American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities

Volume 4, Number 2 (2019) pp 316-338 doi 10.20448/801.42.316.338 | Research Articles

 

Discernment, Contiguous Inspirations and Knowledge of Health Risks Associated with Alcohol Consumption among Literate Young Adults: An Exploratory and Investigatory Study Approach

Taofik, Olatunji Bankole 1Abiodun, Oluwaseun Oyebode 2
1 Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.
2 Department of Social Sciences and Humanities, Federal Polytechnic, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The consequences of consuming alcoholic beverages are enormous. There are health related complications, both severe and chronic conditions that are linked to excessive alcohol consumption. In Nigeria, previous studies exploring alcoholism among students have focused primarily on its implications on academic outcomes. Also, there are few specific contemporary studies that have explored the mix-methods in establishing predictors of alcoholism among students in Nigeria. Against these backdrops, this study reconnoitered the correlation between discernment, contiguous inspirations and knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption among young literate adults. Quantitative data were sourced from 400 systematically, randomly and proportionally sampled students from University of Ilorin, Federal Polytechnic Offa and Kwara State College of Education. Qualitative data were explored through the conduction of 10 In-depth Interviews across the studied institutions. The Stata version 14 was adopted. Results of the Correlation matrix showed an existence of weak strength (r<0.5) together with both inverse and direct coefficient of analysed explanatory and response variables in the study. Results of the rank-ordered logistics showed students’ knowledge of health risks of alcohol was significantly associated with discernment (ß= -0.608, p<0.01; ß= 0.456, p<0.01; ß= -0.557, p<0.01; ß= -0.465, p<0.01) and contiguous inspirations (ß= -0.797, p<0.01; ß= 1.079, p<0.01; ß=-1.157, p<0.001). Outcomes of the qualitative study revealed that students consumed alcoholic drinks despite having knowledge of its negative implications. This study concluded by empirically instituting contiguous inspirations and discernment as the key predictors of alcohol consumption among young literate adults in Kwara State, Northcentral Nigeria.

Keywords: Health risks, Young adult, Discernment, Contiguous, Alcoholic beverages, Knowledge, Literate, Inspirations.

DOI: 10.20448/801.42.316.338

Citation | Taofik, Olatunji Bankole; Abiodun, Oluwaseun Oyebode (2019). Discernment, Contiguous Inspirations and Knowledge of Health Risks Associated with Alcohol Consumption among Literate Young Adults: An Exploratory and Investigatory Study Approach. American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(2): 316-338.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors hereby declare that this work has neither been submitted to other journal(s) for publication nor previously published somewhere else.

History : Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019 .

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • The study is among the very few empirical researches that have emplored the mix-method study technique to validate association between contiguous inspirations, discernment, socio-demographic factors and health risks of literate youth about alcohol consumption.
  • This study provides course of action to proffering way out from alcoholism and suggests measures that need to be adopted by key stakeholders on tertiary education issues in order to obviate the longrun health, academic and psychosocial implications of excessive consumption of alcoholic drinks among students of higher institutions of learning in the country.

1. INTRODUCTION

In recent time, the consumption of sugar and energy beverages has increased in the developed and developing countries of the world among young and adults population (Ojo et al., 2010; Vartanian et al., 2010). In fact, World Health Organisation (2019) have also reported that the influence of excessive use of alcohol has affected many communities and it is now a global problem as it results in 2.5 million deaths yearly. Besides, alcohol is related to many other thoughtful social and developmental problems such as various forms of abuses, child neglect, and absenteeism, among others (Adeoye and Ayodele, 2014). The WHO (2019) noted that alcohol consumption is not a contemporary phenomenon, but has been practiced for several decades and, it is a common feature inmost social gatherings across regions of the world. Thus, recent increase in alcohol consumption among adult and young people calls for serious concern. Consumption of alcohol could result into serious health issues such as cardiovascular complications, gastrointestinal complications, neurological and psychiatric complications, cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, liver, colon, and breast. It could also result into liver diseases such as alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis, and other gastrointestinal complications (Bleich et al., 2008; Sung et al., 2016).

In general, students who drink a lot of alcohol are susceptible to more risky behaviors compared to those who do not drink (Perkins, 2002). In a similar context, it has been contended that alcohol abuse and alcoholism contribute directly or indirectly to physical, social and mental damages (Gillespie et al., 2007; Butler et al., 2011) . Besides affecting others and leading to domestic violence, alcoholism breeds marital conflicts, and increased rate of traffic accidents among others (Gillespie et al., 2007; Butler et al., 2011) . Furthermore, high alcohol in-take has consequences on the growth and development of young people and their abilities to concentrate on their daily activities, including those related to their school work. Severe use or heavy intake of alcohol can impair the cognitive assessment and decisions of young people. The possibility lies in the ripple effects of high alcohol consumption on the brain and its functions. Similar implications have been noted on learning, memories, visualization and communication skills (Perkins, 2002). Thus, the complications arising from alcohol consumption among young persons are different from those in adults (Kuntsche et al., 2011). Drinking during important social occasions actually characterised many traditional Nigerian societies (Gureje and Olley, 1992).

Awoyinfa (2012) and Amadi (2010) noted that alcohol consumption is a common feature in many cultures of the world, and it is assumed to be the first known chemical mood changer. In African traditional religion, alcohol occupies a prominent position in the worship of their deities (Amadi, 2010). Studies have revealed that among young adults, the harmful effects of alcohol consumption often involve changes in the relationship with family, peers, and teachers (Aworemi et al., 2010; Hassan, 2013). It also results into poor school performance, hostility, crime, public disorder and high-risk behaviors, such as driving after drinking, engaging in unprotected sexual activities (Groves et al., 2007). The resultant effect are pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases among others  (Gillespie et al., 2007; Singleton and Wolfson, 2009; Butler et al., 2011) .

In addition, a number of studies have reported that low level of academic performance can be related to too much consumption of alcohol (Ansari et al., 2013; Ndegwa et al., 2017). One plausible explanation for this assumption is that serious alcohol consumption in most cases usually leads to structural vicissitudes in the brain causing a reduced memory and cognitive functions (Anderson, 2011; Sung et al., 2016). Thus across the globe, implications of alcohol consumption are visible on the poor health condition of many students and their inability to concentrate on their studies. It has also resulted into loss of appetite, cognitive impairment and exposure to heart related infections among others (Rehm et al., 2009; Vartanian et al., 2010; WHO, 2019) .

For most young adult, transition from secondary school to higher institution did not only separate them from their families at the formation stage of life but also exposed them to risky behaviours (Adeyemo, 2007; WHO, 2019). Consequently, they are exposed to psychoactive substances and alcohol manifest in the numerous health challenges and other mental issues (Rehm et al., 2009; Kuntsche et al., 2011) . In fact, alcohol consumption among young adulthood remains a prominent public health problem (Singleton and Wolfson, 2009). Although many consumers claimed they derived boldness and strength from consumption of these drinks (Ansari et al., 2013). Also, some studies noted that there are positive and non-positive motives for alcoholic consumption among higher institution students in Nigeria (Abasiubong et al., 2012); and other studies revealed that most students take alcohol for several reasons, which include emotional escape, gaining confidence and as strategy for coping with difficult or unpalatable situations among others (Aertgeerts and Buntinx, 2002; Ojo et al., 2010; Kuntsche et al., 2011; Hassan, 2013) .

