American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities

Volume 4, Number 1 (2019) pp 86-97 doi 10.20448/801.41.86.97 | Research Articles

 

Social Studies Curriculum and Cooperation among Preschool Learners in Nairobi County, Kenya: Addressing Effectiveness of Instructional Methods

Ganira Khavugwi Lilian 1 Odundo Amollo Paul 1 , Gatumu Jane Ciumuari 1 Muasya Njeri Juliet 1 
1 Department of Educational Communication and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

ABSTRACT

Effective utilization of instructional methods in social studies curriculum nurtures the foundation for developing cooperation among preschool learners for sustained coexistence in society. Appropriate adoption of instructional methods assists in managing behavior dispositions for constructive societal relationships. Adoption of appropriate instructional methods diminishes and averts disruptive behavior and supports problem solving skills which in turn form the basis for cooperative character among learners. However, the mismatch between content learnt in class and behavior dispositions exhibited in society seems to originate from instructional methods employed by preschool teachers in social studies curriculum implementation. This study examined effectiveness of role play, storytelling and discussion methods in enhancing cooperation among pre-primary learners in Nairobi County, Kenya. Anchored on ecological systems theory, this study was informed by evaluation research model using both quantitative and qualitative interpretative paradigms.  The target population was 98 pre-preschool teachers purposely sampled from 211 preschools. Questionnaire for pre-primary teachers were used as the main data collection instruments. Quantitative data was summarized and organized according to research questions and arranged into themes for analysis. The findings indicated that storytelling was the most effective instructional methods in enhancing cooperation followed closely by discussion and lastly role play. The study recommends that schools should support value based education through effective utilization of instructional methods for learners to develop cooperation for societal cohesiveness.

Keywords: Cooperation, Discussion, Effectiveness, Role play, Social studies curriculum, Storytelling, Value Based Education.

DOI: 10.20448/801.41.86.97

Citation | Ganira Khavugwi Lilian; Odundo Amollo Paul; Gatumu Jane Ciumuari; Muasya Njeri Juliet (2019). Social Studies Curriculum and Cooperation among Preschool Learners in Nairobi County, Kenya:  Addressing Effectiveness of Instructional Methods. American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(1): 86-97.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019.

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper
  • This study examined effectiveness of role play, storytelling and discussion methods in enhancing cooperation among pre-primary learners in Nairobi County, Kenya.
  • The findings indicated that storytelling was the most effective instructional methods in enhancing cooperation followed closely by discussion and lastly role play.
  • The study recommends that schools should support value based education through effective utilization of instructional methods for learners to develop cooperation for societal cohesiveness.

1. INTRODUCTION

Promoting value based education through social studies curriculum requires utilization of effective instructional methods to inculcate cooperation among preschool learners. Effectiveness of instructional methods influence success of learning process and improves learner achievement in decision making and conflict resolution for nurturing cooperation for communal cohesion. In instances where cooperation is inculcated through effective instructional methods, learners are likely to develop self-control, empowerment and enthusiasm for enhancing cohesiveness from childhood through lifetime. In a study on pedagogy and values education, Tirri (2011) acknowledged that teaching and learning approaches contribute to development of both internal and external personality for cooperative team work. In support of this position, Cavanagh (2011) affirmed that cooperativeness is an effective virtue of equipping learners with capabilities to work together, communicate effectively, think critically and solve problems for promoting an accommodating sustainable environment for all. Based on these premise, when social studies curriculum instructional methods are implemented effectively, there are high chances of learners engaging in group discussions, debate and generating new ideas for developing social integration and demonstration of non-violent strategies for managing and resolving conflicts in society. In an effort to achieve this, teachers should adopt effective instructional methods for learners to develop positive relationships, individual accountability, and interpersonal skills for cooperating as effective and informed citizens in a democratic society. Hence, Farisi (2016) recognized effectiveness of social studies curriculum instructional methodologies for developing accountability, harmony, and appreciation for individual rights and cohesion in society. As a result, learners search for common solutions to challenges, determine source of problems, model working together with peers to improve interaction and communal co-existence as cooperative members of school and society. Agreeing on the role of effective instructional approaches, Ganira et al. (2018) opined that when implemented appropriately through social studies curriculum, learners develop dispositions for practicing tolerance, teamwork and decision making skills for interaction in school, home and society as productive and functional citizens.

