American Journal of Education and Learning

Volume 2, Number 2 (2017) pp 140-147 doi 10.20448/804.2.2.140.147 | Research Articles

 

The Study on Training of University New Teachers in China

Ming Zhu 1 Zezhong Yang 1 , Zhaohua Qu 1 Tong Wang 1 
1 The School of Mathematics and Statistics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, China

ABSTRACT

In the era of higher education transforming from elite to popularization, universities introduced large-scale highly educated talents as new teachers. These new teachers own rich theoretical knowledge, and lack teaching skills. In order to improve their teaching professional development, a series of related studies appeared and had gained a lot of research results over the past decades. This paper reviewed these studies and summarized its training contents and methods, and gave the suggestions about further study.

Keywords:  University, Teachers, Profession, Development, Training.

DOI: 10.20448/804.2.2.140.147

Citation | Ming Zhu; Zezhong Yang; Zhaohua Qu; Tong Wang (2017). The Study on Training of University New Teachers in China. American Journal of Education and Learning, 2(2): 140-147.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 9 June 2017/ Revised: 3 July 2017/ Accepted: 6 July 2017/Published: 10 July 2017

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

1. INTRODUCTION

Since the 21st century, universities introduced a large number of doctoral students which taken up some teaching tasks and alleviated the problem of insufficient teachers in universities. Since these new teachers lacked practical teaching experience and had to solve problem of professional development difficulties, present universities generally adopted the university qualification certificate system and pre-job training system. However, the methods and the contents of training are different. Someone thought the basic educational knowledge and teaching skills is important, and the others argued the class observation is better, and so on. This paper reviewed and analyzed related studies and gave the suggestions about future study.

2. THE CONTENTS OF TRAINING TO NEW UNIVERSITY TEACHERS

For the university new teachers, the first task is the transferring knowledge, so how to achieve the best effect to deliver knowledge is the primary problem needed to consider. Therefore, Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin suggested the contents of university new teachers’ induction education should be various, and should include professional teaching knowledge, psychological knowledge, campus culture knowledge, teacher professional planning development knowledge, scientific research knowledge and advanced teaching technical knowledge (Du and Zhu, 2010)

2.1. Professional Teaching Knowledge

Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin, Hou Yanfang, Shen Mengjie & Chen Qingjie, et al. pointed out that university new teachers’ induction education should include the basic teaching theory and skills. In terms of theory, new teachers should own necessary professional knowledge and educational knowledge. In terms of skills, the new teachers need to master not only the teaching skills, but also the skills about how to use educational science knowledge, such as education, psychology, teaching theory and other knowledge to guide their own teaching (Hou, 2007; Shen, 2008; Du and Zhu, 2010; Chen, 2014). Zhang Yupeng and Zhou Mohan, Shen Huixiang & Tang Yali argued that training should base on the new teachers’ situation, and the contents should include the knowledge about teaching demonstration and design, teacher voice and voice protection, teaching strategies and techniques; multimedia instructions and techniques, pre-class preparation and blackboard design, teaching etiquette and so on. They believed these would lay a solid foundation for young teachers (Tang, 2008; Shen, 2012; Zhang and Zhou, 2017).

2.2. Psychological Knowledge

Chen Qingjie & Xu Dazhen also proposed that during the training of new teachers, the universities should not only focus on moral education, but also pay attention to enhancing their psychological flexibility, so that new teachers can actively confront the requirements of a new life and understand task requirements, quickly adapt to environmental changes and show a higher adaptive performance in the teaching work using self-adjustment mechanism (Chen, 2014; Xu and Han, 2015). Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin thought that new teachers need to learn psychological knowledge. On the one hand, it should include how to finish role change, how to release work pressure, how to adapt to new environment and how to build interpersonal relationships and other mental health knowledge; On the other hand, it should include college students psychological situation, how to help students solve the psychological problem, how to guide students growth healthy and other educational psychology knowledge (Du and Zhu, 2010).

2.3. Campus Culture Knowledge

Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin held that new teachers should learn campus culture knowledge. It made new teachers own a very intuitive understanding of school and excited their sense of belonging to the school. The campus culture knowledge should include school history, school tradition, school concept, school scale, school features and so on (Du and Zhu, 2010). Shen Mengjie & Hou Yanfang believed that new teachers had to understand and adapt to the policy, goal and culture of school, and the role positioning in the organization (Hou, 2007; Shen, 2008). Liu Zhuo put forward that new teachers need to learn university rules and regulations and named it “rule” principle. The principle included various rules, regulations, policies, and various potential rules in the school (Liu, 2007).