In Nigeria, the increase in alcohol consumption among students of tertiary institutions comes along with many side effects. One of the negative side effects of alcohol consumption is its severe implications for the mental and psychosocial health and wellbeing of a person (Adeoye and Ayodele, 2014). It was argued by Idoko et al. (2015) that the consumption of alcoholic drinks is a common phenomenon among youth, and it is more  prevalent among students of tertiary institutions who enjoy some level of autonomy  and possibly do things at their own free will (Onongha, 2012). It was suggested that that failure of parents to monitor students in school have resulted in increase of consumption of alcohol among students, and have affected their academic performance (Audu, 2011). Also, it was generally believed that failure of students could lead to a blinking future more so in a global competitive labour market (Idoko et al., 2015).

It is an undeniable fact that alcoholic drinks contain ethanol, and this influences the behaviour of its patronizers. Notable alcoholic drinks such as beers and spirits and other beverages that contain stimulant drugs, typically containing caffeine, herbal extracts carbonated drinks, taurine and amino acids among others (Adekeye, 2012; Olusola and Afolayan, 2012). In most universities, fresh and stale students are provided with distinctive opportunity to be a part of a bigger group of peers who are without parental supervision. They are also confronted with so called autonomy which eventually makes them more liable to various activities, including alcohol consumption and other illicit experiences (Ansari et al., 2013). The rate at which alcoholic drinks and other substances are being consumed by the young people globally is quite alarming and demands urgent attention as well as further studies (Amadi, 2010; Ndegwa et al., 2017).  The fact is that the use and abuse of alcohol is not only harmful but has serious implications for the health status of students in tertiary institutions. Previous studies have mainly examined the negative influence of alcohol consumption on students’ academic performance in Nigeria (Adekeye, 2012; Awoyinfa, 2012; Abayomi et al., 2013; Idoko et al., 2015) . In fact, some of these studies have been more descriptive and have rarely investigated the causal-effects relationship between alcohol consumption and health risks that are associated with it among undergraduate students in tertiary institutions.

In other words, some of these studies have focused primarily on the consequences of alcohol consumption on students’ academic performance (Adekeye, 2012; Awoyinfa, 2012; Onongha, 2012; Idoko et al., 2015) .  To be precise, most of the studies in the Nigerian context have focused on the effects of drugs and alcohol consumption on students’ academic performance (Adelekan et al., 2000; Balogun, 2006 ; Olusola and Afolayan, 2012; Adeoye and Ayodele, 2014) . Also, there are few specific contemporary studies that have adopted the combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches in investigating or exploring the predictors of alcohol addiction among tertiary institution students in the country. It is against the dearth of knowledge on the subject matter that this study explored and investigated contiguous inspirations and discernment as predictors of knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption among literate students in Kwara State, Northcentral Nigeria. The broad objective of this study was to explore and investigate contiguous inspiration, discernment and socio-demographic factors as predictors of students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. Four hypotheses were carried out in course of these. First, the study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. Also, the study investigated the association between contiguous inspiration and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. Furthermore, the study examined the link between discernment and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. In order to validate the interactional influence of the identified explanatory and confounding variables on the response variable, the study investigated the joint-effect of contiguous inspiration and discernment on students’ knowledge on health risks associated with alcohol consumption. In line with the broad objective of the study, qualitative study was explored to complement the findings obtained from the quantitative aspect of the study.

1.1. The Theory of Alcohol Expectancy

Alcohol expectancies refer to the anticipated behavioural, cognitive, and affective concerns of drinking. There are individual’s expectations about the consequences that alcohol consumption will have on drinkers. The alcohol expectancy theory relies profoundly on behavioural explanations of drinking. Imperatively, social influences such as family, peers, and modeling of alcohol use have been purported to heavily impact alcohol related beliefs (Christiansen et al., 1982). Previous empirical studies have demonstrated that alcohol expectancies influence drinking patterns across a number of populations, including children, adolescents, higher institution students, and alcoholics. It was argued that a child’s beliefs about the effects of alcohol predict his or her consumption later in life (Yu, 2003; Dumbili, 2013). The theory of alcohol expectancy is found to be relevant in this study in sense that the knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption could be attributed to the environmental or societal influence that a student in tertiary institution was subjected to as a growing child. Also, the affective concerns students have towards alcohol can be attributed to their perception as a result of their anticipated behavioural gains that come with their drinking of alcohol. Hence, the theory of alcohol expectancy underpins this study.

2. METHODS

2.1. Research Design, Data Sources, Sample Size and Sampling Technique

This study adopted a mixed-method approach to investigate the relationship between awareness and perception of health risk associated with consumption of alcohol drinks among students of public tertiary institutions in Kwara State, Nigeria. The cross-sectional survey method was adopted. Four hundred (400) undergraduates were selected using the snowball research technique. The quantitative data were collected through a well-designed questionnaire. The snow ball sampling technique was used in the selection of targeted respondents for the study. The qualitative aspect of the study attempted to explore the influence of alcohol consumption on undergraduates’ health well-being and the motive behind the consumption of alcohol among undergraduates in the studied areas. The qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews across the selected locations. Four in-depth interviews were conducted in University of Ilorin while three (3) in-depth interviews were Federal Polytechnic, Offa and Kwara State College of Education, Oro each. Therefore, ten (10) in-depth interviews were conducted in the three selected institutions. The study’s data was sourced between March and April, 2019. Authors engaged the services of three research assistants across the three studied institutions over the scheduled time frame.

The numbers of respondents in each of the study locations is based on the enrolment rate in each of the selected public higher institutions of leaning using Slovin’s formula: n = N/ (N+1) ℮2. Numbers of undergraduates was obtained from personnel office in the selected tertiary institutions.
Where

n              =             the required sample size

N             =

2          =             Prevalence rate = 0.5

N             =

N             =

Note: To cater for the response error, 10% of the sample size (400), i.e. 40 additional samples.

The derivation of sample size from each of the selected institutions was proportionally carried out based on the total population of students in each of these schools.

2.2. Research Variables

The response variable of the study is knowledge of health risk associated with alcohol consumption; and it was aggregated into students with adequate knowledge, inadequate knowledge and those with indifferent views. The explanatory variables of the study were discernment of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and contiguous inspiration. Discernment factors were captured by investigating and exploring students’ awareness and perception towards consumption of alcohol while contiguous inspiration was measured with motivating factors that could influence urge for alcoholic beverages. Students’ perception towards alcohol consumption was aggregated into respondents with positive perception, those with negative perception and students with indifferent perception. Some selected socio-demographic characteristics (gender, level of study, family type, income earned or stipend received, age, head of household level of education, religion) of the respondents’ were introduced as confounding variables of the study.

Figure-1. Conceptual model linking students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption to contiguous inspiration, discerning and socio-demographic factors.

