American Journal of Education and Learning

Volume 2, Number 1 (2017) pp 83-91 doi 10.20448/804. | Research Articles


Extent of Implementation of Nuc Regulation by Private Universities in Enugu State on Personnel Management

Roseline Unoma Chidobi 1
1 Department of Educational Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria


The purpose of this study is to investigate on the extent of implementation of NUC Regulations by Private Universities in Enugu State on Personnel Management. Descriptive survey design was employed in the study. The quantitative data were collected through a 24 item questionnaire title “Extent of Implementation of NUC Regulation on Personnel Management in private Universities (EINRPMPU)”. This was administered on 509 respondents made up of University principal Officers, head of units, lecturers and students. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, t-test and z-score on a modified 4 point rating scale. Findings of the study revealed among others. Private universities in Enugu State adhere to NUC regulations regards to staff personnel and student personnel management. Based on the above some recommendations were made.

Keywords:  Impementation, NUC regulation, Personnel management, Private Universities.

DOI: 10.20448/804.

Citation | Roseline Unoma Chidobi (2017). Extent of Implementation of Nuc Regulation by Private Universities in Enugu State on Personnel Management. American Journal of Education and Learning, 2(1): 83-91.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

History : Received: 7 February 2017/ Revised: 4 April 2017/ Accepted: 27 April 2017/Published: 4 May 2017

Publisher: Online Science Publishing


1.1 Background of the Study

University Education is the highest level of Territory Education.
In Africa, Nigeria has one of the oldest, biggest and most comprehensive university education systems.. The first university college in Nigeria was established at Ibadan in 1948. All other universities that followed suit from then up to 1979, University education were on the exclusive list of the government. Initially, establishment, funding and management of universities were left in the hands of the federal government. However, in 1979, the constitution was amended and university education was now put on the concurrent list of the government, which means that both federal and state government can now establish and own universities. It was from this time that various state started signifying intention to establish their own state universities named after them. University is a place where skilled manpower of various capacities are being trained and also an avenue to develop human capital needed to sustain the economy. University education is one of the most important social institutions, it is according to Okafor (2007) a “knowledge factory” where the raw materials of humanity may be refined, emancipated, trained to become leaders in all facets of human endeavor. He succinctly declared that university education is the process of acquiring knowledge, developing skills mores and values that are pre requisite for the development and sustainance of the society via the enhancement of quality human quality. This is why Nigeria embraced university education since it came into the country. There has been an increase demand for university education. Njoku (2002) asserted that demand for university education has been growing faster. The responsibility of providing guidelines and processing of applications for the establishment rest with the National Universities Commission (NUC) for screening.

The high demand and the problem envisaged by the government to fund university education alone, led to granting license to private individuals, religious organizations, and corporate organizations to establish private university like other nations of the world. Private universities is a non-public or independent universities who do not receive governmental funding and are usually, administered by denominational or secular boards; they are universities operated for profit. Private universities are those universities that are solely owned, financed and managed by private individuals with intention to recover cost in short time and make profit. Also the first set of surviving private universities were established in 1999 such as Igbinedion university in Edo State, Babcock University Ogun State, and Madonna university in Anambra state, this according to Obasi (2007) came up as a result of the public university education failure. Theory expounded in classic literature that such happened in Maxico and Peru and the demand absorption as public university education, falls short of new demand. Kitaev (2003) concluded that the concept of privatization paved way for privatization of education, even in Eastern Europe, France, China where private-public ownership of educational institutions was alien, globalization and consent increase in the demand for education have changed their thinking.

The incursion of private into tertiary education in Nigeria, marked a monumental breakthrough in the Nigerian educational sector. It confirmed the long position of the United Nation that education is too sensitive to be left in the hand of the government alone. According to Okojie (2008) Act No 9 of 1993 gave individuals, organizations, corporate bodies the permission to establish and run private universities provided they meet laid down guidelines, and obtain the approval of government. Right now there are 50 private universities, in Nigerian and three in Enugu State (NUC, 2014). It is good that private individuals and missionaries are given the opportunity to be involved in the provision of university education, but there is the fear that NUC regulations especially as it concerned management of their staff personnel who are the pivote upon which education revolves and the students, the benefactors will be Jeopardized.

