American Journal of Education and Learning

Volume 4, Number 1 (2019) pp 171-183 doi 10.20448/804.4.1.171.183 | Research Articles

 

Identification of Non-Formal Education Programs and Analysis of Accreditation in Indonesia

Suwandi . 1Dewa Komang Tantra 2
1 Center for Policy Research on Education and Culture, Research and Development Division of Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia.
2 Department of English Education, Faculty of Languages and Arts, Ganesha University of Education, Bali, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to investigate the condition of non-formal educational programs (NEP) and units in each region in Indonesia. A survey method comprising questionnaires, interviews and documentation was conducted in January 2016 to identify programs and units throughout the country. The sample was determined by purposive sampling inside and outside Java Island regions. Data were analyzed by reviewing previous accreditation analysis in 2015 reported by the National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education (NAB-NEP). The results shows that there were 7,757 NEP programs and units identified as accredited by NAB-NEP. The national distribution of NEP admittances ready for accreditation was dominated by Java region (2,301 or 48.4%) in 2016. Although this was proportional to the number of NEPs in the six provinces of Java, it appears that NEPs from other provinces were less active or unable to meet the requirements. The other provinces can be summarized as follows: Sumatra (1,252 or 26.3%), Kalimantan (544 or 11.4%), Sulawesi (275 or 5.8%), NTB and NTT (121 or 2.5%), Papua and West Papua (30 or 0.6%), and Maluku and North Maluku (3 or 0.1%).

Keywords: Non-formal education, Accreditation, Education program, Education units.

DOI: 10.20448/804.4.1.171.183

Citation | Suwandi; Dewa Komang Tantra (2019). Identification of Non-Formal Education Programs and Analysis of Accreditation in Indonesia. American Journal of Education and Learning, 4(1): 171-183.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019 .

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the condition of non-formal educational programs (NEP) and units in each region in Indonesia.
  • This suggested on the basis of results that there should be improvement made on the socialization of the three national standards namely; content standards, process standards, and educators standards.

1. INTRODUCTION

The quality of education considerably varies across different educational institutions. This can be observed in terms of numerous aspects, whether related to instrumental inputs such as curriculum, teaching staff, and teaching materials, or environmental inputs such as physical environments and principal’s managerial skills. The other aspects can be related to process, such as pedagogy, facilities, infrastructure, output including test results and graduates success (Supriyatno et al., 2013).

The Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 Year 2003 on the National Education System states that non-formal education (NEP) represents a form of national education as it is treated equally to the other educational institutions. Non-formal education, as part of Indonesia’s lifelong learning objective has demonstrated its role in developing productive and high-quality human resources.
The Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 13 Year 2015 on the Second Amendment to the Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 19 Year 2005 regarding National Education Standards explains that NEP programs and units can be accredited by the government by controlling the education quality.

Accreditation is one of the steps in education system in ensuring schools’ high levels of quality. This includes the reformation and diversification of curriculum as the main tools to shape students with the competency standards that are responsive to local conditions (Ajrina et al., 2017).

The educators’ qualification standards has been developed to meet the demands of the professionals that are eligible in performing task, creating education funding standards for each educational unit, corresponding to principles of equity and justice, and implementing education management in open and various system (Ajrina et al., 2017).

The accreditation management are defined under the Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia Number 59 Year 2012 about the National Accreditation Board (NAB) (Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, 2015).

The most significant challenge in implementing accreditation is the difficulty of non-formal educational institutions to meet the three standards: content standards, process standards, and educators’ standards. This is particularly related to the graduate competence, curriculum actualization, evaluation process, and curriculum implementation materials (syllabus and learning implementation plan). In case of non-formal education, the three national standards should focus on the accreditation of NEP programs and units (MECRI, 2015).

The accreditation policy furtherly specify the government’s policy towards to non-formal education that is need to be accredited to be able to contribute in improving the quality of human resources (Ajrina et al., 2017). Therefore, the government must provide assurances to the public that accredited, non-formal educational institutions are appropriate, accountable, qualified, and able to offer value in improving community knowledge, understanding and skills. 

In order to achieve and improve on these objectives, it is necessary to identify the condition of non-formal education programs and units in each region of Indonesia including  their distribution and accreditation across all regions in Indonesia.

2. METHOD

This study was conducted in January 2016 by focusing on non-formal education programs and units throughout Indonesia. Data were collected by purposive sampling of population characteristics in all provinces of Indonesia (Sudjarwo & Basrowi, 2006).