2.3. Data Analysis

The obtained data were sorted, cleaned, coded and analysed. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 14. The background information was analysed using the appropriate descriptive statistics. At the univariate level of analysis, the factorial analysis technique was employed in the derivation of the mean scores; while at the bivariate level of analysis, correlation statistic was employed to establish the strength, direction and significant level of association between the key explanatory variables (discernment and contiguous inspirations) and the response variable (knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption). The derived results are presented in a correlation matrix. The rank ordered-logistic regression was introduced at the multivariate level of analysis. At this level of study, both the unadjusted (introducing controlled variables) and adjusted (full model) statistical analyses were carried out employing the rank-ordered logistic analysis to further establish the causal-effect association between the response variable and identified explanatory variables of the study. Religion’s affiliation was adopted as the group variable for the rank ordered analysis. The confidence level for this study was set at 95%. Therefore, the outcomes of the study if found to be < 0.05 were considered as being significantly associated while the qualitative data were analysed through content analysis. Imperatively, only results of significantly associated (with the exception for variables keyed into the full model) were reported in Tables as found appropriate.

3. RESULTS

3.1. Students’ Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics

Table 1 presents the results of the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondents. Results show that less than 10% of the respondents from University of Ilorin were below 20 years of age, about 61% of the respondents from Federal Polytechnic Offa were in age group of 21 to 29 years old, while 4% of the respondents from Kwara State College of Education Oro was above 30 years of age. 68% respondents from University of Ilorin were male students and nearly one-third were female students. Also, more than half (59.4%) of the respondents from Federal Polytechnic Offa were male students and about 41% were female students, while more than one-third (36%) of the respondents from Kwara State College of Education were male students and about two-thirds were female students.

However, one–quarter of the respondents from Federal Polytechnic Offa which is while (28%) from Kwara State College of Education, Oro  and 13.8% of respondents from University of Ilorin were part-time students. The results further showed that more than 73% of the respondents from University of Ilorin were resident on campus at least one in every four students were not resident on campus. The result also shows that about two-thirds of the respondents from Kwara State College of Education were resident off-campus while nearly one-third were resident on-campus meanwhile the results from Federal Polytechnic Offa showed that about 62% of the respondents were resident off-campus with 38.3% resident on-campus. About three-quarters of the respondents from University of Ilorin were Christians, 26.7% were Muslims and none (0%) were traditionalists. The results showed that more than half of the respondents from Federal Polytechnic, Offa were Christians.  While about 40% were Muslims and 7% were traditionalists.

About 70% of the respondents from University of Ilorin were from a monogamous family, while 78 (31.6%) were from polygamous home. The results from Federal Polytechnic, Offa showed that about half of the respondents were from monogamous families while 50.8% were from polygamous family. Also, results for Kwara State College of Education, Oro showed that more than half of the respondents were from monogamous families while 48% were from polygamous homes. Results showed that the average stipend received by respondents from University of Ilorin range between #10,001 and #15,000. Likewise, the average income received by respondents in Federal Polytechnic Offa and those in Kwara State College of Education, Oro were  in the range of #10,001 to #15,000 monthly.

Thus, going by the aforementioned result, it can be deduced that the respondents with the highest monthly income were from University of Ilorin, followed by respondents from Federal Polytechnic and Kwara State College of Education, Oro in order of decreasing monthly income. The average household size for respondents in University of Ilorin, Federal Polytechnic Offa and Kwara State College of Education, Oro ranged between 6 to 10 household members. However, the results reveals that the respondents from Federal Polytechnic, Offa which is (28.9%) averaged is more than respondents in University of Ilorin with (14.6%) and Kwara State College of Education, Oro (24%) respectively as relates to those from household with more than 10 members. Relatively, across the three selected institutions, less than half heads of households of the interviewed respondents had no tertiary education while about 14% and 10% of heads of households of students from University of Ilorin and Federal Polytechnic, Offa had no formal education at all.

3.2. Contiguous Inspirations Influencing Alcohol Consumption

Table 2 shows that (87.5%) of the respondents from Federal Polytechnic, Offa indicate high level of consumption among them while (43.3%) of students of University of Ilorin admit consuming alcohol to cheer themselves up.(100%) of the students of Kwara State College of Education, Oro admit to consume alcohol due to family abandonment.

Table-1. Percentage distribution of respondents by sociodemographic factors.
Variables
University of Ilorin
Fed. Polytechnic
Offa
Kwara State
College of Education
Household head level of education
No formal education
Elementary 
High school
Post-secondary
Vocational
Age Category
 
34 (13.8)
24 (9.7)
60 (24.3)
100 (40.5)
29 (11.7)
 
12 (9.4)
10 (7.8)
41 (32.0)
60 (46.9)
5 (3.9)
 
1 (4.0)
0 (0.0)
11 (44.0)
12 (48.0)
1 (4.0)
< 20 years
24 (9.7)
42 (32.8)
8 (32.0)
21-29 years
156 (63.2)
78 (60.9)
16 (64.0)
30 years & above
67 (17.1)
8 (6.3)
1 (4.0)
Gender
Male
168 (68.0)
76 (59.4)
9 (36.0)
Female
79 (32.0)
52 (40.6)
16 (64.0)
Place of accommodation
Lived on campus
181 (73.3)
49 (38.3)
8 (32.0)
Lived off campus
66 (26.7)
79 (61.7)
17 (68.0)
Religion
Christianity
181 (73.3)
68 (53.1)
14 (56.0)
Islam
66 (26.7)
51 (39.8)
11 (44.0)
African traditional
0 (0)
9 (7.0)
0 (0)
Family fype
Monogamous
169 (68.4)
63 (49.2)
13 (52.0)
Polygamous
78 (31.6)
65 (50.8)
12 (48.0)
Monthly stipend or income
≤ #10,799 (< US$30)
15(6.1)
6(4.7)
1 (4.0)
#10,800 - #21,599 (> US$30<US$60)
110 (44.5)
79 (61.7)
19 (76.0)
≥#21, 600 (≥US$60)
122(49.4)
43 (33.6)
3 (20.0)
Family household size
1-5
76 (30.8)
24 (18.8)
6 (24.0)
6-10
135 (54.7)
67 (52.3)
13 (52.0)
>10
36 (14.6)
37 (28.9)
6 (24.0)

Source: Field survey, 2019.

There was no students from Kwara State College of Education, Oro that is (0%) who are given to alcohol due to positive peer influence while (32.8%) and (16.4%) of students of University of Ilorin and students of Federal Polytechnic, Offa respectively admits to taking alcohol for bravado reasons. The study further reviews that (14.8%) of the respondents of Federal Polytechnic, takes to alcohol for environmental influence than respondents from University of Ilorin. It is worthy to note that (24.3%) and (14.1%) of the respondents from University of Ilorin and Federal Polytechnic, Offa respectively sometime resolve to taking alcohol due to academic pressure while none (0%) of the respondents from Kwara State College of Education, Oro was motivated to consuming alcohol as a result of academic pressure.

More of the respondents from Federal Polytechnic, Offa of (79.7%) than respondents from University of Ilorin sometime take to alcohol whenever they were under pressure while all (100%) respondents from Kwara State College of Education, Oro resolve to alcohol when under pressure. The results further review that among the respondents from University of Ilorin that loneliness is among other factor motivate them into consuming alcohol while keeping friends  that consume alcoholic drinks was seen as the least motivating factors that influenced alcohol consumption.