1.1.1. Reasons for Establishing Private Universities

Establishment of private universities were encouraged all over the world because of the benefits such as uninterfered university autonomy and academic freedom private university afforded. This has led to prolification of private schools at all levels even at the university level. Nigeria as a developing country needed private universities; this is because according to Ibadin (1997) in Idumange and Major (2006) reports that the active private sector participation in university education in the United States should encourage developing countries to establish private universities because of the ever increasing social demands for it.

It is also advantageous to encourage private university because it solves the problems of indiscipline that is abound in public universities, lack of funding as a result of polities in budgetary allocations in our tertiary institutions. This has multiple effects because lecturers are not well paid which lead to brain drain or embarking on incessant strick actions. On the other hand, if lecturers are not well paid by the public universities, they lack commitment and dedication to their duties. This consequently affects the entire educational system in the country.        According to the Central Bank of Nigeria (2000) in Idumange and Major (2006) poor finance investment has been the problem of Nigerian educational system. This  poor funding has led to incessant strike by university workers, and the strikes, have truncated academic work. Another good reason for establishing private universities was that, it affords every ethnic and religious groupd the opportunity to have a university that will suit their own idocyncracy, and ideology. This is why Berger in Idumange and Major (2006) sported this view when he observed that in Canada almost every group decided to establish their own schools to take care of their cultural and religious interest. The establishment of private university was to have enough universities to meet up with number of students demanding for university education. Also to accommodate the rising demand for Ph.D graduates seeking for employment in the few existing universities.

National Universities Commission which was established by the federal government in 1962 to regulate university education and reconstituted in 1974 decree No 1 as a statutory body. Njoku (2002) stated that the National University (NUC) was set up in 1962 and the function of the commission include:

To inquire into and advise the government on financial needs both recurrent and capital expenditure of university education in Nigeria
To assist in consultation with the universities and other bodies concerned in planning the balanced and coordinated development of universities in order to ensure that they are fully adequate to national needs.
To collate, analyze and publish information relating to universities finance and university education both in Nigeria and aboard.
To make such other recommendations to the federal government or state relating to higher education as the commission may consider being necessary in the national interest among others.

In Nigeria, the National Universities Commission (NUC) is the agency in charge of university Accreditation. Maduewesi (2005) stated that the aim of accreditation is to ensure that education standard is maintained. Akpan (2014) out-lined the criteria and their maximum score in percentage as utilized in the BMAS document as benchmarks of programmes.
Staffing                                                                          32%
Academic content                                                          23%
Physical facilities                                                            25%
Library                                                                          12%
Funding                                                                          5%
Employer’s rating of graduates                                        3%
Total                                                                             100%

After using the above criteria to rate whether full accreditation, interim or denied accreditation will be given. How do they ensure whether those private universities continue to abide by the accreditation guidelines. Also Akpan (2014) exposed the capacity strategy initiated by the NUC to control the enrolment of students in Nigerian universities. This carrying capacity is the maximum number of student that the institution can sustain based on the available human and material resources. The introduction of carrying capacity, the enrolment of students is highly controlled and the average number of student per teacher reduced to manageable number. NUC also has a stipulated guideline towards appointment and promotion of all categories of staff in a university of which if the private universities abide by the guideline there will be an enhancement both qualitatively and quantitatively in the area of personnel management. Inspite of the above guideline put by National Universities Commission. A document that contain all that is needed by a university be accredited was brought out by NUC’s Department of inspection and monitoring. The name of the document is Benchmark minimum academic standards (BMAS) some of the requirements written in the NUC BMAS were on personnel. Management such as

