.6. Temperature – Based Functional Properties of IPYF

2.6.1. Determination of Swelling Power and Solubility Index

Swelling power and solubility index were determined using the method described by Takahashi and Seib [25]. It involved weighing 1 g of the sample into 50 ml centrifuge tube. 50 ml of distilled water was added and mixed gently. The slurry was heated in a water bath at 80°C for 15 min. During heating, the slurry was stirred gently to prevent clumping of the flour. On completion of15 min, the tube containing the paste was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was decanted immediately after centrifuging. The weight of the sediment was taken and recorded. The moisture content of the sediments gel was therefore determined to get the dry matter content of the gel using Equation 2 .

Solubility index (%) = Weight of dry solid after drying ×100

2.7. Functional Properties of IPYF

2.7.1. Water and Oil Absorption Capacity

Water absorption capacity was determined using the method of Sathe and Salunkhe [26] as modified by Adebowale, et al. [27]. Ten millilitres of distilled water was added to 1.0 g of the sample in a beaker. The suspension was stirred for 5 minutes. The suspension obtained was then centrifuged (with Celtech 80-2B centrifuge) at 3555 rpm for 30 minutes and the supernatant measured in a 10 ml graduated cylinder. Water absorbed was calculated as the difference between the initial volume of water added to the sample and the volume of the supernatant. The same procedure was repeated for oil absorption except that oil was used instead of water.

2.7.2. Bulk density

Bulk density was determined using the method of Akpapunam and Markakis [28] and Udensi and Okaka [29]. Ten grams (10 g) of sample was weighed into 50 ml graduated measuring cylinder. The sample was packed gently by tapping the cylinder on the bench top. The volume of the sample was recorded.

2.7.3. Dispersibility

Dispersibility was determined using the method described by Kulkarni, et al. [30]. Ten grams of the flour sample was weighed into 100 ml measuring cylinder, water was added to each volume of 100 ml, the set up stirred vigorously and allowed to stand for three hours. The volume of settled particles was recorded and subtracted from 100 using Equation 3 .

2.7.4. Swelling Index

Swelling index was determined using the method described by Ojinnaka, et al. [31]. One gram of the flour was weighed into 10ml measuring cylinder and the volume it occupied was recorded (V1). Distilled water was added until the 10ml mark was reached. The cylinder containing the sample and distilled water was left to stand for 45 minutes after which the new volume (V2) was recorded. The swelling index was expressed as the ratio of the final over the initial volume.

2.7.5. Gelation Capacity

The gelation capacity was estimated according the method of Coffmann and Garciaj [32] as modified by Adeleke and Odedeji [33]. Flours dispersions of 4-14% (w/v) were prepared with distilled water in test tubes and mixed for 2 min.  The mixtures obtained were boiled for 1 hr in a bain-marie and cooled at laboratory temperature. The least gelation concentration  of sample  flours  (that is,  the  lowest concentration that  gives  a stable  gel  when  tests tube  is inverted)  was determined.

2.7.6. Emulsification Capacity

The procedure of Adeleke and Odedeji [33] was used. 1 g of the flour sample was suspended in 50 ml centrifuge tubes and centrifuge at 4100 rpm for 5 minutes. The emulsification capacity was calculated using Equation 4 :

2.8. Determination of Pasting Properties of IPYF

Pasting characteristics were determined with a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA super 3, Newport Scientific pty. Ltd, Australia). A 3-g sample of flour (at 14% moisture level) was dissolved in 25 ml of water in a sample canister. The sample was thoroughly mixed and fitted into the RVA as recommended [34]. The slurry was heated from 50 to 95°C with a holding time of 2 min followed by cooling to 50 °C with another 2 min holding time. The 12-min profile was used, and the rate of heating and cooling was at a constant rate of 11.25 °C/minute. Corresponding values for peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final viscosity, setback, peak time and pasting temperature from the pasting profile were read from a computer connected to the RVA.

2.9. Determination of Minerals Composition of IPYF

The mineral contents were analysed using [19]. Using dry ashing, the sample was ashed at 550 °C for 3 h. 5 ml of 6N hydrochloric acid (HCl) was mixed with the ash and made up to 50 ml with distilled water. Selected minerals including iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

2.10. Evaluation of Organoleptic Properties of Reconstituted IPYF

IPYF was reconstituted into paste using 50 g of flour and 150 ml of boiled water. This was thoroughly stirred with a wooden spoon for smooth consistency, covered and cooked for about 5 minutes, stirred and wrapped in polyethylene and then kept in a cooler prior to sensory evaluation. A control was prepared from commercial product, using the same preparation method. Organoleptic properties were carried out by twenty semi trained panellists. The panellists evaluated the samples using questionnaires for scoring the sensory attributes of appearance, taste, hardness, consistency, stickiness, taste, colour, elasticity, and overall acceptability on a 9-point hedonic scale, presented to them in an environment with no interference for bias expression, and under bright lighting.