The analysis aforementioned were compiled from the findings of in-depth interviews conducted with the respondents whose identities were captured numerically and on fictitious names base on  no particular order for confidentiality sake as follows:

Taking alcohol is not that harmful as people generally believed. For instance, I always find it difficult to sleep well without taking alcoholic drinks. Besides, I can’t imagine myself demanding for non-alcoholic drinks at parties (IDI with a 22 year old, Female, 300 Level, Kwara State College of Education, 2019).

The memory of the first time I took alcohol is still very fresh on my mind. In fact, I vomited throughout the night; now I feel incomplete and in active without taking alcohol at intervals of two to three days every week. I would say that I was lured into alcohol by my close friends when I was in SS 3 in my secondary school.  To me, I think alcohol, especially the herbal alcoholic drinks is good for the body system. (IDI with a 25 year old, Male, HND I, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, 2019).

I can’t relate well with my peers without taking alcohol. We are a group of six friends that take pleasure in consuming alcohol every weekend, and this we achieve by taking some alcohol at our favourite joint. I have to be sincere with you, my parents did not tolerate this attitude. I take alcohol to feel “high” especially when my girlfriend visits me. At least, man must enjoy…after all man no be wood. (IDI with a 24 years Old Male 300 Level, University of Ilorin, 2019).

If you want to take my inspiration away, just deny me access to alcoholic drinks. I derive my self-esteem among friends from alcohol. Although I have been taking alcohol even before I gained admission to this University, I will say my friends make me take the quest for alcohol to the next level (IDI with a 27 year Old Male 500 Level, University of Ilorin, 2019).

Table-2. Contiguous inspirations influencing alcohol consumption among students.
Variable
University of Ilorin
Federal Polytechnic Offa
Kwara State College of Education, Oro
Contiguous inspiration
Yes (%)
No (%)
Yes (%)
No (%)
Yes (%)
No (%)
I take alcohol to cheer up myself whenever I feel lonely
107(43.3)
140(59.7)
112(87.5)
16(12.5)
25(100)
0(0)
I resolve to alcohol as a result of family abandonment
95(38.5)
152(61.5)
112(87.5)
16(12.5)
25(100)
0(0)
Taking alcohol gives me boldness and confidence to do what I want to do
81(32.8)
166(67.2)
21(16.4)
107(83.6)
0(0)
25(100)
I take alcohol to keep tiles with my peers and close friends
53(21.5)
194(78.5)
16(12.5)
112(87.5)
0(0)
25(100)
I sometime resolve to alcohol due to academic frustration
60(24.3)
187(75.7)
18(14.1)
110(85.9)
0(0)
25(100)
I spend my extra income received from my parents on alcohol
72(29.2)
175(70.9)
26(20.3)
102(79.7)
0(0)
25(100)
Taking to alcohol is something that I naturally desire as it gives me pleasure
98(39.7)
149(60.3)
57(44.5)
71(55.5)
25(100)
0(0)
The environment that I grew up stirred-up my desire for alcohol
66(26.7)
181(73.3)
19(14.8)
109(85.2)
0(0)
25(100)
My environment encourages me to take to alcohol consumption
64(25.9)
183(74.1)
19(14.8)
109(85.2)
0(0)
25(100)
I prefer alcohol to any other drinks whenever I attend parties/occasions
75(30.4)
172(69.6)
102(79.7)
26(20.3)
25(100)
0(0)
I sometime resolve to taking alcohol when I am under pressure
75(30.4)
172(69.6)
102(79.7)
26(20.3)
25(100)
0(0)

Source: Field survey, 2019.

3.3. Discernment and Alcohol Consumption among Students

Table 3 shows that about 49% of the respondents agreed that consumption of alcohol was not a waste of money and more than 28.3% strongly disagreed that alcohol enhanced their reading ability. Also, it could be deduced from the outcomes of the study that approximately 35.1% of the respondents strongly disagreed. It is an issues of appetite while 8.5% strongly agreed that they found it difficult to sleep well without consuming alcohol.  53% of the respondents disagreed that alcohol consumption sometimes instigate aggressive behaviour in them, and 17.5% of the respondents strongly disagreed that alcohol consumption made a high level of self-esteem. On the other hand, 51.3% of the respondents agreed that alcoholic drinks increased their libido while 50% of the respondents disagreed that alcohol consumption made one agile and active. The outcomes of the study, likewise, showed that 10.8% of the respondents strongly agreed that moderate consumption of alcohol was not a violation of one’s religion doctrine. Also, 54.8% of the respondents disagreed that taking of alcoholic drinks enhances comprehension while studying 50.3% of the respondents disagreed that they had never skipped class as a result of consumption of alcoholic drinks. The results further show that (3.29) students perceived loss of one’s sense of reasoning and (3.26) increased libido are the two major incident that could arise from consumption of alcoholic drinks. On the other hand, (2.15) of students responded of their inability to sleep well  and (2.25) skipping classes  were perceived by the respondents as the two least incidences that could attributed to consumption of alcohol among students respectively.

The findings on the perception of students about alcohol consumption in this study is corroborated by the in-depth interview conducted with a respondent who stated as follows:

Alcohol makes me tipsy whenever I take it in excess, however, as far as I am concerned, alcohol gives me high level of confidence and boldness. Another thing that I can say about myself is that whenever I take alcohol before attending lecture, I always understand what my lecturer is teaching me clearly. I sometimes loss appetite when I drink heavily but that does not stop me from sleeping well (IDI with a 25 year Old, Male 200 Level, University of Ilorin, 2019).

Is there anything bad in taking a little amount of palm wine or origin herbal alcoholic drinks…well, as far as am concern taking alcohol makes me agile, smarter and play  well with ladies,. If you know what l mean. Some people may become aggressive or start a fight whenever they consume alcohol in excess but for me, no alcohol no sleep. For me, it’s good to take alcohol because it boosts my sexual performance and science confirms that too. You see alcohol is not as bad as painted by the society…although taking it in excess is bad. (IDI with a 24 year Old, Male, 300 Level, Kwara State College of Education, 2019).

I take alcohol   moderately and this has not in any way affected my studies. I think the problem with some students that drink is that they are fond of taking alcohol in excess. Once, I observe that I am beginning to feel dizzy as a result of alcohol consumption, I stop further consumption and I retreat to my home for a sound sleep. In fact, I have observed that taking alcohol in moderation helps me to read and assimilate better (IDI with a 25 year Old Male HND II, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, 2019).

Taking alcohol is good for the body. The only problem is that some students take alcohol beyond their capacity and start misbehaving. As far as alcohol is concerned, it is not a problem to students’ health rather poor welfare and poor eating habits by some of us. Students eat a lot of junk food and majority don’t exercise their body (IDI with a 27 year Old, Male, 500 Level, University of Ilorin, 2019).

Table-3. Discernment and alcohol consumption among students.