Effectiveness of instructional methods influences learning process which improves learner achievement in maintaining and reinforcing competencies of cooperation for sustainable development.  However, in a study on challenges of learner-centered methods in Eritrea, Kuş (2014) indicated that ineffective instructional approaches in teaching social studies weakens authentic implementation to inculcate cooperation among learners. The study further showed that low quality educational system, pedagogical weaknesses among teachers, demands of curriculum, assessment challenges and infrastructure impair implementation of social studies curriculum. Based on this realization, inconsistencies between what learners learn in class and behavior manifested seems to originate from instructional methodologies adopted by preschool teachers. Furthermore, inappropriate instructional methods in implementation of social studies curriculum are likely to weaken development of cooperation which creates inconsistency between learnt content and behavior demonstrated in society.  As noted by Retnowati et al. (2018)  cooperative character development requires appropriate pedagogies and reinforcements to connect learners to multiple concepts, skills and themes for inculcating supportive behavior dispositions. This study examined effectiveness of role play, storytelling and discussion as instructional methods used in preschool social studies curriculum for enhancing cooperation among learners in Nairobi County.

Denton (2012) described cooperation as a virtue of working together to accomplish tasks through taking turns, listening to other people, considering needs of others, and providing support when team members are challenged in performing duties. Cooperation is likely to be achieved if teachers adapt effective instructional methods for assisting learners to acquire knowledge and skills for interaction and positive connections. In this regard, Basic Education Curriculum Framework for 2017 emphasized learner centered pedagogy for achievement of program goals, objectives and class communication for developing cooperative citizens in a democratic society. Effectiveness of instructional methods links learners to social studies curriculum goal in developing informed citizens for effective living and integration in society. In concurrence with this assertion, Akin et al. (2017) noted that effective learner-centered approaches enable learners to make appropriate choices for handling negative peer pressure that could arise during instructional management.  This is in agreement with Odundo et al. (2018) assertion that appropriate instructional approaches enhance learner’s personal growth which increases confidence in learning through laying a foundation for meaningful collaborations and team work for effective interactions. Schools should adopt effective instructional methods for integrating value based education in social studies curriculum for learners to emerge as dependable citizens.  In this regard, this study examined effectiveness of role play, storytelling and discussion methods in enhancing cooperation among pre-primary learners in Nairobi County, Kenya.

1.1. Social Studies Curriculum, Role play and Cooperation

Role play is an instructional method in which learners perform part of another personality, develops approval for opinions and understanding of complexity in solving challenges in society.  This is based on understanding that through role play, learners participate in activities including taking turns, sharing and working together which forms the foundation for cooperation. In support of this argument, Meziobi and Ediyang (2013) posited that role play strategy stimulates social development, encourages formation of relationships through cooperative listening and turn-taking skills that nurture cohesiveness. In addition, Afidillah (2015) affirmed that through role play, learners develop enthusiasm, confidence, empathy and critical thinking skills for making sense of the world. In this regard, acting out situations like work done by people in the community, activities of persons in school and buying and selling in the market is intended to develop social skills and cooperation for communal integration. Sense of cooperation is likely to increase motivation, develop curiosity, promote interaction, encourage peer learning and facilitate free communication among learners. This is in tandem with Thuraya (2016) assertion that role playing method facilitates learner interaction, collaboration for handling group dynamics. In instances where teachers effectively adopt role play activities that encourage knowledge acquisition skills, creativity, value clarification and interpersonal proficiency, learners are likely to develop cooperation for solving real-world problems as effective citizens. As noted by Meziobi and Mazieobi (2012) role playing enables learners to explore morals and acknowledge consequences of misconduct based on own occurrences within the social environment for effective living.  Drawing form this assertion, designing an effective class climate, coupled with appropriate instructional approaches is likely to nurture cooperation among learners for sustainable development. For this reason, Miaz (2015) pointed out that cooperation instills skills and awareness which encourages team work, equality, listening and collaboration in school settings for learners to co-exist in harmony as functional and informed citizens.

