Volume 2, Number 2 (2017) pp 140-147 doi 10.20448/804.2.2.140.147 | Research Articles
In the era of higher education transforming from elite to popularization, universities introduced large-scale highly educated talents as new teachers. These new teachers own rich theoretical knowledge, and lack teaching skills. In order to improve their teaching professional development, a series of related studies appeared and had gained a lot of research results over the past decades. This paper reviewed these studies and summarized its training contents and methods, and gave the suggestions about further study.
Keywords: University, Teachers, Profession, Development, Training.
Citation | Ming Zhu; Zezhong Yang; Zhaohua Qu; Tong Wang (2017). The Study on Training of University New Teachers in China. American Journal of Education and Learning, 2(2): 140-147.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Funding : This study received no specific financial support.
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
History : Received: 9 June 2017/ Revised: 3 July 2017/ Accepted: 6 July 2017/Published: 10 July 2017
Publisher: Online Science Publishing
Since the 21st century, universities introduced a large number of doctoral students which taken up some teaching tasks and alleviated the problem of insufficient teachers in universities. Since these new teachers lacked practical teaching experience and had to solve problem of professional development difficulties, present universities generally adopted the university qualification certificate system and pre-job training system. However, the methods and the contents of training are different. Someone thought the basic educational knowledge and teaching skills is important, and the others argued the class observation is better, and so on. This paper reviewed and analyzed related studies and gave the suggestions about future study.
For the university new teachers, the first task is the transferring knowledge, so how to achieve the best effect to deliver knowledge is the primary problem needed to consider. Therefore, Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin suggested the contents of university new teachers’ induction education should be various, and should include professional teaching knowledge, psychological knowledge, campus culture knowledge, teacher professional planning development knowledge, scientific research knowledge and advanced teaching technical knowledge (Du and Zhu, 2010)
2.1. Professional Teaching Knowledge
Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin, Hou Yanfang, Shen Mengjie & Chen Qingjie, et al. pointed out that university new teachers’ induction education should include the basic teaching theory and skills. In terms of theory, new teachers should own necessary professional knowledge and educational knowledge. In terms of skills, the new teachers need to master not only the teaching skills, but also the skills about how to use educational science knowledge, such as education, psychology, teaching theory and other knowledge to guide their own teaching (Hou, 2007; Shen, 2008; Du and Zhu, 2010; Chen, 2014). Zhang Yupeng and Zhou Mohan, Shen Huixiang & Tang Yali argued that training should base on the new teachers’ situation, and the contents should include the knowledge about teaching demonstration and design, teacher voice and voice protection, teaching strategies and techniques; multimedia instructions and techniques, pre-class preparation and blackboard design, teaching etiquette and so on. They believed these would lay a solid foundation for young teachers (Tang, 2008; Shen, 2012; Zhang and Zhou, 2017).
2.2. Psychological Knowledge
Chen Qingjie & Xu Dazhen also proposed that during the training of new teachers, the universities should not only focus on moral education, but also pay attention to enhancing their psychological flexibility, so that new teachers can actively confront the requirements of a new life and understand task requirements, quickly adapt to environmental changes and show a higher adaptive performance in the teaching work using self-adjustment mechanism (Chen, 2014; Xu and Han, 2015). Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin thought that new teachers need to learn psychological knowledge. On the one hand, it should include how to finish role change, how to release work pressure, how to adapt to new environment and how to build interpersonal relationships and other mental health knowledge; On the other hand, it should include college students psychological situation, how to help students solve the psychological problem, how to guide students growth healthy and other educational psychology knowledge (Du and Zhu, 2010).
2.3. Campus Culture Knowledge
Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin held that new teachers should learn campus culture knowledge. It made new teachers own a very intuitive understanding of school and excited their sense of belonging to the school. The campus culture knowledge should include school history, school tradition, school concept, school scale, school features and so on (Du and Zhu, 2010). Shen Mengjie & Hou Yanfang believed that new teachers had to understand and adapt to the policy, goal and culture of school, and the role positioning in the organization (Hou, 2007; Shen, 2008). Liu Zhuo put forward that new teachers need to learn university rules and regulations and named it “rule” principle. The principle included various rules, regulations, policies, and various potential rules in the school (Liu, 2007).
2.4. Teacher Professional Planning Development Knowledge
Shen Mengjie stated to develop a professional development plan for new teachers. It included teachers’ views on career goals and expected achievements, work choice and taken measures, the design of specific objectives and growths stage (Shen, 2008). Chen Qingjie also believed that owing a clear career development plan would be conducive to new teachers achieving an organizational role position (Chen, 2014).