Perception about alcohol consumption

Strongly disagree (%)
Disagree
(%)
Undecided
(%)
Agree
(%)
Strongly agree (%)
Mean
Rank

Alcohol consumption is not a waste of money 

84(21)
41(10.3)
31(7.8)
196(49)
48(12)
3.21
3rd

Alcohol enhances reading ability

113(28.3)
68(17)
175(43.8)
16(4)
28(7)
2.45
13th

Alcohol consumption aids effective communication

112(28)
56(14)
184(46)
17(4.3)
31(7.8)
2.49
10th

Alcohol consumption reduces appetite

88(35.1)
61(24.3)
33(13.2)
36(14.3)
33(13.2)
2.46
12th

I cannot sleep well without consuming alcohol

113(28.3)
208(52)
21(5.3)
24(6)
34(8.5)
2.15
19th

Taking of alcohol sometimes instigates aggressiveness

78(19.5)
212(53)
37(9.3)
35(8.8)
38(9.5)
2.36
15th

I sometimes skip classes due to alcohol consumption

101(25.3)
201(50.3)
29(7.3)
25(8.8)
34(8.5)
2.25
18th

I Sometimes feel drizzles and inactive after taking alcohol

72(18)
198(49.5)
39(9.8)
52(13)
39(9.8)
2.47
11th

Taking of alcohol drives away some close friends from me

78(19.5)
212(53)
35(8.8)
42(10.5)
33(8.3)
2.35
16th

I easily pick-up argument which sometimes lead to fight after consuming alcohol

 
78(19.5)
 
50(12.5)
 
185(46.3)
 
46(11.5)
 
41(10.3)
 
2.81
 
5th

Alcohols makes me have a high level of self-esteem

70(17.5)
193(48.3)
38(9.5)
65(16.3)
34(8.5)
2.5
9th

Alcoholic drinks is healthy as long as it is not consumed in excess

55(13.8)
202(50.5)
25(6.3)
51(12.8)
67(16.8)
2.68
6th

Taking of Alcoholic drinks stimulates comprehension while studying

 
73(18.3)
 
219(54.8)
 
43(10.8)
 
36(9)
 
29(7.3)
 
2.32
 
17th

It is good to take alcohol drinks at times

55(13.8)
189(47.3)
43(10.8)
68(17)
45(11.3)
2.65
7th

Taking alcohol makes me relate well with my friends

77(19.3)
203(50.8)
37(9.3)
47(11.8)
36(9)
2.41
14th

Consumption of alcohol increases one’s libido

64(16)
49(12.3)
45(11.3)
205(51.3)
37(9.3)
3.26
2nd

Taking alcohol makes me more agile and active

65(16.3)
200(50)
35(8.8)
64(16)
36(9)
2.52
8th

Moderate consumption of alcohol is not a violation of one’s religion doctrine

 
75(16.8)
 
50(12.5)
 
192(48)
 
40(10)
 
43(10.8)
 
2.82
 
4th

Alcohol consumption has never distorted made me loss my sense of reasoning

 
75(18.8)
 
50(12.5)
 
192(48)
 
40(10)
 
43(10.8)
 
3.29
 
1st

 

Aggregate Measure of Perception about Alcohol Consumption

Positive (%)
Indifferent (%)
Negative (%)
 
139(34.8)
 
157(39.3)
 
104(26)

Source: Field survey, 2019.

3.4. Knowledge of Health Risk of Alcohol Consumption

Table 4 shows students’ knowledge of health risk associated with alcohol consumption.  2.83 (16.3%) of respondents identified road accident as the highest risk that could arise as a result of drinking of alcoholic consumption while driving. Also, 2.69 (10.5%) and 2.68 (9.5%) of the respondents identified drinkers’ vulnerability to injuries, cardiac and liver related diseases as the second and third health risks that could be attributed to alcohol consumption among students respectively. However, the distribution of the respondents according to their knowledge of health risks that could be attributed to alcohol consumption showed that the possibility of 1.69 (5.3%) falling sick, loss of energy and strength than normal constituting 2.2 (8.3%) and 2.23 (8%) of poor coordination in speech were identified as the three least health risk behaviour that could arise from alcohol consumption among students.

The findings on the perception of students about alcohol consumption in this study are supported by an in-depth interview conducted with a respondent who stated the following:

Alcohol, when taken in moderation is good for the body; however, the danger lies in excessive consumption especially if one becomes an alcohol addict. It is true that alcohol can cause serious cardiac disease. I have seen people diagnosed of serious ailment as a result of excessive intake of alcohol over long period of time. The situation is worsened if such an alcoholic addict appetite has been replaced by his or her urge for alcohol. For me, I take alcohol in moderation and have never had any ailment due to alcohol consumption. (IDI with a 21 year Old, Male, OND II, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, 2019).

Alcohol may have some negative impacts on its consumer but the fact remains that alcohol is not as bad as its being painted. Although a few students have lost their lives in this school, and the cause of their death have been attributed to excessive consumption of alcohol; more of these deaths have been linked to other causes but not alcohol. Alcohol may become harmful if one is not eating well or taking it in excess just like have said earlier. I have been drinking alcohol for more than six years now and I have never for once landed myself in trouble or have an ailment diagnosed to have been caused as a result of my drinking. (IDI with a 26 year Old, Male, 400 Level, University of Ilorin, 2019).

Some of the common health risks that could arise from alcohol consumption may never have happened if alcohol consumption were moderate .l cannot see myself having deadly ailments such as lever cirrhosis, heart seizures, diabetes mellitus and others as a result of my drinking because I drink responsibly and I eat well.  I sometimes drink and drive, and see the road clearly…so the problem of road accident attributable to alcohol consumption is often when the driver is drunk. I have already taken two bottles of beer today but have I misbehaved before you? You just have to drink according to your capacity and learn to exercise your body too. (IDI with a 22 year, Male, 200 Level Old Student, Kwara State College of Education, 2019).

What is bad about a student taking alcohol? I am a Science Student and know quite well that our bodies need a significant amount of ethanol. This is what I am getting from alcohol. It is true that terminal deadly diseases such as liver, heart and lung infections have been attributed to excessive consumption of alcohol. The point here is that moderation in consumption of alcohol cannot lead to any of these deadly infections (IDI with a 27 year Old, Male 500 Level, University of Ilorin, 2019).

Table-4. Respondents’ knowledge of health risk associated with alcohol consumption.

Knowledge of health risks

Strongly disagree
(%)
Disagree
(%)
Undecided
(%)
Agree
(%)
Strongly agree (%)
Mean
Rank

Alcohol consumption make people get sick

257(64.3)
72(18)
29(7.3)
21(5.3)
21(5.3)
1.69
10th

Alcoholic drinks increases the level of aggressiveness

77(19.3)
215(53.8)
41(10.3)
40(10)
27(6.8)
2.31
5th

Alcoholic drinks induces memory loss

73(18.3)
213(53.3)
50(12.5)
44(11)
20(5)
2.31
5th

Drinking of alcoholic drinks before driving makes one vulnerable to  road accident

46(11.5)
182(45.5)
30(7.5)
77(19.3)
65(16.3)
2.83
1st

Alcohol consumption harm physical appearance

197(49.3)
45(11.3)
53(13.3)
64(16)
41(10.3)
2.27
7th

Alcohol consumption can lead to vision and hearing impairment

196(49)
35(8.8)
30(7.5)
88(22)
51(12.8)
2.41
4th

Alcohol consumption can lead to speech and coordination imbalance

202(50.5)
39(9.8)
55(13.8)
72(18)
32(8)
2.23
8th

Alcohol consumption can lead to cardiac and liver related diseases

50(12.5)
185(46.3)
43(10.8)
84(21)
38(9.5)
2.68
3rd

The short term effects of alcohol can increase your link of injuries like cuts, bruises, sprains and broken bones.