1.2. Social Studies Curriculum, Storytelling and Cooperation

Essential strands of value based education represented in the social studies curriculum for developing cooperation among learners require adoption of appropriate instructional approaches.  As noted by Kukuru (2012) storytelling is an effective instructional approach for learners to demonstrate cooperative character by imitating actors in the story. Appropriate adoption of storytelling for teaching-learning about dangerous places and objects in vicinity, use of courteous words and identifying classmates in the neighborhood is intended to inculcate cooperation for learners to coexist in unity as members of the community. Further, Serrat (2010) opined that storytelling is the indigenous approach of teaching and has potential of fostering group cohesion through involvement in real life experiences common for teachers and learners to work together and nurture team work. In support of this contention, Elçin and Bolay (2017) argued that storytelling is a distinct approach for elementary learners to develop values and appreciation of team work culture essential for listening, talking, collaboration and comprehension. Willingness to work with others lays a common platform likely to initiate cooperation through collaboration and turn taking for harmony in society. This is in conformity with Fatma (2017) affirmation that storytelling assists learners to gain insight for appropriate human behavior, social integration and team work for functional citizenry. Social integration and team work requires learners to work cooperatively with others towards a shared purpose which strengthens cultural awareness of how people view the world.  In this regard, Takala and Auvnen (2014) pointed out that storytelling technique paves way for learners to share ideas and information for promoting positive interactions and societal unity. Further, in a study on relevance of social studies curriculum content, Ganira et al. (2018) affirmed that effectiveness of instructional management is achieved when learners use polite language in communication, listen to views of other people and accept opinions of peers as productive citizens in a democratic society.  Therefore, when teachers effectively use storytelling in teaching, directing, guiding and nurturing sense of cooperativeness from formative years there is likelihood of developing effective learners for the 21st Century.

1.3. Social Studies Curriculum, Discussion and Cooperation

According to Herrmann (2013) philosophy of discussion lies in promotion of interactivity framed within social interdependence and creativity among learners.  In instances where learners interact and share similar goals, there are high chances of supporting each other, giving positive feedback, listening to view points, and solving problems effectively for social organization. This is based on premise that through discussion technique, learners work in partnership through class activities to develop relationships and communicate both verbally and non-verbally thereby demonstrating support for one other. Knowledge on instructional methods in social studies curriculum and nature of objectives each approach is suited for would assist teachers in class management for learners to model acts of cooperation which creates unity in the learning environment. However, in a study on student-led seminars as a teaching-learning method, Gomathi et al. (2014) confirmed that lecture method is widely used as opposed to discussion which has potential for instilling positive change in teaching moral values. In a study on teachers’ perception of the effectiveness of teaching methods, Abdu-Raheem (2015) noted that the objective of social studies curriculum in developing effective and informed citizens has not been completely achieved as a result of inadequate teaching methods that can stimulate acts of cooperation. In this regard, teachers should adopt effective instructional methods that enable learners to develop social skills for listening to peers, working together in coordination, identifying negotiation competencies and effectively demonstrate acts of cooperation for mutual cohesion in society. In addition, discussion method of teaching engages both teachers and learners in thinking and developing social skills for listening, sharing and taking turns for effective citizenry. In agreeing with this assertion, Nelson and Boisvert (2011) noted that discussion method of teaching nurtures learner’s capacity to engage in group activities and projects which stimulates active interaction and refines thinking for  revolutionizing problem-solving mindset. Drawing from this assertion, discussing about clothes worn by family members, safety measures when crossing the road, collecting and disposing garbage in the surrounding is intended to inculcate cooperation for learners to effectively coexist in school and in society as dependable citizens.