A blueprint data was developed based on eight Education Standards (ES), namely graduate competency standards, content standards, process standards, education standards and education personnel, standard of facilities and infrastructure, management standards, education financing standards, and education assessment standards. Data were collected through interviewing the members of National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education in the headquarters, non-formal education accreditation assessors, managers of non-formal education institutions, and the members of National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education at the regional level. The accreditation value was obtained based on the range of values ​​generated from the 8 Education Standards Table 1. These data were subsequently analyzed using the quantitative descriptive analysis method (Sudjarwo & Basrowi, 2006).

Table-1.The range of NEP accreditation.
Rank of Accreditation
Range value (0-100)
A
>86
B
76-85
C
66-75
D
<56

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Distribution of Accreditation by Province

The distribution of accreditation by BAN-NEP in Indonesia in 2015 by province are presented in the Table 2.

Based on the general distribution of NEP programs and units in each province, West Java had the highest number of registered programs and units for accreditation (837 or 17.6%), followed by East Java (452 or 9.5%), Central Java (410 or 8.62%), Banten (309 or 6.5%), West Sumatra (305 or 6.41%), and Special Region of Yogyakarta (247 or 5.2%). All other provinces stood below 5% for registered programs and units.

This result corresponds with the findings of the National Accreditation Board for School / Madrasah (2010) that the majority of educational institutions in Java (93%) have been accredited as good or excellent, whereas the outside region of Java was only 48% rated in the same category.  West Java, East Java, Central Java, Banten, West Sumatra, and Special Region of Yogyakarta were the provinces with the highest number of NEP programs and units registering for accreditation. This expected as the level of public awareness to attend various forms of educational institution in the NEP unit was very high as the matter of fact that these areas have the largest number of NEP units. Indeed, NEP unit managers in these areas are driven to compete in achieving the best accreditation rating, so they can attract more students. 

Table-2. General distribution of NEP programs and units accreditation in each province.
No
Provinces
Total
Percentage (%)
1
Aceh
90
1,89
2
Bali
136
2,86
3
Banten
309
6,5
4
Bengkulu
95
2
5
Special Region of Yogyakarta
247
5,2
6
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
46
0,97
7
Gorontalo
1
0,02
8
Jambi
187
3,93
9
West Java
837
17,6
10
Central Java
410
8,62
11
East Java
452
9,5
12
West Kalimantan
123
2,59
13
South Kalimantan
228
4,79
14
Central Kalimantan
72
1,51
15
East Kalimantan
71
1,49
16
North Kalimantan
50
1,05
17
Bangka Belitung Archipelago
122
2,56
18
Riau Archipelago
66
1,39
19
Lampung
112
2,35
20
Maluku
3
0,06
21
North Maluku
0
0
22
West Nusa Tenggara
26
0,55
23
East Nusa Tenggara
95
2
24
Papua
30
0,63
25
West Papua
0
0
26
Riau
89
1,87
27
West Sulawesi
17
0,36
28
South Sulawesi
211
4,44
29
Central Sulawesi
18
0,38
30
Southeast Sulawesi
28
0,59
31
North Sulawesi
0
0
32
West Sumatera
305
6,41
33
South Sumatera
79
1,66
34
North Sumatera
202
4,25
Total
4757
100

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

3.2. Distribution of Accreditation By NEP Cluster

Meanwhile, the distribution of accreditation based on the NEP cluster conducted by BAN-NEP in Indonesia in 2015 is presented in the following figure.

Figure-1. General Distribution of Accreditation based on NEP Cluster in Indonesia in 2015.

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

As shown in Figure 1, the Early Childhood Education and Training Program (ECETP) contributed the highest level of admittance in 2015 (3,471 or 73%), followed by the Course Institution and Training (CIT) with 819 or 17%, and the Community Learning Center (CLC) with 467 or 10% of the total accreditation process.

ECETP became the most registered NEP unit to be accredited because the entire community has been aware of it by sending their children to NEP. Moreover, many elementary schools indirectly require that students can provide early childhood certificate for enrollment. This stimulates ECETP unit managers to register for accreditation of their institutions. In accordance, the managers of the Community Skills Institute (CIT) have been also aware of the importance of accreditation since the majority of people seeking employment need an CIT skill certificate, such as from the CLC.