A ratio of I lecturer to 30 students housed in a conducive learning environment. BMAS states that “academic staff in the universities are broadly classified into three categories professors, Senior lecturers and lecturers below, for which the professorial cadre should constitute a maximum of 20 percent of staff strength with the remaining two should constitute 35 and 45 percent respectively. The above requirements are in the area of staff personnel while in the area of students personnel NUC’s BMAS requirement covers good laboratories, library internet facilities, medical clinics, good structured for the students to utilize. The question is to what extent do private universities abide by these guideline, especially as it concerns personnel management. Personnel management is under human resource management. Nwangwu (2005) articulated that personnel management is the term used to describe the individuals who make-up the work force of an organization. They are according to Kelly (2001) the number of people working or available for work or service in the organization. Human resources in the university system as includes the principal officers the lecturers, non-academic staff and the students, all the human being render services or have relationship with the school both internal or external person. Another name related to the above is personnel management. There are two types of personnel in the school namely staff personnel and student personnel. Under the staff personnel management according to Mgbodile (2004) the management of staff personnel are essentially of three categories which include assessing the staff need, recruitment, and maintaining and improving staff services. The above three have to do according to Edem (2006) with the following scopes. Induction and orientation, training and development, performance appraisal delegation and assignment of performance to both  academic  and non academic staff, rewards and compensation and supervision. Another group of personnel is the management of student personnel. This has to do with student admission, placement providing a conducive learning environment, like classroom, laboratory, library and good facilities for their effective learning, providing good hostel, clinic for medical services, and sensatorysenitary services. The essence of the study is to determine the extent whereby private universities are able to implement what is stipulated in the NUC’s regulations, with regards to personnel management.  

1.2. Problem of the Study

The assumption of some people is that the Benchmark minimum Academic standards (BMAS) put by NUC especially as regards to personnel management is not being implemented by private universities. The areas in questions are employment of qualified lecturers, payment and motivation, lecturers not being adequate etc. All these if not carried out as stipulated  affect quality of teaching and research. Above all, they affect the quality of students produced by private universities. People dataste working in private universities even sending their children in those private universities because of the speculation on the ways they handle their staff personnel while as the quality of both staff and student personnel are being spelt out in the in the NUC’s (BMAS). The problem of the study is therefore put in question form: What is the extent of implementation of NUC regulation by private universities on personnel management.

1.3. Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of the study is to find out the extent of implementation of NUC’s regulations on personnel management by private universities. Specifically, the study seeks to

  1. Ascertain the extent of implementation of NUC’s regulation on staff personnel management by private universities.
  2. Determine the extent of implementation of NUC’s regulation on student personnel management by private universities.

1.4 The Following Research Questions will Guide the Study

To what extent do private universities implement the NUC regulations on staff personnel management
To what extent do private universities implement the NUC regulations on student personnel management in Enugu State.

1.5. Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. They were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H01 there is no significant difference between the mean rating scores of principal officers and head of units, on the extent private universities adhere to (NUC) regulations on staff personnel management
H02 The difference between the mean rating scores of lecturer and students on the extent private universities implement the NUC regulations on student personnel management in Enugu State is not statistically significant.


Descriptive survey research design was employed for the study; this is because opinions of the respondents were sought. The study was carried out in the three private owned universities in Enugu State. The population for the study comprises all the principal officers and head of units, lecturers and students in those private universities. Namely; Caritas University, Grodfrey Okoye University and Renaissance University all in Enugu State. The researcher carried the whole population of 15 principal officers and 53 heads of units in the three private universities, 68 respondents, for research question one. For research question two lecturers and students were the respondents. Their population is lecturers 144 and students 300, total 444. Researcher adopted random sampling technique to select 144 lecturers and 300 students. Thus giving a sample size of 512 respondents. The instrument for data collection was 24-item researcher made questionnaire, titled Extent of Implementation of NUC regulation by private university on personnel management (EINRPUPM). This instrument is of modified 4 point rating scale with the following response mode, Very Great Extent (VGE), Great Extent (GE), Low Extent (LE), Very Low Extent (VLE) weighted 4, 3, 2, 1, respectively for the two research questions. Validation of the instrument was done by three experts in the faculty of education. Crombach Alpha was used to determine the internal consistency of the items. This involved the conduct of pilot study with a sample of 30 respondents ramdomly selected from two private universities in Anambra State, namely Madonna University Okija and St. Pauls University Awka. An Alpha of reliability index of 0.79 for cluster A and 0.80 for chister B and the overall reliability index of 0.79 was obtained, which was considered high enough for the study. Out of 512 copies of the questionnaire distributed 509 was returned correctly, (details 15 from principal officers, 50 copies from heads of units, 144 from lecturers and 300 from students, giving 98% percent return rate.