2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Instructional approaches used in teaching social studies curriculum should instill in learners sense of working with others within the community, listening to peers and accepting opinions from diverse groups. Appropriate pedagogy would contribute to learner’s cooperative character development from formative years for effective transition to adulthood. Contributions to cooperation character development requires teachers  to think of values by providing support for linking learners to multiple concepts, skills and appropriate themes  for informed citizenship. Inculcating sense of cooperation through adoption of effective instructional methods would ensure self-control, empowerment and enthusiasm for enhancing cohesiveness among learners from childhood through lifetime. However, while themes of value based education are represented in the social studies curriculum, discrepancy in teaching and learning strategies weaken development of cooperation among learners. In addition, inappropriate instructional methods in implementation of social studies curriculum in preschool weaken development of cooperation which creates inconsistency between learnt content and behavior disposition demonstrated in school and society. Hence, inconsistencies between what learners learn in class and behavior exhibited seems to stem from instructional methods employed by preschool teachers. Based on this realization, the study examined effectiveness of instructional methods used in social studies curriculum in enhancing cooperation among preschool learners in Nairobi County focusing on role playing, storytelling and discussion.

3. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study is to determine effectiveness of social studies curriculum instructional methods in enhancing cooperation among preschool learners in Nairobi County, Kenya. The specific objective of the study was to determine effectiveness of role play, storytelling and discussion methods in enhancing cooperation among preschool learners in Nairobi County.

4. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE

The study was anchored on ecological systems theory by Bronfenbrenner (1979) who noted that children develop in five social systems which include; (microsystem, exosystem, macrosystem, mesosystem and chronosystem). According to Bronfenbrenner (1979) families, parents, schools, peers, religious leaders and the media are responsible for children development and should relate to each other for appropriate upbringing. Drawing from ecological systems perspective, failure of parents and teachers to incorporate moral values and ideals of the society among learners are indicators of moral decline. Inclusive and appropriate learning environments coupled with effective instructional methods would assist the learner in developing cooperation for class interactions. Within the learning environment, the relationship between learner behavior management and distinctive individuality is as a result of teaching-learning methods employed by the teacher. In teaching-learning social studies, an ecological perspective should embrace and nourish learner behavior towards cooperation which requires appropriate instructional methods.

According to Bronfenbrenner (1979) social cultures dynamics within the environment influence behavior patterns that the learner adopts. On the other hand, inappropriate associations, deplorable instructional approaches and hostile learning environments contribute to decline of teamwork among learners. Based on this concern, sustaining positive learning environments involves adoption of effective teaching methods that nurture development of cooperative relationships among learners. In an effort to achieve cooperation among learners, Osher et al. (2010)suggested that the teacher should offer warmness, leadership, support learner involvement as well as nourish appropriate behavior attributes that can be replicated for effective living. By adopting an ecological system approach, this study was based on the premise that an enhanced class environment that adopts appropriate instructional methods allows the learner to take turns, listen to peers and appreciate views of other people for effective societal cohesion.

5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure-1. Conceptual framework on SSC Instructional Methods and Cooperation.

Source: Authors’ Creativity

Conceptual framework provides a model for relationship between independent and dependent variables in a narrative theme for describing a phenomenon, Berman (2013). Implementation of preschool social studies curriculum is influenced by effectiveness of instructional methods in developing cooperation among learners for communal cohesion.  Specifically, role playing, storytelling and discussion methods when implemented effectively, learners are likely to develop sense of cooperation in school, home and in community for effective integration. This is achieved when the learning environment provides opportunities for effective communication, teacher-learner, and learner- learner interaction. Cooperation would assists learners in demonstrating acts of; turn taking, listening to one another and accepting views of others as effective and informed citizens in a democratic society as illustrated in Figure 1.