 
53(13.3)
 
180(45)
 
51(12.8)
 
74(18.5)
 
42(10.5)
 
2.69
 
2nd

Alcohol does not make me energetic and stronger than normal

202(50.5)
47(11.8)
53(13.3)
65(16.3)
33(8.3)
2.2
9th

Aggregate knowledge of health risks Associated with alcohol consumption

Adequate (%)
Inadequate (%)
Indifferent (%)
84(21)
164(41)
152(38)

Source: Field survey, 2019.

3.5. Relationship between Sociodemographic Characteristics and Knowledge of Health Risks Associated with Alcohol Consumption

The chi-square analysis results presented in Table 5 show that at least 4 in every 5 students under 30 years of age lack sufficient knowledge of the health implications of alcohol consumption. Also, the results show that age of students has a significant influence on their knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption 14.59; p<0.05). The results further show that more than 70% of the results irrespective of their place of residence while in school did not have full knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. In addition, the results show students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption is significantly influenced by place of accommodation 14.11; p<0.05). Results by respondents’ marital status show that more than three-quarters (81.6%) and more than two-thirds (73.8%) of unmarried students and married students had inadequate knowledge of the health risks associated with alcohol consumption respectively. More so, marital status of students was found to have influence on their knowledge of health risks associated with consumption of alcohol across the studied population 11.18; p<0.05).  Similarly to the aforementioned, results of the study show that there is a significant relationship between head of household and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption 11.70; p<0.05). Consistently, results of chi-square analysis for the study show that the identified socio-demographic characteristics of studied population have significant influence on the extent of tertiary institution students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption in Kwara State, Nigeria (p<0.05).

Table-5. Chi-square results showing relationship between students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics.
 
Knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption
 
Adequate (%)
Inadequate (%)
 
 
 
Sociodemographic sariables
df
p-value
Age category
< 20 years
10.8
89.2
14.593
2
0.001**
21-29 years
19.6
80.4
 
30 years & above
35.5
64.5
 
Place of accommodation
 
Lived on-campus
27.3
72.7
14.108
1
0.000***
Lived off-campus
11.7
88.3
 
Marital status
 
Single
18.4
81.6
11.178
2
0.025*
Married
26.2
73.8
 
Separated/Widowed/Divorced
33.3
66.7
 
Head of household
Level of education
 
No formal education
29.8
70.2
11.697
4
0.020*
Elementary
38.2
61.8
 
High school
16.1
83.9
Post-secondary
17.4
82.6
Vocational
25.7
74.3

Note:*Significant at p<0.05, **Significant at p<0.01, ***Significant at p<0.001.

3.6. Correlation Matrix Analysis Results Showing Association Between Discernment Factors, Contiguous Inspiration and Knowledge of Health Risks Associated with Alcohol Consumption among Students

The results of the correlation matrix presented in Table 6 show that the correlation strength between each of the identified discernment variables in this study and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption is weak (<0.5; thus, less than 50%).  Individually, the results show that there is an inverse significant association between students seeing consumption of alcohol as a waste of money and their knowledge of health risks associated with its consumption (r = -0.1995; p<0.05). Also, the result show that the existence of an inverse significant relationship between taking of alcohol to aid effective communication and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with its communication (r = -0.1199; p<0.05). Also, the results show that there is an inverse significant relationship between having knowledge of health risks of alcohol consumption and picking-up arguments which sometimes lead to fight with others among students (r = -0.1385; p<0.05). Our study’s results also show that there is an inverse significant association between students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol and taking alcohol with a desire to improving their sexual prowess in bed (r = -0.2071; p<0.05).  Equally, the outcomes of the study show that there is an inverse significant relationship between students' knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and experiencing of loss of sense of reasoning after taking alcoholic drinks (r = -0.1944; p<0.05). Contrarily, the results on the other hand show that there is a direct and significant relationship between students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and taking of alcoholic beverages in order to relate well with friends (r = 0.1176; p<0.05). In the same direction, our results show that there is a direct and significant relationship between students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and taking of alcohol with the intension of remaining agile or active at the point in time (r = 0.1012; p<0.05). In line with the outcomes of the study, the direction of the relationship between knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and discernment factors among the studied population in the selected tertiary institutions for this study are not only negatively but also positively linked.

Furthermore, the correlation matrix results between contiguous inspiration and knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption as presented in Table 7 show that students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption is direct and significantly associated with taking of alcohol to get rid of loneliness (r = 0.2169; p<0.05); get over family abandonment (r = 0.2507; p<0.05); to steer-up boldness and confidence (r = 0.1831; p<0.05). Contrarily, students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption is found to be inverse and significantly associated with taking of alcohol in order to keep tiles with peers and cordial friends (r = -0.2757; p<0.05); to overcome academic frustration (r = -0.2032; p<0.05); receiving more money than required from parents or guardians (r = -0.1955; p<0.05); for its natural pleasure (r = -0.2201; p<0.05); due to environmental influence (r = -0.1823; p<0.05); to subdue pressure (r = -0.1704; p<0.05). In the same way, the results establish the existence of an inverse and significant relationship between having knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and taking alcoholic beverages or drinks, particularly in occasions and parties (r = -0.2659; p<0.05).  As a whole, the show that the strength of the correlation between students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and contiguous inspiration among the studied population is weak (r <0.5, thus less than 50%).

Table-6. Results of correlation matrix showing the relationship between discernment and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption.

Variables

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR

Contiguous inspirations

Alcohol consumption is not a waste of money 

-0.1995*

Alcohol consumption aids effective communication

-0.1199*

I easily pick-up argument which sometimes lead to fight after consuming alcohol

-0.1385*

Taking alcohol makes me relate well with my friends

0.1176*

Consumption of alcohol increases one’s libido

-0.2071*

Taking alcohol makes me more agile and active

0.1012*

Alcohol consumption has never distorted made me loss my sense of reasoning

-0.1944*

Note: *Significant at p<0.05, **Significant at p<0.01, ***Significant at p<0.001.

Table-7. Results of correlation matrix showing the relationship between contiguous inspirations and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption.

Variables

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR
K_HR

Contiguous variables

I take alcohol to cheer up myself whenever am lonely

0.2169*

I resolve to alcohol as a result of family abandonment

0.2507*

Taking alcohol gives me boldness and confidence to do what I want to do

0.1831*

I take alcohol to keep tiles with my peers and close friends

-0.2757*

I sometime resolve to alcohol due to academic frustration

-0.2032*

I spend my extra income received from my parents on alcohol

-0.1955*

Taking to alcohol is something that I naturally desire as it gives me pleasure

-0.2201*

My environment encourages me to take to alcohol consumption

-0.1823*

I prefer alcohol to any other drinks whenever I attend parties/occasions

-0.2659*

I sometime resolve to taking alcohol when I am under pressure

-0.1704*

Note: *Significant at p<0.05; K_HR denotes knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption.