3.3. Distribution of Accreditation by Province And NEP Cluster

The distribution of accreditation by BAN-NEP in Indonesia in 2015 in each province and NEP cluster is presented in the following table.

Table-3. General Distribution of Accreditation in each Province and NEP Cluster.
No
Provinces
ECETP
CIT
CLC
Total
1
Aceh
77
8
5
90
2
Bali
43
53
40
136
3
Banten
221
59
29
309
4
Bengkulu
80
14
1
95
5
Special Region of Yogyakarta
193
13
41
247
6
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
14
18
14
46
7
Gorontalo
1
0
0
1
8
Jambi
151
19
17
187
9
West Java
696
122
19
837
10
Central Java
216
163
31
410
11
East Java
291
106
55
452
12
West Kalimantan
118
2
3
123
13
South Kalimantan
198
25
5
228
14
Central Kalimantan
43
18
11
72
15
East Kalimantan
51
8
12
71
16
North Kalimantan
35
0
15
50
17
Bangka Belitung Archipelago
109
11
2
122
18
Riau Archipelago
44
11
11
66
19
Lampung
84
26
2
112
20
Maluku
3
0
0
3
21
North Maluku
0
0
0
0
22
West Nusa Tenggara
22
2
2
26
23
East Nusa Tenggara
77
9
9
95
24
Papua
27
3
0
30
25
West Papua
0
0
0
0
26
Riau
69
5
15
89
27
West Sulawesi
15
0
2
17
28
South Sulawesi
176
15
20
211
29
Central Sulawesi
5
13
0
18
30
Southeast Sulawesi
20
4
4
28
31
North Sulawesi
0
0
0
0
32
West Sumatera
227
45
33
305
33
South Sumatera
69
10
0
79
34
North Sumatera
96
37
69
202
Total
3471
819
467
4757

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

As shown in Table 3 West Java contributed the highest number of registered NEP programs and units to be accredited. However, from the clusters of NEP, with the highest rates of accreditation based on the program and unit of ECETP was found in West Java (696 or 20.05%) that is followed by East Java (291 or 8.38%), West Sumatra (227 or 6.54%), Banten (221 or 6.37%), Central Java (216 or 6.22%), South Kalimantan (198 or 5.7%), Special Region of Yogyakarta (193 or 5.56%), and South Sulawesi (176 or 5.07%).

The program and unit of CIT with the highest registration in 2015 was Central Java with 163 or 19.9%, followed by West Java (122 or 14.9%), East Java (106 or 12.94%), Banten (59 or 7.2%), Bali (53 or 6.47%), and West Sumatra (45 or 5.49%).

The program and unit of CLC with the highest registration in 2015 was North Sumatra at 69 or 14.78%, followed by East Java (55 or 11.78%), Special Region of Yogyakarta (41 or 8.78), Bali (40 or 8.57), West Sumatra (33 or 7.07%), Central Java (31 or 6.64%), and Banten (29 or 6.21%). The other provinces all registered programs and units were under 5%.

Ajrina et al. (2017) concluded that the motivation of non-formal educational institutions to register their institutions for accreditation is dependent on the successful socialization of accreditation. The more frequent the socialization by the accreditation board, the higher the motivation of non-formal educational institutions to become accredited. Conversely, the less frequent of socialization are related to the more limited levels of accreditation. Therefore, the number of institutions registering for accreditation is also limited.

3.4. Distribution of the NEP Program and Unit Based on Accreditation Rating

The distribution of accreditation by BAN-NEP in 2015 in Indonesia based on accreditation rank is shown in the following table.

Table-4. Distribution of NEP Programs and Units based on Accreditation.
No
Accreditation Rankings
Total
Percentage (%)
1
Accredited
291
6,12
2
Accredited A
385
8,09
3
Accredited  B
1976
41,54
4
Accredited  C
1637
34,41
5
Not Accredited
451
9,48
6
Cancelled
16
0,34
7
Postponed
1
0,02
Total
4757
100

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

Based on the data in Table 4, it can be seen that those accredited as status B amounted to 1,976 or 41.54%, almost 50% of the total accredited NEP programs and units. This was followed by the C ranking at 1,637 or 34.41%, Not Accredited at 451 or 9.48%, the A ranking at 385 or 8.09%, Canceled at 16 or 0.34%, and finally postponed accreditation at just 1 or 0.02%.