2.5. Scientific Research Knowledge
Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin put forward that scientific research knowledge should include the schools research policy, library resources, scientific research elements, scientific experimental connotation, scientific dissertation standard and research project reporting process. It would help new teachers establish scientific awareness, improve scientific research level, and ultimately achieve the purpose of promoting teaching (Du and Zhu, 2010).
2.6. Advanced Teaching Technical Knowledge
Yang Wei, Meng Xu & Du Zhiping held that teachers had to study modern teaching methods. It improved their teaching efficiency, mobilized their learning enthusiasm, and truly did teaching in accordance with students’ aptitude. Besides, it could also make excellent teachers’ teaching experience be shared with each other using modern teaching methods. Therefore, the new teachers should learn more relevant teaching technical software to enhance their teaching capacity (Meng and Du, 2007; Yang, 2016).
In view of traditional shortcomings on university new teachers’ induction education and the adult learning characteristics, Hou Yanfang, Du Zhaohui, Zhu Xiaoqin, Zhou Xia & Chen Qingjie et al. suggested to adopt diversified training methods, which should include creating a cooperative teacher culture, building a harmonious communication environment, perfecting the training system in Universities, carrying out career planning and reflective teaching and so on (Hou, 2007; Du and Zhu, 2010; Zhou, 2011; Chen, 2014).
3.1. Creating A Cooperative Teacher Culture
Yang Wei argued that universities should let experienced teachers play the role of mentoring and encourage new teachers to learn from experienced teachers (Yang, 2016). Liu Zhuo named this method as "Tutor system", and thought with this method that new teachers could communicate with old teachers and old teachers could provide much guidance for the new (Liu, 2007). Zhang Hong, Sun Weiying, Tao Daoyuan, Zhao Qi, Zhu Lianhong & Zhu Qian, et al. thought the tutors should take the main responsibility to instruct new teachers, implement the “one to one” guiding model, use an encouraging way to treat young colleagues (Sun et al., 2004; Zhang, 2013; Zhu, 2016; Zhu, 2016).Sun Xiaocong thought we should establish cooperation relationship among teachers, for it could effectively promote new teachers’ professional development (Sun, 2015). Zhou Tian also proposed that schools could arrange new teachers to join into the teaching and research team and take measures to mobilize members’ enthusiasm in the activities to accelerate new teachers’ growth speed (Zhou, 2013).Wang Yan held that university new teachers would not only need to absorb experts’ spirit nutrition, but also had to get experts’ guidance and help. In practice, experts should play a leading role in teaching design, teaching skills, organizing and guiding extracurricular activities, teaching evaluation and applying media skills (Wang, 2014).
3.2. Building A Harmonious Communication Environment
Chen Yufeng thought that the university should develop a communication platform for new teachers. He said, In the current information society, we should establish a multi-channel development platform for new teachers and old teachers to facilitate them to use large data, cloud technology, Internet and other new technical methods. The platform which could meet new teachers’ demand to seek cooperation and exchange with others would promote their sustainable development (Chen et al., 2016).Wang Yan & Chen Yufeng thought that we should build a learning community relying on the campus network, which could effectively cultivate new teachers’ teaching skills. In view of the whole higher information quality level of new teachers in universities, we could build a learning area using campus network in practice. The learning community provided rich resource conditions, harmonious communication environment, personal reflection space, expert guidance platform and so on. We could carry out online learning activities by learning community and solve new teachers’ problems encountered in the teaching process with the help of rich resources, in order to form effective problem-solving strategies and enhance the teaching skills (Wang, 2014; Chen et al., 2016).Shen Mengjie & Liu Zhuo suggested that we should develop network resources and form teachers’ forum. On the one hand, the teacher forum was an effective complement in daily teaching activities. On the other hand, developing teaching research forum could expand teachers’ vision and solve more problems (Liu, 2007; Shen, 2008).