2.11. Statistical Analyses of Data

Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). All experiments were performed in triplicate and the mean values were reported. Comparisons between means were performed with Duncan Multiple Range test. Differences between means were evaluated as significant at p<0.05.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Proximate Composition of IPYF

The results of proximate analysis of instant pounded yam flour produced from yellow yam (IPYFY) and control are as presented in Table 2. Dietary fibre is mainly needed to keep the digestive system healthy. Fibre content of IPYF produced from yellow yam had highest value of 3.30% while control had 0.84%. They were significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). Olaoye and Oyewole [18] reported fibre highest value of 3.01% for Dioscorea rotundata, which shows that, Dioscorea cayenensis has higher fibre content when processed into IPYF.

Ash is a reflection of mineral status. Ash content of IPYFY had highest value of 3.07% while control had 2.05%. They were significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). Olaoye and Oyewole [18] reported ash highest value of 1.50% for Dioscorea rotundata, which shows that, Dioscorea cayenensis has higher ash content when processed into IPYFY.

Protein content of IPYFY had highest value of 5.92% while control had 4.75%. They were significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). Olaoye and Oyewole [18] reported protein highest value of 4.58% for Dioscorea rotundata, this shows that, Dioscorea cayenensis has higher protein content.

Table-2. Proximate compositions% (dry basis) of IPY.
Samples
Fibre
Ash
Protein
Fats
CHO
Y90-2-10
1.03± 0.00fg
1.99± 0.02b
4.65±0.01e
5.03±0.03bc
87.30±0.08bc
Y90-2-15
1.13±0.00def
1.93±0.00b
2.75±0.01i
4.96±0.00bc
89.23±0.13a
Y90-2-20
0.80± 0.12hi
2.04±0.00b
5.78±0.011b
4.79±0.55bc
86.59±0.70c
Y100-2-10
0.73± 0.00i
2.00±0.00b
3.92±0.01h
5.13±0.03bc
88.22±0.44b
Y100-2-15
0.89± 0.12hi
1.01±0.02c
4.75±0.01e
5.24±0.01bc
88.11±0.02b
Y100-2-20
0.94± 0.00gh
2.00±0.01b
4.85±0.01d
4.75±0.56bc
87.46±0.72bc
Y90-4-10
0.86±  0.12hi
2.01±0.02b
4.63±0.01e
5.01±0.00bc
87.49±0.83bc
Y90-4-15
1.22± 0.06de
1.98±0.02b
5.78±0.02b
5.05±0.00bc
85.97±0.25cd
Y90-4-20
3.30±0.06a
1.99±0.04b
5.63±0.01c
5.09±0.00bc
83.99±0.48f
Y100-4-10
1.25±0.00d
1.69±0.57bc
5.92±0.01a
4.43±0.57c
86.73±0.01c
Y100-4-15
2.69±0.00b
1.98±0.01b
4.61±0.01e
4.70±0.56bc
86.02±0.29c
Y100-4-20
3.24±0.00a
2.02±0.01b
5.58±0.01c
5.08±0.00bc
84.08±0.59e
Y90-6-10
3.28±0.00a
3.07±0.03a
4.16±0.01h
4.83±0.58bc
84.67±0.80de
Y90-6-15
1.25±0.00d
1.66±0.55bc
5.90±0.01a
5.73±0.58b
85.46±1.61d
Y90-6-20
1.29±0.06d
1.63±0.53bc
4.12±0.01h
5.15±0.00bc
87.83±1.20bc
Y100-6-10
0.94±0.00gh
2.01±0.03b
4.46±0.01f
4.42±0.54c
88.18±0.53b
Y100-6-15
1.07±0.06efg
1.66±0.55bc
4.24±0.01g
4.72±0.58bc
88.31±0.80b
Y100-6-20
1.76±0.02c
2.00±0.01b
2.79±0.01i
5.07±0.00bc
88.39±0.13b
Control
0.84±0.00i
2.05±0.02b
4.75±0.01e
7.26±0.00a
85.10±0.40d

*Means that do not share a letter in the same column are significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). CHO (carbohydrate). Y90-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-4-15(pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-4-15 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes) and control (commercial product).