In the first stage of accreditation, BAN-NEP continues to process institutions’ applications using the old instruments (17 program instruments + 3 unit instruments) of 330 institutions. Therefore, the status can be described as ‘Accredited and Not Accredited,’ with total accredited institutions number of 291 or 6.12%. The results of Subijanto Dan Wiratno (2012) study also concluded that accredited educational institutions with A number only 6%, B at a significant 80%, and C at 14%. These data were the representation of the educational institutions quality in Indonesia.

3.5. Distribution of Accreditation Rating by Province

The distribution of accreditation rating by BAN-NEP in Indonesia regions in is presented in the following Table 5.

Table-5. Distribution of Accreditation by Province.
No
Province
Accreditation Status
Total
Accredited
A
B
C
TT
Cancelled
Postponed
1
Aceh
1
4
24
39
22
90
2
Bali
2
9
84
35
5
1
136
3
Banten
18
6
99
157
27
1
1
309
4
Bengkulu
10
5
42
27
11
95
5
Special Region of Yogyakarta
35
19
122
55
15
1
247
6
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
3
17
10
11
5
46
7
Gorontalo
1
1
8
Jambi
6
7
50
98
26
187
9
West Java
40
81
399
265
50
2
837
10
Central Java
67
40
173
95
35
410
11
East Java
35
71
201
121
24
452
12
West Kalimantan
8
45
58
10
2
123
13
South Kalimantan
9
17
79
79
43
1
228
14
Central Kalimantan
2
7
27
28
7
1
72
15
East Kalimantan
11
5
20
28
7
71
16
North Kalimantan
4
15
29
2
50
17
Bangka Belitung Archipelago
12
13
59
28
9
1
122
18
Riau Archipelago
17
1
27
16
4
1
66
19
Lampung
18
62
24
8
112
20
Maluku
2
1
3
21
North Maluku
0
22
West Nusa Tenggara
1
16
8
1
26
23
East Nusa Tenggara
4
26
42
23
95
24
Papua
3
17
10
30
25
West Papua
0
26
Riau
2
5
41
32
7
2
89
27
West Sulawesi
2
1
12
2
17
28
South Sulawesi
1
12
100
81
17
211
29
Central Sulawesi
5
7
6
18
30
Southeast Sulawesi
10
13
5
28
31
North Sulawesi
0
32
West Sumatera
10
13
90
132
57
3
305
33
South Sumatera
2
5
48
23
1
79
34
North Sumatera
1
8
69
94
30
202
Total
291
385
1976
1637
451
16
1
4757

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

As previously described, there were 291 (6.12%) accredited institutions from a total of 330 institutions in the first stage of accreditation, which the institution only ranked as ‘Accredited and Not Accredited’. If accreditation by province is ranked, it can be seen that Central Java represented the region with the highest accreditations records (67 or 23.0%), followed by West Java (40 or 13.75%), Special Region of Yogyakarta (35 or 12.03%), East Java (35 or 12.03%), Banten (18 or 6.19%), and Riau Islands (17 or 5.84%).

In 2015, Accredited A institutions were primarily obtained in West Java (81 or 21.04%), followed by East Java (71 or 18.44%), and Central Java (40 or 10.39%). Accredited B institutions were mostly seen in West Java (399 or 20.19%), followed by East Java (201 or 10.17%), Central Java (173 or 8.76%), Special Region of Yogyakarta (122 or 6.17%), South Sulawesi (100 or 5.06%), and Banten (99 or 5.01%).

Accredited C institutions were mostly obtained in West Java (265 or 16.19%), followed by Banten (157 or 9.59%), West Sumatra (132 or 8.06%), East Java (121 or 7.39%), Jambi (98 or 5.99%), Central Java (95 or 5.8%), and North Sumatra (94 or 5.74%).

Unaccredited status was mostly obtained in West Sumatra (57 or 12.64%), followed by West Java (50 or 11.09%), South Kalimantan (43 or 9.53%), Central Java (35 or 7.76%), North Sumatra (30 or 6.65%), Banten (27 or 5.99%), Jambi (26 or 5.76%), East Java (24 or 5.32%), and East Nusa Tenggara (23 or 5.1%).