3.7. Results of Rank-ordered Logistic Regression Showing Association between Discernment Factors, Contiguous Inspiration and Knowledge of Health Risks Associated with Alcohol Consumption

As presented in Table 8, the rank-ordered logistic regression results of the likelihood ratio chi-square of 69.4 (chi 9) with a p-value of 0.000 is an indication that the fitted model as a whole is statistically significant compared to empty model with no covariates. Thus, discernments are significant predictors of students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. Explicitly, the results showed that knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and enhancement of students’ reading ability were empirically established to be inverse and significantly associated (ß= -0.318; z-test= -3.12; p<0.05). Results of discernment as predictors of students’ knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption was significantly associated; for instance, results showed that students consumed alcoholic beverages despite having knowledge of its health implications on the premises that consumption alcohol drinks aids effective communication (ß= -0.399; z-test= -2.06; p<0.05); increases their libido (ß= 0.304; z-test= 2.57; p<0.05); increases their level of agility and activeness (ß= 0.301; z-test= 2.47; p<0.05). Also on the premises that consuming alcohol made them agile and active; stimulates their rate of comprehension while studying or listening to lectures (ß= 4.09; z-test= 2.66; p<0.05).

On the other hand, results of students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and their discernment as a predictor showed that there was a direct and significant association between knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and avoiding alcoholic beverages in order to keep close ties with friends (ß= 0.236; z-test= 1.98; p<0.05). Imperatively, our results showed that students’ discernment in the studied institutions and their knowledge of health risks that could be attributed to alcohol consumption were inversely, as well as directly related (p<0.05). Also, from the aforementioned results, we expect a 0.42 increase in the log odds of knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption where students consumed alcohol in order to enhance their reading ability, controlling other variables in the model. Also, we expect a 0.24, 0.41 increase in the log odds of knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption where students consumed alcohol to keep ties with friends and to stimulate comprehension controlling for other variables as appropriate respectively.  Equally, we expect a 0.30 increase in log odds of knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption where students consumed alcoholic beverages for improved libido, agility and energy, holding other variables constant appropriately.

Contrarily, we expect a 0.32 decrease in log odds of knowledge about health risks associated alcohol consumption where students considered alcohol consumption as no waste of money, controlling for other variables in the model. Likewise, we anticipate a 0.40 decrease in log odds of knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption where students consumed alcohol for effective communication, controlling for other variables in the model. Also, we expect a 0.33 decrease in log odds of knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption where students sometimes fight with people after consuming alcohol, controlling for other variables in the model. Results of our second model also showed that the likelihood ratio chi-square of 63.15 (chi 4) with a p-value of 0.000 is an indication that our Model 2 as a whole is statistically significant as compared to the empty model with no covariates. Results by contiguous inspirations and knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption as presented in Table 8 showed that there was a direct and significant relationship between students’ knowledge of health risks of alcoholic drinks and consumption of alcohol to get rid of their boredom or loneliness (ß= 0.837; z-test= 3.29; p<0.05). Similarly, there was a direct and significant relationship between students’ knowledge of health implications of alcoholic drinks and taking it due to environmental influence (ß= 0.822 z-test= 2.66; p<0.05). Contrarily, we observed that there was an inverse and significant association between knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and consumption of alcoholic drinks by students in parties and occasions (ß= -0.971; z-test= -2.71; p<0.05). Our results equally showed the existence of an inverse and significant relationship between students’ knowledge of health implications of alcoholic drinks and consumption of alcohol based on the pleasure they derived from its consumption (ß= -0.667; z-test= -2.16; p<0.05). Just as observed in model 1, the summary results of model 2 explicitly showed that students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption was not only directly but also inversely related (p<0.05).

Table-8. Results of rank-ordered logistic regression showing association between discernment, contiguous inspirations and students’ knowledge of health risk associated with alcohol consumption.
 
Unadjusted models
Adjusted model
Variable
Model 1
Model 2
Model 3
ß
z-test
ß
z-test
ß
z-test
Discernment
Alcohol consumption is not a waste of money 
-0.318
-3.12**
---
---
-0.153
-1.26
Alcohol enhances reading ability
0.419
2.09*
---
---
0.608
2.74**
Alcohol consumption aids effective communication
-0.399
-2.06*
---
---
-0.244
-1.14
Taking of alcohol drives away some close friends from me
0.236
1.98*
---
---
-0.148
1.01
I easily pick-up argument which sometimes lead to fight after consuming alcohol
-0.331
-2.85**
---
---
-0.240
-1.48
Taking of Alcoholic drinks stimulates comprehension while studying
0.409
2.66**
---
---
0.456
2.64**
It is good to take alcohol drinks at times
-0.430
-4.08***
---
---
-0.537
-3.00**
Consumption of alcohol increases one’s libido
0.304
2.57*
---
---
-0.465
-2.99**
Taking alcohol makes me more agile and active
0.301
2.47*
---
---
0.282
1.79
Contiguous inspirations
I take alcohol to cheer up myself whenever I feel lonely
---
---
0.837
3.29**
0.514
1.75
Taking to alcohol is something that I naturally desire as it gives me pleasure
---
---
-0.667
-2.16*
-0.797
-2.36**
The environment that I grew up stirred-up my desire for alcohol
---
---
0.822
2.66**
1.079
3.15**
I prefer alcohol to any other drinks whenever I attend parties/occasions
---
---
-0.971
-2.71**
-1.157
-3.53***
Log likelihood
-164.348
-167.470
-145.837
LRC (Chi 9) = model 1; LRC (Chi 4) = model 2; LRC (Chi 13) = model 3
69.40
63.15
106.42
Prob. > Chi 2
0.000***
0.000***
0.000***

Note: *Significant at p<0.05, **Significant at p<0.01, ***Significant at p<0.001.

Deducing from model 2 of this study, we expect a 0.84 increase in the log odds of knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption where students primarily consumed alcohol due to loneliness, holding other variables in the model constant. Equally, we expect a 0.82 decrease in the logs of knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption where students’ desire for alcoholic drinks was influenced by the environment they grew up from, controlling for other variables in the model. On the other hand, we expect a 0.67 decrease in the log odds of knowledge about alcohol consumption where students consumed alcoholic beverages for pleasure as induced by nature, controlling for other variables in the model. Also, we anticipate a 0.98 decrease in the log odds of knowledge about health risks associated with alcohol consumption where students demanded for alcoholic drinks or beverages whenever they attended parties or special occasions, holding other variables in the model constant. 

In Model 3 of our study, the rank-ordered logistic regression results of the likelihood ratio chi-square of 106.4 (chi 13) with a p-value of 0.000 is an indication that the fitted full model as a whole is statistically significant compared to the null model of the study with no covariates. Hence, the full adjusted model comprising the key explanatory variables (contiguous inspirations and discernment) are significant predictors of our response variable.

4. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Several factors have been connected to consumption of alcoholic beverages among young adults, particularly, among college students across regions of the world. In Nigeria, the negative implications of excessive consumption of alcohol over a prolonged duration have been related to poor academic performance among tertiary institutions students in the country. On the other hand, although a significant number of studies not only in Nigeria but across countries of the world have identified one factor or another as the predictors of alcohol consumption, amongst such knowledge of the health implications of excessive consumption of alcohol. With a view to contributing to the existing body of knowledge on the subject matter, our study explored the relationship between contiguous factors, discernment and students’ knowledge of the health risks that are attributable to alcohol consumption. Meanwhile, we also introduced socio-demographic characteristics of the studied population as confounding factors that could influence the extent of their knowledge on the side effects of alcohol consumption.