3.2. Physicochemical Properties of IPYF

The results of physicochemical properties of IPYFY and the control were presented in Table 3. Physicochemical properties are important for food processing and quality, because they influence functional properties of flour which in turn affect the textural quality of food products, [35-37] .

The pH of IPYFY had highest value of 6.47 while control had 5.37. pH of the IPYFY is significantly higher than the control. This indicates that, control has more acidic strength than IPYFY,this implies that if both are reconstituted, the control can stay longer or consistent.

The total carotenoids concentration of IPYFY had highest value of 0.31(mg / 100g) while control had 0.00 (mg/100g). IPYFYcan contribute some amount of vitamin A (retinol) in the diet and reduce vitamin A deficiency (VAD) that is endemic in Sub Saharan Africa [38-40] . Total titratable acidity has direct correlation with pH, the lower the pH the higher the titratable acidity.  The total titratable acidity of IPYFY 0.69% is significantly higher than the control 0.58%. Low values of acidity are an indication of little or no fermentation. The total soluble solids of IPYFY is 2.07 while control had 0.53. It indicates that, control has low sugar content compare to IPYFY.

Amylose or amylopectin ratio has been reported to impart definite characteristics and functionality to starches by determining the basic texture and nature of their products [41]. Amylose content has been observed to have a high effect on the swelling power, viscosity, solubility, pasting and other textural qualities of starchy foods [42]. Amylose and Amylopectin of IPYFY 24.29% and 69.76% are significantly higher than that of control 19.82%. and 59.94%, which indicate that Dioscorea cayenensis has more starch.

Table-3. Physicochemical properties of IPYF.
Samples
AMY %
AMP %
TTA %
TCC (mg / 100 g)
PH
TSS °Brix
Y90-2-10
21.42±0.05e
62.20±0.54def
0.57±0.00ab
0.10±0.01f
6.47±0.06a
1.77±0.06cde
Y90-2-15
20.67±0.05f
65.85±0.15c
0.36±0.00d
0.09±0.00fg
6.47±0.06a
1.77±0.06cde
Y90-2-20
22.97±0.07b
59.51±0.74ghi
0.52±0.40bc
0.09±0.00fg
6.37±0.06ab
1.77±0.06cde
Y100-2-10
22.44±0.06c
61.64±0.42defg
0.49±0.42bcd
0.09±0.01fg
6.23±0.06bcde
1.87±0.06abcd
Y100-2-15
13.48±0.05k
68.84±0.04ab
0.47±0.00bcd
0.11±0.00e
6.13±0.06def
1.77±0.06cde
Y100-2-20
20.80±0.05f
62.70±0.71de
0.42±1.04cd
0.06±0.00i
6.33±0.06abc
2.07±0.06a
Y90-4-10
21.17±0.06e
62.85±0.86de
0.54±0.00bc
0.15±0.00b
6.13±0.06def
1.97±0.15abc
Y90-4-15
21.92±0.06d
60.03±0.28fghi
0.60±0.53ab
0.07±0.00h
6.07±0.06ef
2.07±0.06a
Y90-4-20
18.09±0.06h
61.37±0.51defg
0.40±0.62cd
0.13±0.00c
6.47±0.06a
1.73±0.06de
Y100-4-10
15.74±0.07i
67.56±0.08b
0.52±0.42bc
0.31±0.00a
6.13±0.06def
1.73±0.06de
Y100-4-15
24.29±0.06a
58.68±0.34i
0.52±0.40bc
0.05±0.00i
6.03±0.06f
1.73±0.06de
Y100-4-20
21.41±0.06e
58.91±0.63hi
0.40±0.64cd
0.03±0.00j
6.23±0.06bcde
2.03±0.06ab
Y90-6-10
18.14±0.07h
61.64±0.85defg
0.54±0.00bc
0.09±0.00g
6.17±0.06cdef
1.83±0.06bcde
Y90-6-15
21.22±0.06e
61.14±1.71efgh
0.47±0.00bcd
0.09±0.00fg
6.13±0.06def
1.63±0.06e
Y90-6-20
20.63±0.07f
62.99±1.15de
0.54±0.00bc
0.07±0.00h
6.17±0.06cdef
1.83±0.06bcde
Y100-6-10
14.67±0.07j
69.76±0.59a
0.69±0.52a
0.14±0.00b
6.07±0.06ef
1.63±0.06e
Y100-6-15
21.40±0.05e
63.76±0.48d
0.69±0.52a
0.12±0.00d
6.13±0.06def
2.03±0.06ab
Y100-6-20
22.03±0.10d
62.55±0.58de
0.54±0.00bc
0.12±0.00d
6.27±0.06bcd
2.03± 0.06ab
Control
19.82±0.28g
59.94±0.67fghi
0.58±0.94ab
0.00±0.00k
5.37±0.06g
0.53±0.06f

*Means that do not share a letter in the same column are significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). AMY (amylose), AMP (amylopectin), TSS (total soluble solids), TTA (total tiratable acidity) and TCC (total carotene concentration).Y90-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-4-15(pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-4-15 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes) and control (commercial product).