The two research questions were analysed using mean with standard deviation. A criteria mean of 2.50 was used, while t-test statistic was used for null hypothesis one and for hypothesis two z-score was used, at both 0.05 levels of significance. The decision rule is to accept the null hypothesis if the calculated t-test value is less than the critical value, otherwise it will be rejected. The same is applicable to z-score.


Table-1.Mean rating on Extent of implementation of NUC regulations by private Universities on staff personnel management.
    Principal officers 15 Deans/Heads of unit 50
S/N Items __
1 According to NUC regulations lecturers posses at least masters certificate 3.33 0.65 GE 3.42 0.85 GE
2 my university have adequate number of lecturers 3.40 0.49 GE 2.82 1.03 GE
3 45% of the lecturers in my university are professors  2.65 1.15 GE 2.92 0.89 GE
4 most lecturers are Ph.D holders 1.60 1.05 LE 2.34 0.79 LE
5 lecturers have intentional publications to their name 3.27 0.77 GE 2.76 0.96 GE
6 lecturer maintain collaborative relations with lecturers abroad 2.07 1.00 LE 2.20 1.23 LE
7 lecturer are given the opportunity go to overseas. Conferences professional development 2.87 1.09 GE 3.00 1.15 GE
8 they go an serbertical leave to other well know universities 2.73 1.29 GE 2.68 0.93 GE
9 lecturer publish on journal of high impact factors 2.47 0.93 LE 2.92 1.15 GE
10 lecturers are highly paid monthly salary 2.00 0.89 LE 2.14 1.10 LE
11 lecturers are highly remunerated in terms of promotion after academic 2.73 1.06 GE 2.34 1.23 LE
12 lecturer are given allowance for their development in research 3.13 1.02 GE 1.00 0.61 LE
  Grand Mean 2.69     2.60    
Source: Raw Scores Analysed by the Researcher to get the Mean & Standard Deviation

3.1. Summary of Findings

Table 1 shows grand mean of 2.69 for principal officers and 2.60 for (Heads of Unit). The two grand means were above the 2.50 benchmarks. Although the breakdown of result revealed that the principal officers agreed on the possible factors listed such as items 1,23,5,7,8,11 and 12 that private universities adhere to NUC regulations regarding to personnel management. While they disagree on items 4, 6, 9 and 10 because their means fall below the 2.50 benchmark. While Dean and HODs agreed on items 1, 23, 7, 8, 9 and disagreed on items 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 12. Findings from the grand means they agreed to great extent that private universities implement the NUC regulations as regards to staff personnel management.

Table-2.Mean rating of lectures and student on Extent of Implementation of NUC regulations on student personnel management.
    Lecturers 144 Students  300
S/N Items __
13 Admission procedure are in compliance with established NUC admission regulations 2.72 0.92 GE 2.84 1.21 GE
14 Consideration are given to catchment areas in line with NUC regulations 2.28 1.00 LE 2.16 0.91 LE
15 Admission procedures are in adherence to Jamb regulation 2.78 0.74 GE 3.18 0.75 GE
16 Admission procedures are in compliance with SSCE minimum standard 3.10 0.65 GE 3.96 0.92 GE
17 Adequate number of credit loads are maintained 2.99 1.24 GE 3.08 0.76 GE
18 The stipulated number of years for each programmers according to NUC regulations are observed 2.92 0.87 GE 2.91 1.11 GE
19 NUC regulations on 30% for in-course assessment and 70% examination are maintained 2.94 0.87 GE 3.17 0.82 GE
20 There is a standard medical clinic in the university for the students health care services 2.95 0.95 GE 1.68 0.79 LE
21 provisions of structure for students hostel are in line with NUC standard 2.24 1.29 LE 2.23 0.91 LE
22 A standard library and e-library situated in the university for students to make use of 2.99 1.08 GE 2.71 1.08 GE
23 students are given the opportunity for inter collegial relationship with course universities student 3.17 0.98 GE 2.22 1.17 LE
24 intelligent student are given scholarship in order to encourage them. 3.18 0.71 GE 3.06 1.10 GE
  GRAND MEAN 2.83   GE 2.68   GE
Source: Raw Scores Analysed by the Researcher to get the Mean & Standard Deviation

Summary of findings on table 2 shows grand mean of 2.83 for lecturers and 2.68 for students, the two grand means were above the 2.50 benchmark. Although some items from the two subjects disagreed with means below the benchmark 2.50. judging with grand means private universities implement the NUC regulations, in the area of student personnel management.

