American Journal of Education and Learning

Volume 4, Number 2 (2019) pp 184-190 doi 10.20448/804.4.2.184.190 | Research Articles

 

Gender Inequality in Teaching and Teacher Education Programme: Assessment and Analysis of Anambra State, Nigeria

Okafor, Victor Emeka 1 , Ezeoba, Kate Oge 1 
1 Department of Curriculum and Instructional Technology NwaforOrizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State Nigeria

ABSTRACT

The research work deals on gender inequality in teaching and teacher education programmes: Assessment and analysis of Anambra State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population is made of six hundred and seven teachers and three hundred and fifty Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) students of NwaforOrizu College of education NsugbeAnambra State. Using stratified random sampling technique, three hundred (300) respondents were sampled for the study. The questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection and it was validated by experts in teacher education and measurement and evaluation. The mean statistics was used to analyse the data collected. The findings of the study showed that poor salary and poor condition of service of teachers, high rate of unemployed graduate teachers, teaching being considered to be women profession among other are some of the causes of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes. The paper also discovered that: our schools have become a breeding ground for all kinds of social vices, imbalance in character molding of the young ones, reduction in students compliance to school rules and regulations as some of the effects of near absence of males in teaching and teacher education programmes. The paper concluded that adequate funding of education, improvement in teachers welfare and condition of service, provision of free and quality education among other will dismantle gender imbalance in teaching and teacher education programmes. Some relevant recommendations were made.

Keywords: Gender, Inequality, Teaching, teacher, education, programme.

DOI: 10.20448/804.4.2.184.190

Citation | Okafor, Victor Emeka; Ezeoba, Kate Oge (2019). Gender Inequality in Teaching and Teacher Education Programme: Assessment and Analysis of Anambra State, Nigeria. American Journal of Education and Learning, 4(2): 184-190.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019.

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper
  • The research work deals on gender inequality in teaching and teacher education programmes: Assessment and analysis of Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • The findings of the study showed that poor salary and poor condition of service of teachers, high rate of unemployed graduate teachers, teaching being considered to be women profession among other are some of the causes of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes.

1. INTRODUCTION

Globally, teaching is classified as a profession. The pertinent question however is whether it is so in Nigeria. Teaching in Nigeria over the ages has been stigmatized with derogatory terms such as a profession for the poor or exclusion occupation for the down-trodden (Ajayi, 1997). To some people in Nigeria, teaching is engaged by people considered as social labourers whose rewards are in heaven. On this perception, many graduates embark on teaching as a stepping stone pending the time they would find a lucrative job. Abdulazeez (2015) and Ofoefuna (2016) have identified the quest for material wealth as well as unemployment as the major causes of the decline in male enrolment into teacher education programme and teaching. In Nigeria, the unemployment puzzle has remained unsolved as many graduate teachers continue to roam the street in search of unavailable vacancies in our primary and secondary schools. Job vacancies are no longer advertised in the media as stipulated by the law, teachers are recruited  through connection, bribery and corruption among others. Ofoefuna (2016) said that, the modern trend is recruitment through complementary cards, phone calls and personal contacts with the chief executives and political office holders, top government officials, their relations and friends in top management and religious positions. Recruitment through this method is contrary to the provision of Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) Acts and this method of recruitment cannot give us the best of teachers.

Most of the students who are in the faculty of education found themselves there just to gain admission into the university, without genuine interest in the education courses they are pursuing. Close observation and interaction with the students seem to reveal that the female students in the faculty of education fare better than their male counter parts in terms of interest in teaching profession. According to statistics from admission office of Staff Directory (2017) the number of male enrollment into teacher education programmes has continued to dwindle. In the year 2017/2018 academic session, there were only one hundred and thirty one (131) males and five hundred and twenty two (522) females admitted to study Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) programme. In the year 2015, only fifty nine (59) males students were admitted while the number of females students were two hundred and twenty eight (228). The gender inequality in teacher education programmes has direct impact in our primary and secondary schools, where there are near absence of male teachers.

Also, records in the research and statistics department of Research and Statistics Department Records (2013) reveals that there are eighty (80) secondary schools within the zone. The teachers population is two thousand, six hundred and six (2606) out of which one thousand, nine hundred and twenty-six (1926) are females and six hundred and eighty are males. In Aguata Education zone of Anambra State, which comprises three local government areas; Aguata, Orumba North and South, the report from research and statistics department (2018) reveals that out of six hundred and seven (607) teachers  of secondary schools in the zone, four hundred and ninety three (493) are females while one hundred and fourteen (114) are males.

The situation at the tertiary level is not different, according to Paul-Cookey and Ngozi (2013) observed that out of a total academic staff population of one hundred and sixty nine (169) lecturers of AlvanIkoku College of Education Owerri, only sixty-one are males while the remaining one hundred and eight (108) are females. Also, records from Staff Directory (2017) reveals a glaring gender inequality in lecturers distribution: Biology department has ten (10) females and three (3) males, Igbo department has ten (10) females and three (3) males, English department has fourteen (14) females and five (5) males, primary education department has six (6) female lecturers and no male etc.