2.4. Teacher Professional Planning Development Knowledge

Shen Mengjie stated to develop a professional development plan for new teachers. It included teachers’ views on career goals and expected achievements, work choice and taken measures, the design of specific objectives and growths stage (Shen, 2008). Chen Qingjie also believed that owing a clear career development plan would be conducive to new teachers achieving an organizational role position (Chen, 2014).

2.5. Scientific Research Knowledge

Du Zhaohui and Zhu Xiaoqin put forward that scientific research knowledge should include the schools research policy, library resources, scientific research elements, scientific experimental connotation, scientific dissertation standard and research project reporting process. It would help new teachers establish scientific awareness, improve scientific research level, and ultimately achieve the purpose of promoting teaching (Du and Zhu, 2010).

2.6. Advanced Teaching Technical Knowledge

Yang Wei, Meng Xu & Du Zhiping held that teachers had to study modern teaching methods. It improved their teaching efficiency, mobilized their learning enthusiasm, and truly did teaching in accordance with students’ aptitude. Besides, it could also make excellent teachers’ teaching experience be shared with each other using modern teaching methods. Therefore, the new teachers should learn more relevant teaching technical software to enhance their teaching capacity (Meng and Du, 2007; Yang, 2016).

3. THE METHODS OF UNIVERSITY NEW TEACHERS’ INDUCTION EDUCATION

In view of traditional shortcomings on university new teachers’ induction education and the adult learning characteristics, Hou Yanfang, Du Zhaohui, Zhu Xiaoqin, Zhou Xia & Chen Qingjie et al. suggested to adopt diversified training methods, which should include creating a cooperative teacher culture, building a harmonious communication environment, perfecting the training system in Universities, carrying out career planning and reflective teaching and so on (Hou, 2007; Du and Zhu, 2010; Zhou, 2011; Chen, 2014).

3.1. Creating A Cooperative Teacher Culture

Yang Wei argued that universities should let experienced teachers play the role of mentoring and encourage new teachers to learn from experienced teachers (Yang, 2016). Liu Zhuo named this method as "Tutor system", and thought with this method that new teachers could communicate with old teachers and old teachers could provide much guidance for the new (Liu, 2007). Zhang Hong, Sun Weiying, Tao Daoyuan, Zhao Qi, Zhu Lianhong & Zhu Qian, et al. thought the tutors should take the main responsibility to instruct new teachers, implement the “one to one” guiding model, use an encouraging way to treat young colleagues (Sun et al., 2004; Zhang, 2013; Zhu, 2016; Zhu, 2016).Sun Xiaocong thought we should establish cooperation relationship among teachers, for it could effectively promote new teachers’ professional development (Sun, 2015). Zhou Tian also proposed that schools could arrange new teachers to join into the teaching and research team and take measures to mobilize members’ enthusiasm in the activities to accelerate new teachers’ growth speed (Zhou, 2013).Wang Yan held that university new teachers would not only need to absorb experts’ spirit nutrition, but also had to get experts’ guidance and help. In practice, experts should play a leading role in teaching design, teaching skills, organizing and guiding extracurricular activities, teaching evaluation and applying media skills (Wang, 2014).

3.2. Building A Harmonious Communication Environment

Chen Yufeng thought that the university should develop a communication platform for new teachers. He said, In the current information society, we should establish a multi-channel development platform for new teachers and old teachers to facilitate them to use large data, cloud technology, Internet and other new technical methods. The platform which could meet new teachers’ demand to seek cooperation and exchange with others would promote their sustainable development (Chen et al., 2016).Wang Yan & Chen Yufeng thought that we should build a learning community relying on the campus network, which could effectively cultivate new teachers’ teaching skills. In view of the whole higher information quality level of new teachers in universities, we could build a learning area using campus network in practice. The learning community provided rich resource conditions, harmonious communication environment, personal reflection space, expert guidance platform and so on. We could carry out online learning activities by learning community and solve new teachers’ problems encountered in the teaching process with the help of rich resources, in order to form effective problem-solving strategies and enhance the teaching skills (Wang, 2014; Chen et al., 2016).Shen Mengjie & Liu Zhuo suggested that we should develop network resources and form teachers’ forum. On the one hand, the teacher forum was an effective complement in daily teaching activities. On the other hand, developing teaching research forum could expand teachers’ vision and solve more problems (Liu, 2007; Shen, 2008).