Retrospectively, evidence derived from our study clearly showed that students’ specific socio-demographic characteristics, such as their age, place of accommodation while in school, marital status and the level of educational attainment of their head of household are significantly related with students’’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. For example. We observed during the conduction of the qualitative data of this study that environmental influence plays a significant role on students; drinking habit. We are to deduce from our findings that students who were living in off-campus hostel tend to take to alcoholic drinks due to loneliness or temporary cut-off from friends unlike their colleagues that are living in no-campus accommodation. Relatively, findings from our study are not totally different from Adeoye and Ayodele (2014) and Awoyinfa (2012) who also identified socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics as some of the significant factors that influence consumption of alcoholic beverages among tertiary institution students in Nigeria. Also, Ojo et al. (2010) pinpointed place of residence as one of the factors influencing high-risk consumption of alcoholic beverages among women to some extent juxtaposed our findings correlating students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption to their place of living. It is therefore, empirically established that students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and their socio-demographic characteristics are intricately linked.

Furthermore, we are able to empirically establish the existence of a significant relationship between discernment and   students’ knowledge of helath risks associated with consumption of alcohol. For example, in spite of having knowledge, though not adequate enough, students were not seeing money spent on alcoholic beverages as a waste rather a significant proportion of them consumed alcohol with the target of improving their prowess in bed. Similarly, we discovered that despite that fact that students had knowledge of the health risks that come with consumption of alcohol, especially in excess, students a significant number of drinkers, did consume alcohol giving reasons such as effective communication, keeping ties with friends among the likes for their action.

Although not absolutely in corroboration with Anderson (2011) our findings buttressed some of the identified predictors in his study whose focus was on exploring the need for moderate consumption of alcohol.

Relatively, our findings were partially in line with Dumbili (2013); Idoko et al. (2015); Olusola and Afolayan (2012) and Ndegwa et al. (2017) who identified factors ranging from peer influence, libido, keeping up with friends, communication gaps between parents and children as some of the motives motivating alcohol consumption among young adults in Nigeria and Kenya respectively. Therefore, our findings have explicitly established students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption and their discerning prowess are related, at least to a very large extent. Findings from our study established a significant and positive correlation between contiguous inspirations and students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. In fact, in course of the conducted qualitative aspect of this study, we discovered that majority of our interviewees resolved to alcoholic drinks due to academic and family pressure. To corroborate this, findings from the quantitative aspect of this study clearly revealed that factors such as loneliness, family abandonment, environmental influence, peer pressure, natural desire among others were identified as important contiguous factors that prompted alcohol consumption among students in our studied institutions.

For example, one of the qualitative study participants said that denying him access to alcohol would amount to taking away his inspiration. Similarly, another participant maintained that he would find it impossible to relate with his peers if he had failed to consume alcohol together with them. Another respondent, a female undergraduate student admitted that she always found it difficult to induce sleep without taking alcoholic drinks. In line with our findings, Singleton and Wolfson (2009) noted in their study that some of the interviewed college students did consume alcoholic drinks in order to induce sleep. Invariably, evidence from this study has clearly and empirically established an inverse, direct and significant association between the identified explanatory and response variables of this study.

5. CONCLUSION

Students’ discernment and contiguous inspiration has significant influence on their knowledge of health risks that are associated with excessive consumption of alcohol to a very large extent. Correspondingly, students’ knowledge of health risks attributable to consumption of alcohol and their socio-demographic characteristics are inversely related. Equally, the socio-demographic. For instance, we observed that specific characteristics such as parental level of education, age, marital status and place of residence in school have significance influence on students’ knowledge of health risks associated with alcohol consumption. Evidence from our study show that consumption of alcohol was not visualized as hazardous as being generally proclaimed if it was moderately consumed. In the same way, many of the in-depth interview participants maintained that they consumed alcohol to cheer-up, relate well with their mates and to kill lowliness. In conclusion, there is an urgent need for these measures in order to safeguards the mental and physical health and academic implications that may arise from excessive consumption of alcohol among young literate adults in the country.

6. RECOMMENDATION

Evidence from this study have made the following recommendations inevitable:

  1. Based on our study’s findings, it is imperative that major stakeholders concerned with the affairs of tertiary education to promulgate and institutionalize regulations and measures that will prohibit the consumption of alcoholic beverages among students of higher institutions while in school and within the school environs especially among the under-aged students.
  2. Another key factor identified as a motivator of alcohol consumption in this study is the influence of peer group and environmental factors. Therefore, parents have important roles to play here. Parents are expected to be their children’s guide, hence, every parent should be encouraged more by faith-based organisations, non-governmental organisation on the reasons why their children should be educated on possible health consequences of high alcohol intake, which include both short, medium and long term possible implications on their lives and those around them.
  3. Also, it is vividly clear that discernment and contiguous inspirations have significant influence on consumption of alcoholic beverages amongst students, in spite of students’ knowledge on the negative effects of alcohol. it is therefore imperative that students need full sensitisation and enlightenment by successful and eminent personnel who were at a point time losing all that they have worked for in life due to heavy financial spending on health complications arising from their previous alcoholic lifestyle.

6.1. Ethical Considerations

Written permission was sought and granted from the Division of Student Affairs of each of the selected schools. The consent of each and every interviewee during the conduction of the qualitative aspect of the study was sought, and interviewees that felt uncomfortable at a point during the interviews were allowed. All conducted in-depth interviews were conducted in conducive, open and safe locations. No interviewee or respondent in course of data gathering was exposed to any form of harm. Also, the respondents’ confidentiality was guaranteed and the study made sure that they were not forced to participate in the research. The research is valid and reliable, while the analysis and reporting were carried out without bias.     

6.2. Strength and Weakness of the Study

The key strength of this study lies in the ability of the authors to explore beyond the conventional approach of investigating the relationship between health implications of alcohol consumption among students without employing the mix-methods. Also, the adoption of the correlation matrix provide insight to the strength and direction of relationship between the study’s response and explanatory variables. The major weakness of the study is that fact it was not a longitudinal study. More so, the sensitive nature of the sought data discouraged our studied population from feeling free to relate and provide us with the information sought-after. However, as a results of our research assistant amicable inducement and close empathy, they were able to relate and provide us with data more than being required. As a result, there is a need for an action oriented study by the bodies charged with the coordination, regulatory and supervisory of tertiary institution in Nigeria with special focus on menace of alcoholics on students’ general wellbeing.

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author acknowledged the selfless contribution of Mr. Ofino, Mr. Adelakun Paul and Mr. Adegoke Oluwatosin in the conducting of the qualitative aspect of this study.

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About the Authors

Taofik, Olatunji Bankole
Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.
Abiodun, Oluwaseun Oyebode
Department of Social Sciences and Humanities, Federal Polytechnic, Nigeria.

Corresponding Authors

Taofik, Olatunji Bankole

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