3.3. Temperature-Based Functional Properties of IPYF

The results of temperature-based physicochemical properties of IPYFY and the control were presented in Table 4. Solubility based on temperature of IPFYY was 13.63% at 30 oC, 13.63% at 60 oC and 15.27% at 90 oC while that of control was 8.21% at 30 oC, 4.60% at 60 oC and 3.29% at 90 oC respectively. Solubility of IPYFY was significantly higher than the control at (p<0.05), even at increasing temperature.

Swelling power is an indication of presence of amylase which influences the quantity of amylose and amylopectin present in the flour. Moorthy and Ramanujam [43] reported that the swelling power of flour granules is an indication of the extent of associative forces within the granule. Swelling power is also related to the water absorption index of the starch-based flour during heating [44]. According Ruales, et al. [45] the higher the swelling power, the higher the associate forces. Swelling power of IPYFY was 87.02% at 30 oC, 91.29% at 60 oC and 90.31% at 90 oC while control has 75.37% at 30 oC, 83.58% at 60 oC and 85.22% at 90 oC respectively. The variation in the swelling power indicates the degree of exposure of the internal structure of the starch present in the flour to the action of water. Moderate and high swelling power enhance the functionality of flours in such food systems like breakfast cereals, baby foods and fufu, [46].

3.4. Functional Properties of IPYFY

The results of functional properties of IPYFY were presented in Table 5. Gelation capacity is the least gelation concentration. The gelation capacity of IPYFY is the highest (1.33) while control had 0.73. Emulsification capacity is the maximum amount of oil that can be emulsified by protein dispersion. The emulsification capacity of IPYFY 36.42% is significantly higher than that of control 12.02%. Oil absorption capacity is the ability of the flour to absorb oil. The oil absorption capacity of IPYFY 2.18 (g/ml)  is also significantly higher than that of control 0.77 (g/ml). Fagbemi [47] reported that, good oil absorption capacity of flour samples suggest that they may be useful in food preparations that involves oil mixing like in bakery products, where oil is an important ingredient.

Water absorption capacity is the ability of flour to absorb water and swell for improved consistency in food. Water absorption capacity of flour gives an idea of swelling capacity of starch granules during reconstitution [27, 48]. It is desirable in food systems to improve yield, consistency and give body to the food [49, 50]. Water absorption is an important parameter to be considered in the preparation of mash, snack foods, extruded foods, and baked products. Higher absorption is preferred for making mash while lower absorption values are more desirable for making thinner gruels. It is an important functional characteristic in the development of ready-to-eat foods since high water absorption capacity may assure product cohesiveness [51]. This is because higher values increase the unit yield of products. The higher the water absorption capacity, the greater the amount of water required to make dough or batter of the pre-determined consistency, and this is used as a baking guide [52]. The water absorption capacity of IPYFY 2.89 (g/ml) is significantly higher than that of control 2.19 (g/ml).

Bulk density is affected by the particle size and the density of the flour which is very important in determining the packaging requirements, material handling and the application in wet processing in food industry [53, 54]. The bulk density of IPYFY was 0.54 (g/cm3) while control had 0.46 (g/cm3). Swelling index is the degree of exposure of the internal structure of the starch present in the flour to the action of water. The swelling index of IPYFY had highest value of 2.83 (g/ml) while control had 1.27 (g/ml).

Dispersibility is the ability of flour to be wet without the formation of lumps, with simultaneous disintegration of agglomerates. It is an index of the ease of reconstitution of flour into a fine consistency paste during stirring [53]. The importance of dispersibility is that, it indicates the reconstitution ability of the sample [42]. The dispersibility of IPYFY 67.00% is significantly lower than that of control 76.00%.