3.3. Perfecting Training System In Universities

Zhu Lianhong proposed that colleges should establish the growing portfolio and image database for new teachers. New teachers’ teaching growth portfolio could truthfully present teachers’ improvement and accumulation experience in the process of teaching. And new teachers’ teaching growth image database could meet individual teachers’ personal learning requirements. So universities should provide free shootings and product typical teaching case services using multimedia video production system (Zhu, 2016).Zhu Lianhong stated that schools could hold a regular teaching competition for young teachers. The Teachers’ Teaching Development Center could conduct competitions by organizing open classes aimed at showing young teachers’ basic skills, sharing teaching experience and providing mutual learning opportunities (Zhu, 2016).Yang Wei & Wang Yan argued that universities should conduct regular teaching and research activities, which would help new teachers fully understand the discipline’ structure, master the syllabus, curriculum preparation system and organize teaching in the classroom (Wang, 2014; Yang, 2016). Zhou Tian believed that schools should provide more objective and developmental feedback to new teachers and give them more supportive informal evaluations in their first year, so that new teachers could find their own problems and promote them to cooperate with others (Zhou, 2013).Zhu Lianhong thought colleges should set up teaching salons and workshops. Teaching salon activities were mainly used to provide a platform for the school-wide teachers to carry out special seminars, share successful teaching experience and advanced teaching ideas and other activities. And workshops would be used to encourage teachers to form a mutual aid group, carry out theme activities and exchange ideas (Zhu, 2016).

3.4. Carrying Out Career Planning

In order to improve university new teachers’ teaching quality, our country should pay more attention to teachers’ professional development. So Shen Mengjie and Li Li put forward several strategies for providing new teachers with appropriate development plan as follows: (1) Guiding new teachers to take full attention on career planning; (2) Taking incentives methods to guide new teachers to carry out career planning initiatively; (3) Promoting new teachers’ career planning ability by simultaneously multi-measures; (4) Incorporating career planning guidance into management schedule (Shen, 2008; Li, 2016).Zheng Wen, Li Yangxiu and Zhou Xia and British scholar Bolam stated that universities should concern new teachers’ problems encountered in their practical teaching, draft the plan of cultivating goals and actions, modify the training content constantly and develop the appropriate training standards and requirements (Zheng and Li, 2006; Zhou, 2011).

3.5. Establishing A Scientific Assessment Mechanism

In order to help new teachers finish the role change and improve their teaching quality, Cheng Zhiqiao suggested that universities should take a full range of measures, perfect teaching supervision mechanism aiming at new teachers, discover their existing problems in class and help them to solve problems timely (Cheng, 2015). Yang Wei also stated that experts, supervisors should listen to the classroom lectures, point out the problems in the class, guide new teachers on the spot and check their basic training skills (Yang, 2016). Huang Zhiming suggested that universities should establish a scientific and effective supervision, assessment and reward mechanism in order to strengthen new teachers’ mission performance and interpersonal promotion (Huang, 2015). Chen Qingjie also proposed to perfect the evaluation system for new teachers. We could establish an assessment mechanism including diagnostic evaluation, development evaluation and end evaluation used in the new teachers’ beginning and end, which would form a comprehensive assessment of new teachers’ situation (Chen, 2014).

3.6. Paying Attention to Teachers’ Psychological Development

Quan Dongping and Huang Jiande thought that universities should pay attention to new teachers’ psychological development. So the must was to do a good job in three measures below: (1) Incorporating new teachers’ professional mentoring into the training program, and training teachers’ career interests, career adaptation, career planning. (2) Establishing teachers’ psychological counseling room, so that new teachers could find a place to release pressure and improve their psychological quality. (3) Creating a harmonious psychological atmosphere to reduce new teachers’ psychological burden so that they could spend the vocational adaptation period as soon as possible (Quan and Huang, 2008).