6. METHODOLOGY

The study adopted an evaluation research model based on both quantitative and qualitative interpretative paradigms. Quantitative approach is a means for examining the relationship among variables in a study. The variables are measured so that data generated can be analyzed using statistical procedure. Qualitative approach on the other hand enables understanding and interpretation of situations, events and meaning from people involved. Agreeing with this argument Cohen et al. (2011) explained that in qualitative interpretative paradigm words are emphasized when collecting and analyzing data instead of frequencies and distributions. In this study, quantitatively concepts and issues that influence cooperation among preschool learners in Nairobi County were examined precisely. At the same time concepts emerging from the data were worked on iteratively between the themes to establish a comprehensive conclusion in accordance with Orodho et al. (2016).

Using stratified random sampling, preschools were selected from each of Nairobi’s 11 sub-counties.  Stratified random sampling was systematically carried out to ensure each of the 11 sub counties were represented on the basis of the percentage number of preschools. From the selected schools, preschool teachers were purposely sampled to provide information.  Data collection instrument were used in securing information under study from a selected number of respondents through questionnaires for preschool teachers. The researcher depended on supervisors and two expert statisticians in verifying the content validity of the questionnaire, interview schedules, observation guide, and documentary analysis guide. In concurrence with Bolarinwa (2015) improving validity of instruments involves identifying vague questions and deficiencies then make improvements as well as providing clarity of instructions. In this study, assistance and suggestions from the supervisors were used to make clarify of questions where necessary and slotted in new items. In order to establish reliability, the questionnaire was administered to the same pilot sample twice in an interval of two weeks. The two week interval was suitable to evade the impact of repetition and to disuse by respondents. This study evaluated effectiveness of role playing, storytelling, and discussion methods in enhancing cooperation among preschool children.

7. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

7.1. Effectiveness of Social Studies Curriculum Instructional Methods and Cooperation

Promoting value based education through social studies requires appropriate pedagogical approaches to inculcate the sense of cooperation among preschool learners. This study determined effectiveness of role playing, storytelling, and discussion methods in enhancing cooperation among preschool learners.

7.2. Role Play and Cooperation

While most of essential themes of value based education are represented in the social studies curriculum, instilling the sense of cooperation requires utilization of appropriate instructional approaches.  Role playing would develop cooperation among learners through participating in activities like taking turns, sharing, and working together as effective citizens. Preschool teachers were asked to indicate how role playing work done by people in the community, activities of people in school and buying and selling in the market would instill cooperation among learners. Findings are shown in Table 1.

Table-1Role play Method and Cooperation.
Item
Work done by people in the community
Activities done by people in the school
Buying and selling in the market
Average
Agree
68.4%
86.7%
62.3%
72.4%
Uncertain
17.3%
0%
13.3%
10.2%
Disagree
14.3%
13.3%
24.5%
17.4%
Total
100.0%
100%
100.0%
100%

Source: Unpublished PhD Thesis: University of Nairobi

Willingness to work with others accomplishes a common goal leading to cooperation which is vital for effective societal integration. Results in Table 1 show that out of 98 preschool teachers sampled,  68.4%  agreed that role playing work done by people in the community enhances cooperation among learners through sharing ideas, listening to views of peers, turn taking and team work. This finding is consistent with the results of previous studies Thuraya (2016) showing that role playing method is an effective way of teaching team work and collaboration when learners jointly participate in play activities.  However, 17.3% of preschool teachers were uncertain while 14.3% disagreed which suggested that role playing work done by people in the community did not assist learners develop cooperation. Further, majority of preschool teachers, 86.7% agreed that role playing activities of people in the school enhances sense of cooperation when learners participate in chores collectively, obey school rules, solve problems effectively in groups and maintain collaborative team work as informed citizens. In addition, role play enables learners to explore morals and appropriate consequences of values based on own actions. On the other hand, 13.3% disagreed since they did not link knowledge on activities done by people in the vicinity to development of cooperation among learners.  In addition, 62.3% of preschool teachers agreed that role playing buying and selling reinforces cooperation among learners.  These teachers argued that as learners role play buying and selling they learn how to participate in chores together, listen to one another, take in instructions and discover ways of getting along with peers effectively. These findings are in concurrence with Miaz (2015) that role playing  develops skills and awareness for team work, equality, listening and cooperation in school settings for effective cohesion.