Table-4. Temperature-based physicochemical properties of IPYF.
Sample
Solubility (%)
Swelling power (%)
Codes
30 (o C)
60 (o C)
90 (o C)
30 (o C)
60 (o C)
90 (o C)
Y90-2-10
8.81±0.00fg
8.87±0.00bcd
10.02±0.29abcd
79.64±0.28abc
80.13±0.29d
78.33±5.97abc
Y90-2-15
7.06±0.29i
8.70±0.57cd
7.22±0.29cde
84.73±0.85abc
85.38±0.57abc
86.04±1.42ab
Y90-2-20
7.22±0.57hi
9.20±1.13bcd
12.15±0.29abc
54.02±1.14d
84.73±1.70abc
77.01±3.98bc
Y100-2-10
8.37±0.00fgh
8.70±1.99cd
6.89±0.00de
82.60±0.57abc
83.74±0.85abc
78.82±0.85abc
Y100-2-15
8.70±0.57fg
12.64±1.14a
5.26±0.57e
84.07±0.57abc
88.51±0.28ab
79.79±6.41abc
Y100-2-20
12.81±0.00ab
11.40±1.59ab
12.48±1.42abc
75.70±1.42bc
84.89±0.28abc
81.45±1.43abc
Y90-4-10
10.35±0.00de
11.82±0.00a
8.05±1.43bcde
80.13±0.57abc
83.25±0.85abc
83.91±0.57abc
Y90-4-15
9.03±0.57f
8.70±0.29cd
9.36±0.00bcd
80.63±0.28abc
84.73±0.85abc
83.75±5.97abc
Y90-4-20
11.49±0.29cd
11.04±0.60abc
12.65±0.28ab
82.10±1.14abc
83.91±1.14abc
80.13±0.28abc
Y100-4-10
8.37±0.00fgh
8.37±0.00d
5.42±1.71e
85.38±0.57ab
85.06±0.57abc
78.97±4.99abc
Y100-4-15
11.66±0.57bc
13.30±0.00a
15.27±0.00a
82.10±1.42abc
77.50±9.95d
71.59±0.28c
Y100-4-20
12.81±0.00ab
13.63±1.42a
13.26±0.82ab
79.15±0.57abc
81.28±0.85cd
80.46±5.40abc
Y90-6-10
7.71±0.57ghi
9.03±0.57bcd
6.07±0.28e
85.55±2.28ab
82.27±0.85bc
83.91±1.14abc
Y90-6-15
12.48±0.28abc
5.42±0.85ef
9.86±4.27bcd
85.38±0.28ab
89.98±1.14ab
80.12±6.98abc
Y90-6-20
9.36±0.00ef
9.03±0.28bcd
13.30±5.12ab
74.38±10.24c
91.29±3.98a
90.31±5.40a
Y100-6-10
8.87±0.85fg
8.70±0.57cd
7.22±0.57cde
83.42±1.14abc
89.00±0.57ab
77.99±6.26abc
Y100-6-15
11.82±0.00bc
7.55±0.57de
9.52±2.28bcd
87.02±1.14a
89.98±1.14ab
80.46±3.70abc
Y100-6-20
13.63± 0.28a
12.32±0.00a
10.30±0.39abcd
83.25±0.85abc
83.38±1.17abc
78.99±1.14abc
Control
8.21±0.28fghi
4.60±0.29f
3.29±0.28f
75.37±8.53c
83.58±2.28abc
85.22±1.71ab

*Means that do not share a letter in the same column are significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). Y90-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-4-15(pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-4-15 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes) and control (commercial product).

3.5. Pasting Properties of IPYFY

The results of pasting properties of IPYFY and Control were presented in Table 6. Pasting properties are important quality characteristics in predicting the behaviour of pounded yam paste during and after cooking.
Peak viscosity is the maximum viscosity attained by the paste during the heating cycle, that is, from 50 to 95 oC due to starch granules swelling and leaching out of the soluble components into the solution. It reflects the ability of starch granules to swell freely before their physical breakdown and often correlates with product quality [55]. The peak viscosity of IPYFY 199.92 (RVU) is higher than the control 157.42 (RVU). It is an indication   that, IPYFY has high gel strength and elasticity than the control. High peak viscosity contributes to good texture of pounded yam, which basically depends on high viscosity and moderately high gel strength [56].