3.2. Hypotheses Testing

H01 -There is no significant difference in the mean rating of the respondent on the extent of implementation of NUC regulations by private universities on the management of staff personnel.

Table-3. t-test statistical analysis on the response of principal officers and Deans/HODs on the extent of implementation of NUC regulations by private universities in Enugu on Staff personnel management.
Variable N __
SD df PROB t-crit t-cal  DEC
principals Officer 15 2.68 0.95 63 0.05 ±1.98 0.33 H01
Deans /HODs 50 2.60 0.99         Accepted
Total 65              

PC 0.05 ns-Not significant P value is 0.05 levels of significances

Table 3 above revealed that calculated t-test value is 0.33 is less than the critical t-value of ±1.98 at 0.05 confidence level and 63 degree of freedom. Thus, the null hypothesis is not rejected. This shows that there is no significant difference in the mean score of principal officers and Deans and HODs on the extent of application of NUC regulation by private universities in relation to staff personnel management.

Table-4. t-test statistical analysis on the response of lecturers and students on the extent of implementation of NUC regulations by private universities in Enugu on  students personnel management.
Variable Total Total std df z-table z-cal  
Lecturers 144 2.83 1.02 442 ±1.96 1.48 H02
Students 300 2.68 0.96       Up held

At the table above revealed that the calculate z-score of 1.48 less than the table 2 ±1.96 at 0.05 confidence level, and 442 degree of freedom. Thus the null hypothesis is not rejected. The two respondent agreed at the level on the extent of application of NUC regulation by private universities on the management of student personnel.


The result in table 1 revealed that private universities adhere to NUC regulations regarding to staff personnel management to a great extent. For example lecturers posses at least masters at the point of employment, having adequate number of lecturers and lecturers do publish in journals that have high impact factor and they are promoted after academic assessment. This is in line with Akpan (2014) statement that NUC has stipulated guideline towards appointment and promotion of all categories of staff in the universities. This result refute the speculation people have that private universities don’t implement NUC regulations in term of staff personnel management. 

In table 2 both lecturer and student agree that private universities comply to NUC admission procedure, both human and material resources are made available to carry the capacity of students intake. This is in agreement with the requirement that good laboratories, Library, Internet Facilities, Medical Clinic and good structural for the students utilization are needed. Also Akpan (2014) in support of the above exposed the carrying capacity strategy initiated by the NUC that the number of students admitted should be in consonance with the available human and material resources in the university. Although the findings cancelled the fears people have in relation to private universities not implementing NUC regulations as regards to providing the material resources and other that care of the students personnel. The t-test analysis in table 3 revealed that there is no significant difference between mean rating of principal officers and heads of units on the private universities adhering to NUC relations in relation to staff personnel management.
Also table 4 the z-score analysis showed that there is no significant difference between the mean rating of lecturers and students on the private universities abiding by the NUC regulations regarding the student personnel management.


The study examined some of the duties of National University Commission (NUC) especially as regards to personnel management and the rationale for establishing private universities. The findings of the study have a lot of implication to university education in Enugu State as regards o personnel management because this will go a long way in ensuring qualitative university education. Based on the finding of the study, some recommendation were made. Government should establish more private universities since they adhere to the NUC regulations NUC should enhance the supervision of private universities to ensure that they did not fall below the stipulated standard. NUC should emphasize that private universities should beaf up in the areas of both staff and students personnel so that quality should be ensured, especially in those areas they scored below the benchmark. Example as regards to employment of qualified staff, promotion and admission of qualified students, the proprietor or visitor should be up and doing to this regard. NUC should ensure that private universities should procure and maintain their material resources in order that private universities should be of standard.


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About the Authors

Roseline Unoma Chidobi
Department of Educational Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

Corresponding Authors

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