The canceled accreditation status was only obtained in 11 provinces, which the largest number was found in West Sumatra (3 or 18.8%), followed by West Java, West Kalimantan, and Riau (2 or 12.5%), and Bali, Banten, Special Region of Yogyakarta, South Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, Bangka Belitung Archipelago, and Riau Archipelago (1 or 6.3%).

Postponed status was only obtained in Banten caused by the institution attempted to bribe the assessor member of the BAN-NEP. As the consequences, the plenary meeting decidied that the accreditation result would be postponed for one year.

Moreover, NEP unit can receive A rank when the obtained average of eight educational standards value more than 86 from the range 0-100. The NEP educational unit will be ranked as B when the obtained score is in the range of 76-85. Meanwhile, rank C is obtained when the score is only 66-75. If the NEP unit scores below 56, it categorized as unaccredited.

3.6. Distribution of ECETP Programs and Units Based on Accreditation Ranking

The distribution of ECETP program and units based on accreditation rank conducted by BAN-NEP in Indonesia in 2015 is presented below table.

Based on Table 6, the Accredited B ECETP programs and units dominated the distribution by 1,534 or 44.19%, which is almost half of the entire accredited ECETP programs and units. This was followed by Accredited C status (1,150 or 33.13%), Accredited A status (297 or 8.56%), Not Accredited (285 or 8.21%), canceled (13 or 0.37%), and postponed (1 or 0.03%). As mentioned before, in the first period of the accreditation process, BAN-NEP was still using the old instrument to process accreditation of 330 institutions, with the number of accredited ECETP programs and units of191 or 5.5%. In addition, Kiam (2014) revealed that the implementation of non-formal educational program policy on early childhood education (ECETP) has been very successful, as the majority (81%) of early childhood education has received B accreditation ranking, compared with Accredited C (12%) and Accredited A (7%).

Table-6. Distribution of Early Childhood (ECETP) Programs and Units based on Accreditation Ranking.
No
Provinces
Accreditation Status
Total
Accredited
A
B
C
TT
Cancelled
Postponed
1
Aceh
1
3
22
31
20
77
2
Bali
2
5
31
4
1
43
3
Banten
4
3
70
117
25
1
1
221
4
Bengkulu
9
2
40
23
6
80
5
Special Region of Yogyakarta
25
16
104
38
9
1
193
6
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
3
3
7
1
14
7
Gorontalo
1
1
8
Jambi
2
7
46
82
14
151
9
West Java
33
69
361
202
29
2
696
10
Central Java
41
31
102
34
8
216
11
East Java
23
56
136
63
13
291
12
West Kalimantan
7
45
54
10
2
118
13
South Kalimantan
5
17
78
63
34
1
198
14
Central Kalimantan
1
6
16
16
3
1
43
15
East Kalimantan
10
4
14
18
5
51
16
North Kalimantan
4
12
18
1
35
17
Bangka Belitung Archipelago
9
13
59
22
5
1
109
18
Riau Archipelago
9
1
19
13
1
1
44
19
Lampung
11
50
17
6
84
20
Maluku
2
1
3
21
North Maluku
0
22
West Nusa Tenggara
15
6
1
22
23
East Nusa Tenggara
4
19
34
20
77
24
Papua
3
16
8
27
25
West Papua
0
26
Riau
1
2
33
26
5
2
69
27
West Sulawesi
2
1
10
2
15
28
South Sulawesi
1
7
81
75
12
176
29
Central Sulawesi
5
5
30
Southeast Sulawesi
7
11
2
20
31
North Sulawesi
0
32
West Sumatera
6
10
69
101
41
227
33
South Sumatera
1
4
42
21
1
69
34
North Sumatera
1
7
32
43
13
96
191
297
1534
1150
285
13
1
3471

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

3.7. Distribution of CIT Programs and Units Based on Accreditation Ranking

The distribution of CIT programs and units based on accreditation rank by BAN-NEP in Indonesia in 2015 is presented in the Table 7.

As shown in Table 7, the Accredited C institutions were the most common obtained by 322 or 39.32% of the total number of accreditedCIT programs and units. This was followed by Accredited B (241 or 29.43%), Not Accredited (114 or 13.92%), Accredited A (66 or 8.06%), Canceled (2 or 0.24%), and Accredited CIT using an old instrument (74 or 9.04%). In accordance, Chumaidi and Ismi (2004) have stated that the better the management of an educational institution, the greater the institution’s accountability. The level of accountability of an educational institution is presented by its accreditation rank. Lower accreditation ranking signifies that the educational institution is not accountable.  On the other hand, higher accreditation ranking allows educational institution to be seen as accountable to the community.