Trough 1 is considered a measure of the breakdown of hot flour paste. The trough 1of IPYFY is 183.42(RVU) while control had 140.17 (RVU). Breakdown viscosity measures the ability of paste to withstand breakdown during cooling. The breakdown viscosity of IPYFY 24.50 (RVU) is significantly higher than the control 17.25 (RVU). Final viscosity have been reported as the most commonly used parameter to determine the quality of flour-based samples because it indicates flour ability to form a gel or viscous paste after cooking and cooling as well as the resistance of the paste to shear force during stirring [27, 57]. The final viscosity of IPYFY is 324.08(RVU) while control had 253.25(RVU). Setback is the phase of the pasting profile where re-association between flour molecules occurs to a greater or lesser degree. It is the phase of the pasting curve after cooling of the flour to 50 oC. Setback value is the difference between final viscosity and trough. The setback of IPYFY was 140.67(RVU) while that of control was 113.08(RVU). The temperature at which the viscosity of the stirred flour slurry begins to rise is the pasting temperature. It is an indication of the gelatinization time during processing. It is an index characterized by an initial change in viscosity due to the swelling of starch [58]. The pasting temperature of IPYFY 85.60 °C is significantly higher than the control 84.80 °C. Similar pasting temperature values (80.0-87.0 oC) has been reported for different pounded yam flour [56, 59]. The peak time of IPYFY has highest value of 7.00 (min) while control has 6.13 (min).

Table-5. Functional properties of IPYF.
Samples
WAC (g / ml)
OAC (g / ml)
EMU %
GEL
BDT (g / cm3)
DSP %
SWI (g / ml)
Y90-2-10
2.21±0.00fgh
0.96±0.00def
30.50±0.10b
0.87±0.12bcde
0.50±0.00bc
63.00±0.12c
2.46±0.12bcd
Y90-2-15
2.31±0.00ef
0.90±0.11def
22.80±0.10e
0.87±0.12bcde
0.51±0.01b
66.00±0.12b
2.25±0.05cd
Y90-2-20
2.63±0.11bc
0.96±0.00def
21.77±0.03e
0.73±0.12de
0.48±0.00cde
64.00±0.12c
2.45±0.05bcd
Y100-2-10
2.44±0.11de
0.58±0.00f
10.13±0.12j
0.87±0.12bcde
0.46±0.00de
62.00±0.05c
2.46±0.11bcd
Y100-2-15
2.89±0.00a
0.77±0.00ef
10.60±0.11j
1.07±0.12abcd
0.45±0.01e
60.00±0.1c
2.75±0.05ab
Y100-2-20
2.69±0.00b
0.90±0.11def
36.42±0.05a
1.33±0.12a
0.42±0.01f
53.00±0.12 d
2.83±0.05a
Y90-4-10
2.15±0.05fgh
0.77±0.00ef
30.49±0.06b
0.67±0.12e
0.47±0.01de
60.00±0.06c
2.47±0.11bcd
Y90-4-15
2.18±0.11fgh
1.55±0.53bc
28.62±0.10c
1.33±0.12a
0.51±0.01ab
62.00±0.05c
2.46±0.12bcd
Y90-4-20
2.12±0.00gh
1.92±0.00ab
16.73±0.12g
0.73±0.12de
0.48±0.00cd
64.00±0.12c
2.36±0.11cd
Y100-4-10
2.05±0.06h
1.15±0.00cde
26.16 ±0.11cd
1.07±0.11abc
0.54±0.01a
65.00±0.12b
2.36±0.10cd
Y100-4-15
2.89±0.00a
2.18±0.11a
16.07±0.10g
0.67±0.12e
0.51±0.01ab
62.00±0.12c
2.46±0.10bcd
Y100-4-20
2.18±0.05fgh
1.54±0.00bc
25.07±0.10d
0.67±0.12e
0.51±0.01ab
60.00±0.12c
2.55±0.12abc
Y90-6-10
2.31±0.00ef
1.22±0.11cd
22.74±0.01e
1.13±0.12abc
0.51±0.01ab
67.00±0.12 b
2.35±0.12cd
Y90-6-15
2.25±0.11fg
1.15±0.00cde
20.89±0.06ef
1.33±0.12a
0.51±0.01ab
67.00±0.12 b
2.16±0.11d
Y90-6-20
2.12±0.00gh
1.73±0.00b
19.09±0.05f
1.20±0.20ab
0.46±0.01de
64.00±0.11c
2.45±0.12bcd
Y100-6-10
2.69±0.00b
0.83±0.11def
19.09±0.05f
0.80±0.20cde
0.51±0.01ab
66.00±0.11 b
2.15±0.12d
Y100-6-15
2.50±0.00cd
2.18±0.11a
27.33±0.05c
0.87±0.11bcde
0.51±0.01b
54.00±0.05d
2.26±0.11cd
Y100-6-20
2.89±0.00a
0.64±0.11f
15.02±0.03h
0.73±0.11de
0.46±0.01de
63.00±0.05c
2.34±0.13cd
Control
2.19±0.10fgh
0.77±0.00ef
12.02±0.02i
0.73±0.11de
0.46±0.00de
76.00±0.09 a
1.27±0.09e

*Means that do not share a letter in the same column are significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). BDT (bulk density), SWI (swelling index), GEL (Gelation capacity), DSP (dispersibility), WAC (water absorption capacity), OAC (oil absorption capacity) and EMU (emulsification capacity). Y90-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-4-15(pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-4-15 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes) and control (commercial product).