3.3. Perfecting Training System In Universities
Zhu Lianhong proposed that colleges should establish the growing portfolio and image database for new teachers. New teachers’ teaching growth portfolio could truthfully present teachers’ improvement and accumulation experience in the process of teaching. And new teachers’ teaching growth image database could meet individual teachers’ personal learning requirements. So universities should provide free shootings and product typical teaching case services using multimedia video production system (Zhu, 2016).Zhu Lianhong stated that schools could hold a regular teaching competition for young teachers. The Teachers’ Teaching Development Center could conduct competitions by organizing open classes aimed at showing young teachers’ basic skills, sharing teaching experience and providing mutual learning opportunities (Zhu, 2016).Yang Wei & Wang Yan argued that universities should conduct regular teaching and research activities, which would help new teachers fully understand the discipline’ structure, master the syllabus, curriculum preparation system and organize teaching in the classroom (Wang, 2014; Yang, 2016). Zhou Tian believed that schools should provide more objective and developmental feedback to new teachers and give them more supportive informal evaluations in their first year, so that new teachers could find their own problems and promote them to cooperate with others (Zhou, 2013).Zhu Lianhong thought colleges should set up teaching salons and workshops. Teaching salon activities were mainly used to provide a platform for the school-wide teachers to carry out special seminars, share successful teaching experience and advanced teaching ideas and other activities. And workshops would be used to encourage teachers to form a mutual aid group, carry out theme activities and exchange ideas (Zhu, 2016).
3.4. Carrying Out Career Planning
In order to improve university new teachers’ teaching quality, our country should pay more attention to teachers’ professional development. So Shen Mengjie and Li Li put forward several strategies for providing new teachers with appropriate development plan as follows: (1) Guiding new teachers to take full attention on career planning; (2) Taking incentives methods to guide new teachers to carry out career planning initiatively; (3) Promoting new teachers’ career planning ability by simultaneously multi-measures; (4) Incorporating career planning guidance into management schedule (Shen, 2008; Li, 2016).Zheng Wen, Li Yangxiu and Zhou Xia and British scholar Bolam stated that universities should concern new teachers’ problems encountered in their practical teaching, draft the plan of cultivating goals and actions, modify the training content constantly and develop the appropriate training standards and requirements (Zheng and Li, 2006; Zhou, 2011).
3.5. Establishing A Scientific Assessment Mechanism
In order to help new teachers finish the role change and improve their teaching quality, Cheng Zhiqiao suggested that universities should take a full range of measures, perfect teaching supervision mechanism aiming at new teachers, discover their existing problems in class and help them to solve problems timely (Cheng, 2015). Yang Wei also stated that experts, supervisors should listen to the classroom lectures, point out the problems in the class, guide new teachers on the spot and check their basic training skills (Yang, 2016). Huang Zhiming suggested that universities should establish a scientific and effective supervision, assessment and reward mechanism in order to strengthen new teachers’ mission performance and interpersonal promotion (Huang, 2015). Chen Qingjie also proposed to perfect the evaluation system for new teachers. We could establish an assessment mechanism including diagnostic evaluation, development evaluation and end evaluation used in the new teachers’ beginning and end, which would form a comprehensive assessment of new teachers’ situation (Chen, 2014).
3.6. Paying Attention to Teachers’ Psychological Development
Quan Dongping and Huang Jiande thought that universities should pay attention to new teachers’ psychological development. So the must was to do a good job in three measures below: (1) Incorporating new teachers’ professional mentoring into the training program, and training teachers’ career interests, career adaptation, career planning. (2) Establishing teachers’ psychological counseling room, so that new teachers could find a place to release pressure and improve their psychological quality. (3) Creating a harmonious psychological atmosphere to reduce new teachers’ psychological burden so that they could spend the vocational adaptation period as soon as possible (Quan and Huang, 2008).
3.7. Improving Teachers’ Self - Development
The university new teachers’ self-initiative practice had incomparable advantages. So Huang Zhiming, Sun Weiying, Tao Daoyuan & Zhao Qi. put forward: (1) Continue to learn to improve teaching ability and scientific research level；(2)Strengthen their own inner recognition and occupation of profession；(3)Improve adaptive ability; (4) Pay attention to the predecessors’ words and deeds (Sun et al., 2004; Huang, 2015). Hao Mingjun suggested that new teachers should improve their literacy, correct self-attitude and take initiative attitude to communicate with the old teachers, improve the ability to resist frustration and solve difficulties, handle the relationship between teaching and research and do a good job in “science and education” (Hao, 2009). Zhou Tian proposed that new teachers could take self-active practice and the methods including: observation, research, imitation, practice and experiment, taking initiative reflection on the teaching process (Zhou, 2013).
3.8. Carrying Out Reflective Teaching
Shen Mengjie, Sun Xiaocong & Shang Chunyan et al. stressed reflective teaching. They believed that carrying out reflective teaching would be conducive to form new teachers’ professional development awareness, and promote new teachers’ accumulation of knowledge and development of teaching capacity and research capacity (Shen, 2008; Shang, 2010; Sun, 2015). Ding Junlan proposed that universities should establish teacher reflection system, set up a reflection platform and organize reflection teams in order to create a good reflection conditions and atmosphere for teachers (Ding, 2012).
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