7.3. Story Telling and Cooperation

Storytelling is the original form of teaching and has potential of fostering cooperation among learners. As noted by Serrat (2010) storytelling as an approach of teaching values develops through real life experiences common for teachers and learners to work together and coexist effectively. Further, Elçin and Bolay (2017) argued that storytelling is a unique way for learners to value self and others and appreciate team work culture which involves listening, talking, collaboration and comprehension. In this study, teachers were requested to show how story telling about dangerous places and objects in the vicinity, use of courteous words and classmate within the environment enhance cooperation among learners. The results are shown in Table 2.

Table-2Story Telling Method and Cooperation.
Item
Dangerous places and objects in the vicinity
Using courteous words used in community
Classmates in the neighborhood
Average
Agree
83.2%
73.2%
67.2%
74.6%
Uncertain
4.3%
10.3%
17.3%
10.6%
Disagree
12.5%
16.5%
15.5%
14.8%
Total
100.0%
100%
100.0%
100%

Source: Unpublished PhD Thesis: University of Nairobi.

This study considered story telling as an effective instructional method of enhancing cooperation among preschool learners. Study findings in Table 2 show that 74.6% preschool teachers agreed that storytelling is effective in developing cooperation when learners emulate characters in the story. This is in line with findings of Fatma (2017) affirmation that storytelling helps learners gain insight into appropriate human behavior and collaboration with peers which creates harmony in society. In a deviation from this finding, 10.6% of preschool teachers remained uncertain and 14.8% disagreed on effectiveness of storytelling and enhancement of cooperation among learners as an indication of the mismatch between instructional methods adopted and integration of value based education. Additional study findings revealed that 83.2% of preschool teachers agreed that using storytelling to teach children dangerous places and objects in vicinity is effective in enhancing cooperation among learners. These teachers felt that as learners tell stories about dangerous places in the surrounding, they discover ways of exchanging ideas and listening to opinions of peers on safety areas for effective integration in community. This is based on realization that team work requires people to work cooperatively with others towards a shared purpose in the community which agrees with Takala and Auvnen (2014) affirmation that storytelling technique gives learners a chance to share ideas and information for promoting positive interactions and communal cohesion.  However, in departure from this, 4.3% of preschool teachers were uncertain and 12.5% disagreed that knowledge on dangerous places within that vicinity could develop cooperation among learners. Further still, 73.3% agreed that knowledge on use of courteous words through storytelling enhances cooperation when learners adopt effective communication within the society. This is in agreement with Smith (2012) findings that effectiveness of storytelling is when learners can use polite language in communication with other members within the environment for societal unity. Additionally, 67.2% of preschool teachers agreed that learning about classmates in the neighborhood enhances cooperation for learners to appreciate diversity for effective living.  This is based on realization  that storytelling provides a motivating and interacting environment for learners to develop communicative competence for appreciating different cultures, encouraging positive attitudes and ability to collaborate with peers in class, home and in community for societal cohesion.

8. DISCUSSION AND COOPERATION

Discussions enable learners to communicate effectively, explain ideas, express feelings in an open way, ask questions and encourage group members who could be experiencing challenges in social interactions. As noted by Retnowati et al. (2018) contributions to cooperation character development requires teachers  to think of values by providing support to link multiple concepts, skills or topics to instill cooperation among learners. Teachers were requested to indicate how discussion on clothes worn by family members, safety measures when crossing the road and collecting and disposing garbage would enhance cooperation among learners. Findings are indicated inTable 3.