3.6. Mineral Compositions of IPYFY

The result of mineral compositions of IPYFY and Control were presented in Table 7. The mineral sodium (Na) is important for the control of water balance in the body. It also helps with normal nerve impulse regulation and muscle contraction. Potassium is a mineral that helps the kidneys to function normally and control blood pressure.  The high potassium and low sodium contents of the yam samples may make them good potassium-sodium balance in the human body, and so protect against osteoporosis and heart diseases [60]. The recommended daily intake of sodium is between 1110 and 3300 mg while potassium (K) between 1875 and 5625 mg is considered adequate and safe. However, too much of any the two can be harmful to the body. IPYFY has 1.35 (mg /100 g) and 4.48 (mg /100 g) while control  has 0.93 (mg /100 g) and 3.08 (mg /100 g) for sodium and potassium respectively.

With this appreciable content of potassium “K” in the samples, both the test samples and the reference could be recommended for people with high blood pressure [61] but may not be suitable for people with renal failure.

Table-6. Pasting properties of IPYF.
Samples
Peak1 (RVU)
Trough 1 (RVU)
Breakdown (RVU)
Final Viscosity (RVU)
Setback (RVU)
Peak time (min)
Pasting
temperature
(o C)
Control
157.42±2.08de
140.17±4.44d
17.25±2.00c
253.25±2.14d
113.08±2.00d
6.13±0.02b
84.80±0.20a
Y100-2-10
199.92±2.00a
183.42±2.00a
16.50±1.00c
324.08±3.22a
140.67±2.00a
7.00±0.15a
77.50±0.10bc
Y100-2-15
176.75±2.00c
164.17±2.74b
12.58±2.00cd
274.25±1.53c
110.08±1.00d
7.00±0.10a
77.45±0.02bc
Y100-2-20
145.50±2.52e
141.42±2.00d
4.08±2.00d
255.50±3.63d
114.08±3.20d
6.73±0.02ab
75.95±0.02c
Y100-4-10
156.92±3.51de
141.00±3.06d
15.92±3.50c
265.00±2.00c
124.00±1.53c
7.00±0.01a
81.55±0.29a
Y100-4-15
126.08±2.52f
104.17±2.00g
21.92±4.08a
206.75±3.11f
206.75±4.09e
7.00±0.02a
84.85±0.06a
Y100-4-20
148.17±2.52e
136.83±2.22d
11.33± 2.00d
220.83±2.36e
84.00±5.37f
7.00±0.13a
79.90±0.42a
Y100-6-10
165.58±2.00d
143.92±4.12cd
21.67±3.16a
262.67±4.24c
118.75±2.00c
7.00±0.19a
83.90±0.35a
Y100-6-15
110.42±2.00g
95.75±3.00h
14.67±2.29c
170.33±2.00g
74.58±3.66g
7.00±0.10a
83.95±0.10a
Y100-6-20
130.75±2.08f
118.75±2.52f
12.00±3.58d
195.83±1.00f
77.08±2.00f
7.00±0.20a
81.55±0.87b
Y90-2-10
164.25± 4.04d
144.58± 3.51cd
19.67±2.00b
249.33±4.21d
104.75±2.57e
7.00±0.57a
82.35±0.53a
Y90-2-15
141.33±6.24ef
116.83± 5.64f
24.50±4.12a
216.42±3.00e
99.58±2.00e
7.00±0.82a
85.55±0.10a
Y90-2-20
140.33±2.65ef
119.83±3.12f
20.50±2.00b
222.08±4.05e
102.25±3.13e
7.00±0.11a
84.05±0.02a
Y90-4-10
163.75±3.00d
151.17±2.06c
12.58±3.32cd
258.00±2.00d
106.83±2.00e
6.93±0.10a
79.10±0.23b
Y90-4-15
159.42±3.51d
144.67±2.66cd
14.75±2.00c
274.17±2.46c
129.50±4.08b
7.00±0.29a
79.85±0.10b
Y90-4-20
132.17±2.52f
111.42±2.00fg
20.75±6.20b
220.25±2.62e
108.83±2.00d
7.00±0.10a
85.60±0.02a
Y90-6-10
186.67±2.00b
174.00±4.20a
12.67±2.00cd
293.50±6.35b
119.50±3.14c
6.93±0.02a
80.70±0.02b
Y90-6-15
148.33±2.00e
125.50±2.00e
22.83±2.64a
231.83±2.82e
106.33±4.29e
7.00±0.05a
84.05±0.10a
Y90-6-20
180.25±3.00c
161.25±2.00b
19.00±1.00b
292.58±4.12b
131.33±3.05b
7.00±0.66a
81.50±0.52b

*Means that do not share a letter in the same column are significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). Y90-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-4-15(pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-4-15 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes) and control (commercial product).