Table-7. Distribution of CIT Programs and Units based on Accreditation Ranking.
No
Provinces
Accreditation Status
Total
Accredited
A
B
C
TT
Cancelled
 
1
Aceh
1
2
4
1
8
2
Bali
4
26
19
4
53
3
Banten
9
3
17
28
2
59
4
Bengkulu
1
3
2
4
4
14
5
Special Region of Yogyakarta
3
4
6
13
6
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
2
12
1
1
2
18
7
Gorontalo
0
8
Jambi
4
7
8
19
9
West Java
7
8
28
60
19
122
10
Central Java
21
6
54
57
25
163
11
East Java
12
11
37
38
8
106
12
West Kalimantan
2
2
13
South Kalimantan
4
1
12
8
25
14
Central Kalimantan
1
1
5
9
2
18
15
East Kalimantan
1
1
3
3
8
16
North Kalimantan
0
17
Bangka Belitung Archipelago
1
6
4
11
18
Riau Archipelago
4
3
2
2
11
19
Lampung
7
11
6
2
26
20
Maluku
0
21
North Maluku
0
22
West Nusa Tenggara
1
1
2
23
East Nusa Tenggara
2
5
2
9
24
Papua
1
2
3
25
West Papua
0
26
Riau
2
2
1
5
27
West Sulawesi
0
28
South Sulawesi
2
8
4
1
15
29
Central Sulawesi
7
6
13
30
Southeast Sulawesi
1
2
1
4
31
North Sulawesi
0
32
West Sumatera
3
3
8
19
10
2
45
33
South Sumatera
1
1
6
2
10
34
North Sumatera
1
11
16
9
37
Total
74
66
241
322
114
2
819

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

3.8. Distribution of CLC Programs and Units Based on Accreditation Ranking

The distribution of CLC programs and unitsby BAN-NEP in Indonesia in 2015 based on the accreditation rank described is shown in the Table 8.

It is revealed in Table 8 that the majority of CLC programs and units were Accredited B by  43.04% (201) of the total Accredited CLC. This is followed by Accredited C status (165 or 35.33%), Not Accredited (52 or 11.13%), Accredited A (22 or 4.71%), Canceled (1 or 0.21%), and Accredited CLC using an old instrument (26 or 5.57%). In accordance, Ajrina et al. (2017) have stated that the majority of non-formal educational institutions were accredited B (80.2%), followed by an accreditation ranking of C (14.2%) and accreditation  ranking of A (5.6%). This means that there are few high-quality non-formal educational institutions existed. Although, there are numbers of good educational institutions can be found.

Table-8. The Distribution of CLC Programs and Unitsbased on Accreditation Ranking.
No
Provinces
Accreditation Status
Total
Accredited
A
B
C
TT
Cancelled
 
1
Aceh
4
1
5
2
Bali
27
12
1
40
3
Banten
5
12
12
29
4
Bengkulu
1
1
5
Special Region of Yogyakarta
7
3
14
11
6
41
6
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
1
2
6
3
2
14
7
Gorontalo
8
Jambi
4
9
4
17
9
West Java
4
10
3
2
19
10
Central Java
5
3
17
4
2
31
11
East Java
4
28
20
3
55
12
West Kalimantan
1
2
3
13
South Kalimantan
4
1
5
14
Central Kalimantan
6
3
2
11
15
East Kalimantan
3
7
2
12
16
North Kalimantan
3
11
1
15
17
Bangka Belitung Archipelago
2
2
18
Riau Archipelago
4
5
1
1
11
19
Lampung
1
1
2
20
Maluku
21
North Maluku
22
West Nusa Tenggara
1
1
2
23
East Nusa Tenggara
5
3
1
9
24
Papua
25
West Papua
26
Riau
1
1
6
5
2
15
27
West Sulawesi
2
2
28
South Sulawesi
3
11
2
4
20
29
Central Sulawesi
30
Southeast Sulawesi
2
2
4
31
North Sulawesi
32
West Sumatera
1
13
12
6
1
33
33
South Sumatera
34
North Sumatera
26
35
8
69
Total
26
22
201
165
52
1
467

Source: National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education, 2015.