3.7. Improving Teachers’ Self - Development

The university new teachers’ self-initiative practice had incomparable advantages. So Huang Zhiming, Sun Weiying, Tao Daoyuan & Zhao Qi. put forward: (1) Continue to learn to improve teaching ability and scientific research level;(2)Strengthen their own inner recognition and occupation of profession;(3)Improve adaptive ability; (4) Pay attention to the predecessors’ words and deeds (Sun et al., 2004; Huang, 2015). Hao Mingjun suggested that new teachers should improve their literacy, correct self-attitude and take initiative attitude to communicate with the old teachers, improve the ability to resist frustration and solve difficulties, handle the relationship between teaching and research and do a good job in “science and education” (Hao, 2009). Zhou Tian proposed that new teachers could take self-active practice and the methods including: observation, research, imitation, practice and experiment, taking initiative reflection on the teaching process (Zhou, 2013).

3.8. Carrying Out Reflective Teaching

Shen Mengjie, Sun Xiaocong & Shang Chunyan et al. stressed reflective teaching. They believed that carrying out reflective teaching would be conducive to form new teachers’ professional development awareness, and promote new teachers’ accumulation of knowledge and development of teaching capacity and research capacity (Shen, 2008; Shang, 2010; Sun, 2015). Ding Junlan proposed that universities should establish teacher reflection system, set up a reflection platform and organize reflection teams in order to create a good reflection conditions and atmosphere for teachers (Ding, 2012).

4. COMMENT ON CURRENT RESEARCHES

It could be seen from the above that there were large abundant studies about university new teachers’ training. As for the training contents, the existed studies pointed out that the university training should pay attention to not only the basic educational and teaching theories, but also the basic teaching skills, school cultures and educational technologies and so on. As for the training methods, the existed researches not only mentioned tutor system, daily communication and teaching competition etc., but also emphasized teaching reflection, construction of network communication platform and reasonable incentive mechanism, etc.. As a result, the studies on the new teachers’ training contents and methods have been relatively comprehensive and in-depth. However, there were still quite a few issues that need to be further discussed if we consider the new teachers’ actual teaching situations.The first is about the basic subject teaching theories and skills knowledge. It could be seen from the review above, almost all existing studies focused particularly on offering new teachers abundant basic educational and teaching theories and to cultivate new teachers’ basic teaching skills. Few researchers considered about the training contents based on profession and teaching subjects of new teachers. Few researchers discussed the question about basic subject teaching theories and skills knowledge which the new teachers should receive. Actually, what new teachers need to mostly operate are their subject teaching, such as mathematics teaching, foreign language teaching, and physics teaching, etc.. Therefore, the basic subject teaching theories and skills knowledge should be what they need most. In consideration of this point, it is necessary to further study to find out what kind of knowledge about basic subject teaching theories and skills should be taught to new teachers according to their actual situations and their teaching subjects.

The second is about the university students’ basic subject learning theory. The existed research had mentioned that the training of new teachers should provide new teachers university students’ psychological knowledge. However, with a careful analysis we will find that more studies considered were the knowledge about students’ mental health and the way to deal with the relationship between new teachers and students, the studies mentioned the knowledge about university students’ subject learning is few. In fact, an important problem that new teachers encountered is how to effectively guide students to learn professional knowledge. For example, how do university students learn professional course? What are the characteristics they have in learning their course? How can teachers effectively promote students to learn professional course? These all are unfamiliar to new teachers. Therefore, the future researches should base on the new teachers teaching tasks, further study what knowledge about student’s psychological knowledge should be taught in the new teachers training, in order to be more conducive to new teachers’ teaching work.

The third is about new teachers teaching foundation. The majorities of the existed studies were researched under the premise that new teachers know nothing at all about universities teaching and the researchers’ practical experience in teachers school education. However, are the new university teachers have the same foundations with the normal university students? Are they have the same demand for the basic theory of teaching education? And are the new teachers really ignorant about university education? Of course the answer is not. Because most of these new teachers graduated from universities. So what aspects of universities new teachers exactly have understood and what degree did their understanding get? Clearly figuring out these questions, the universities training will not only avoid aimlessly trying, but also improving its efficiency. However, the current research rarely discussed these aspects. In consideration of this point, it was necessary to consider the new teachers’ teaching foundation and focuses on what new teachers had understood about university teaching and their actual need in the future research.

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About the Authors

Ming Zhu
The School of Mathematics and Statistics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, China
Zezhong Yang
The School of Mathematics and Statistics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, China
Zhaohua Qu
The School of Mathematics and Statistics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, China
Tong Wang
The School of Mathematics and Statistics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, China

Corresponding Authors

Zezhong Yang

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