Yam is considered a good source of magnesium. The recommended daily intake of magnesium “Mg” is set at 300 mg for women and 350 mg for men. The magnesium of IPYFY 0.21(mg /100 g) is the same  with that of control. Zinc helps to regulate many of the human body's processes. It is essential for survival and deficiency has serious consequences for health [62]. The amount recommended is 15 mg/day for adults and good sources are sea foods, meat, fish, and whole grains. The zinc of pounded IPYFY (0.04 (mg /100 g) is significantly higher than that of control 0.02 (mg /100 g). The mineral calcium is vital for the development of healthy bones and teeth. It is also needed for muscle contraction and regulation of the heartbeat, and, is involved in the formation of blood clots.  A long-term shortage of calcium can lead to osteoporosis, when the bones become brittle and break easily. The calcium content of IPYFY 0.50 (mg /100 g) is significantly higher than that of control 0.31 (mg /100 g).

The iron content of IPYFY was 0.10 (mg /100 g) while control has 0.02 (mg /100 g). Too much copper can be harmful. However, 2 to 3 mg/day intake is considered adequate and safe. Copper content of IPYFY 0.04 (mg /100 g)  is significantly higher than that of control (0.00 (mg /100 g). About 800 mg of phosphorus is recommended for adults per day. Peroni, et al. [63] reported higher phosphorus in yam (0.022%) compared to other root and tuber crops. Similarly, Moorthy and Nair [64] reported 0.11 and 0.015% phosphorus in Dioscorea rotundata grown in India. IPYFY has 1.05 (mg /100 g) and 0.01 (mg /100 g) of phosphorus and lead while control has 1.01 (mg /100 g) and 0.00 (mg /100 g.

3.7. Organoleptic Properties of Reconstituted IPYFY

The result of organoleptic properties of IPYFY and Control were presented in Table 8. Texture, which in this case consists of smoothness, elasticity, consistency, stickiness and hardness, is one of the main factors for acceptability used by consumers to evaluate the quality of pounded yam [13]. Pounded yam flour has different attributes. Its strecthability, cohesiveness (mouldability), hardness (soft but firm, not very soft or very hard), smoothness and stickiness are the important attributes used in determining its desired quality [65]. There was a significant difference in the colour rating of reconstituted IPYFY 6.70 to control 8.65 at p<0.05.This indicates that, the reconstituted control sample has better colour that attract and acceptable to the consumers. Also in taste, stickiness, elasticity, hardness, mouldiness and appearance, reconstituted Control sample was rated significantly higher than reconstituted IPYFY at p<0.05.

4. CONCLUSION

Results of the study indicate that, Dioscorea cayenensis has good qualities in term of proximate, physicochemical, functional and pasting properties than Dioscorea rotundata when processed to instant pounded yam flour. The acceptability of the product from organoleptic point of view, though a subjective test, is less when compared with the control. For better retention of the nutrition quality parameters in instant pounded yam produced from yellow yam, the yams should be blanched at 100 oC with 4mm thickness for blanching duration of 10 minutes and dried at 65 oC drying temperature.

Table-7. Mineral compositions (mg / 100 g) of IPYF.

*Means that do not share a letter in the same column are significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). ND denote Not detectedY90-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-4-15(pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-4-15 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes) and control (commercial product).

Table-8. Organoleptic properties of reconstituted pounded yam produced from yellow yam flour.

*Means that do not share a letter in the same column are significantly different at 95% confidence level (p<0.05). Y90-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-2-10 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-2-15 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-2-20 (pounded yam flour of 2 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-4-15(pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-4-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-4-15 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-4-20 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes), Y90-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 4 mm at 90oC for 10 minutes), Y90-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 15 minutes), Y90-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 90oC for 20 minutes), Y100-6-10 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 10 minutes), Y100-6-15 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 15 minutes), Y100-6-20 (pounded yam flour of 6 mm at 100oC for 20 minutes) and control (commercial product).

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About the Authors

Olumurewa J. A. V.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.
Alejolowo I. A.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Corresponding Authors

Olumurewa J. A. V.

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