Table-3Discussion Method and Cooperation.
Item
Clothes worn by family members
Safety measures when crossing the road
Collecting and disposing garbage in the surrounding
Average
Agree
71.4%
76.4%
70.4%
72.7%
Uncertain
10.2%
5.2%
13.3%
9.6%
Disagree
18.4%
18.3%
16.3%
17.7%
Total
100%
100%
100%
100%

Source: Unpublished PhD Thesis: University of Nairobi.

From the study findings in Table 3, out of 98 preschool teachers, 71.4% were in agreement that discussing about clothes worn by family members enhances cooperativeness among learners through development of positive attitudes towards keeping clothes clean, sorting before washing and appreciating appropriate ways of taking care of clothes. Moreover, learners need to be cooperative in order to learn behaviors that are socially enhancing including sharing and taking turns for creating harmony in society. The teachers felt that through discussion, learners become aware of how to help in cleaning clothes, recognizing appropriate modes of dressing, and encouraging those who may be experiencing challenges in dressing which leads to social acceptability and team spirit. On the other hand, 10.2% were uncertain yet 18.4% disagreed which suggested that discussion alone was not effective in enhancing cooperation among learners. In teaching safely measures when crossing the road, 76.4% of preschool teachers agreed that this enhances cooperation among learners through listening to others’ ideas on how to cross the road, discussing openly and supporting one another and helping peers who were unable to use the road effectively. These finding agrees with Nelson and Boisvert (2011) who noted that discussion method of teaching nurtures learner’s capacity to engage in group activities and projects collaboratively for appropriate interaction.  An additional 70.4% of preschool teachers agreed that discussing about collecting and disposing garbage in the surrounding enhances cooperation for working in teams and observing environmental hygiene. The teachers further indicated that discussion method helps learners to demonstrate support for one another to accomplish set goals, promote awareness of differences within groups, encourage reflection on the stresses of working within the group which encourages listening skills to ensure that everyone in the group speaks effectively. This is an indication that discussion method of teaching and learning social studies enhances cooperation among learners for cohesion in society.

9. CONCLUSION

The study established that promoting value based education through social studies curriculum requires appropriate pedagogical approaches to inculcate cooperation among preschool learners. On average, 72.40% of preschool teachers indicated that role playing work done by people in community, activities of people in school and buying and selling in the market enhances cooperation among learners through sharing ideas, listening to views of peers, turn taking and team work. Further, 74.40% of preschool teachers affirmed that story telling about dangerous places and objects in the vicinity, use of courteous words, and classmate enhances cooperation for learners to practice team work as productive members of the society.  In addition, 72.70% reported that discussion on clothes worn by family members, safety measures when crossing the road and collecting and disposing garbage develops sense of responsibility among learners. However teachers should select appropriate instructional methods and teach practically with global encompassing themes by grouping values together into meaningful units of study for learners to develop cooperativeness for communal unity.            

10. RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Schools should support value based education through effective utilization of instructional methods for enhancing cooperation among learners for effective citizenry.
  • The government should enhance training of preschool teachers on implementation of the revised social studies curriculum which is value laden for learners to develop cooperation for effective citizenship while progressing to adulthood.
  • The government should enact effective policies as guiding principles in choice of instructional methods that should be adopted by preschool teachers for learners to develop values inherent in social studies curriculum.
  • There is dire need for further research in value based education for learners to acquire knowledge, skills and values for confronting issues in modern world as effective citizens for sustainable development.

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About the Authors

Ganira Khavugwi Lilian
Department of Educational Communication and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Odundo Amollo Paul
Department of Educational Communication and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Gatumu Jane Ciumuari
Department of Educational Communication and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Muasya Njeri Juliet
Department of Educational Communication and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Corresponding Authors

Odundo Amollo Paul

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