The rank B was obtained by almost half of NEPs due to there were only small number of NEP units able to achieve score above 86 from the range of 0-100. Moreover, the majority of NEP units find it very difficult to meet all of the contents of the eight established standards. Many NEP units are satisfied with the rank B as they feel it is better than C. The managers of NEP units in Central Java, West Java, Special Region of Yogyakarta, East Java, Banten, and Riau Archipelago have demonstrated the greatest awareness of  accreditation. This was mostly due to high levels of public awareness to pursue education in NEP units such as in early childhood, Institute of Courses and Training (CIT), and Community Learning Center (CLC). The early childhood unit contributed the most accredited data as in each region the majority of NEP was ECETP. Indeed, the number of ECETP was higher than the other units of NEP. The majority of CLC programs and units based on the accreditation rank were Accredited B. This may be because CLC programs and units often attempt to achieve B ranking to prove their competence.

4. CONCLUSION

According to the results of data analysis, it can be concluded:

First, the general distribution of NEP programs and units based on accreditation rank revealed that the B ranking was the most common (1,976 or 41.54%), which was almost half of the total NEP programs and units accredited.

Second, the province with the most accredited NEP programs and units was Central Java, with a total of 67 or 23.0%. This was followed by West Java (40 or 13.75%), Special Region of Yogyakarta (35 or 12.03%), East Java (35 or 12.03%), Banten (18 or 6.19%), and Riau Islands (17 or 5.84%).

Third, the most common accreditation ranking of ECETP programs and units was the B ranking with total 1,534 institutions or 44.19% that is almost a half of the total number of accredited early childhood programs and units. This was followed by the C ranking (1,150 or 33.13%), A ranking (297 or 8.56%), Not Accredited (285 or 8.21%), Canceled (13 or 0.37%), and postponed result of accreditation (1 or 0.03%).

Fourth, of the general distribution of CIT programs and units was mostly ranked C by 322 or 39.32% of the total number of accreditedCIT programs and units.

Fifth, the CLC programs and units based was mostly ranked B by 201 or 43.04% of the total number of accredited CLC programs and units. This was followed by Accredited C with 165 or 35.33%, Not Accredited (52 or 11.13%), Accredited A (22 or 4.71%), and Canceled (1 or 0.21%).

5. RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the results, it can be suggested that there should be improvement made on the socialization of the three national standards namely; content standards, process standards, and educators standards. In addition, it is need to identify and locate all the non-formal education programs and units in each region in Indonesia down to the district/city level supplemented with information of their recent condition.

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia who has facilitated the author to conduct this research. In addition, the authors would like to acknowledge Chairman of BAN NEP Period 2012-2016 who has provided the widest opportunity to conduct this research.

REFERENCES

Ajrina, I., U. Wahyudin and A. Saepudin, 2017. Effect of socialization of course accreditation programs on the motivation of managers to prepare program accreditation in CIT education units in Bandung. Available from https://docplayer.info/46580920-Ima-ajrina-1-uyu-wahyudin-2-asep-saepudin-3-universitas-pendidikan-indonesia.html [Accessed January 2 2018].

Chumaidi, d. and S. Ismi, 2004. Improving the quality of education through school-based management, In educational issues in Indonesia. Five second quarter educational issues. Jakarta: Center for Educational Data and Information. Balitbang Depdiknas.

Kiam, K., 2014. Implementation of non formal education program policies on early childhood education (PAUD) in Sintang District. Journal of Public Administration and Bureaucracy, 1(1): 60-80.

Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, 2015. Guide to the provincial NEP accreditation working group coordination meeting, BAN NEP, Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.

National Accreditation Board for School / Madrasah, 2010. School / Madrasah accreditation guidelines. Jakarta: BAN-S / M.

Subijanto Dan Wiratno, S., 2012. Analysis of the performance of the school / madrasah national accreditation body. Journal of Education and Culture, 18(3): 310-318.

Sudjarwo & Basrowi, 2006. Metode penelitian sosial. Bandung: Mandar Maju.

Supriyatno, E. Supriyanto and M. Dan, 2013. Management of school accreditation. Journal of Humanities Research, 14(2): 144-152.

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About the Authors

Suwandi .
Center for Policy Research on Education and Culture, Research and Development Division of Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia.
Dewa Komang Tantra
Department of English Education, Faculty of Languages and Arts, Ganesha University of Education, Bali, Indonesia.

Corresponding Authors

Suwandi .

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