The above statistics clearly highlight the gender gap in teacher education and teaching in Nigeria. This development is a mirror of what is obtainable in other states in Nigeria. Mulagata (2012) has observed a similar trend in Ondo state of Nigeria where there are more female teachers than male teachers, especially at the primary and secondary levels of education. Ogu (2014) observes the same situation in Benue and Plateau States, she opined that the preponderance of female teachers in the educational sector in Nigeria, especially in the southern part is a boost to the lie that teaching is a female occupation. Of course, this stereotype has to be dismantled so that the true situation will subsist. Teacher education and teaching itself are not exclusively female occupation but also occupation for males. The current situation of gender in equality in teacher education and teaching negate balance in character molding of the young ones and their all round development.

According to Iwuji (2014) lack of interest, high cost of education, unemployment are serious impediments to male enrollment into teacher education and teaching. He further says that most male students prefer business that will give them quick money to education and as a result, many of them dropout of school thereby reducing the number of male students in teacher education programmes. The poor salary of teachers and their poor condition of service have continued to scare away male students from the profession. Okafor (2012) observes that teachers are labouring under stressful condition and they are poorly motivated. It has been observed that staff of secondary and primary schools in Nigeria are poorly motivated. According to Nigeria Union of Teachers, Anambra State Chapter, teachers salaries are not paid on time, let alone payment of other allowances like leave allowance. The leave allowances of 1999-2003 were written off. Till today, teachers in Anambra State are still expecting 1999-2003 leave allowances owed them by the state government. Poor motivation of teachers has contributed to near exit of male gender into the teaching profession. It is no longer a secret that teachers are poorly paid, some of them have no houses, car and they find it difficult to pay their children’s school fees. Many teachers that retired five years ago have not received their gratuity, many of them bribe officials in different offices for them to take their files to appropriate quarters. In Kogi state of Nigeria, teachers and pensioners are owed over two years salary and pension allowances. This deplorable condition of teachers has continued to scare away the prospective male teachers. Some teachers in order to survive the harsh economic condition of the country now aid and abet examination malpractices and its dangerous effect have eaten deep into the fabric of Nigeria colleges. It has done irrevisable damage to the credibility of the certificates being awarded by universities and colleges. Igomu (2018) maintained that the moral fabric holding society together was being eroded by some teachers who should be mentors. He lamented that it was made worse in an environment meant to be a molding and filtering ground for building virile leaders and intellectuals in the country.   

The implications of the above scenario is that poor quality students are admitted into teacher education programme. Few males who find themselves in faculty of education of Nigerian Universities are those who could not secure admission to read professional courses like Law, Engineering, Medicine etc. A critical look at the admission patterns in teacher education programme will reveal that large percentage of those admitted to read education courses are candidates below average. The exceptionally brilliant students are usually not attracted except where they are compelled to because of economic constraints. Some universities also encourage candidates who fail their pre-degree/remidia examination to register for Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE). It gives the impression that teaching is a dumping ground for poor quality students. 

According to Patrick (2010) the insufficient supply of male teachers in our primary and secondary schools have contributed to increase in social vices among students such as cultism, truancy, drug abuse, absenteeism etc. He further says that poor male enrollment into teacher education programme and teaching has led to inadequate number of teachers in some technical subjects like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Health and Physical Education, Introductory Technology among others. It has also lowered students’ compliance to school rules and regulations thereby creating a breeding ground for all kind of social vices in the school. Iwuji (2014) and Okafor (2012) have advocated for free and quality education and better welfare for teachers. Ezeokeke (2018) and Adebule (2014) have suggested that Anambra State government should abolish fees in schools and award scholarship and bursary to indigent students as measures to increase male enrolment in teaching and teacher education programme. 

1.1.Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. What are the causes of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes?
  2. What are the effects of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes?
  3. What are the strategies to encourage male enrollment into teaching and teacher education programmes?

2. METHODOLOGY

A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population is made of six hundred and seven teachers in Aguata education zone of Anambra State and three thousand and fifty NCE students of NwaforOrizu College of education Nsugbe, Anambra State, Nigeria. Using stratified random sampling technique, three hundred (300) respondents were sampled for the study.

The instrument for data collection is the questionnaire which has fifteen items designed to elicit information on gender inequality in teaching and teacher education programme in Anambra State. The instrument was first validated by an expert in teacher education at NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka and expert in measurement and evaluation at NwaforOrizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State.

The reliability of the research instrument was determined through a measure of internal consistency of the items. The Crobach Alpha was used to establish the internal consistency of 0.80. This measure is high for the instrument to be considered to be reliable. For data analysis, the research questions were analyzed using mean. Any mean of 2.5 and above is said to be high and effective and those below 2.5 are said to be low and ineffective.

3. RESULTS

The following are the results of the data analysis: research question 1: what are the causes of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes.

Table-1. Mean rating score on the causes of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programme.
S/N
ITEMS
REMARK
1
Teachers are poorly paid   
3.4
Agree
2
Teaching is considered to be women profession            
3.2
Agree
3
Teachers have poor status in the society                       
3.2
Agree
4
High rate of unemployed graduate teacher
2.9
Agree
5
Teachers are poorly motivated
3.1
Agree

Source:Field Survey, 2019.

The result presented in Table 1shows that items 1-5 were rated high by the respondents. This was clearly indicated from their respective mean scores of 3.4, 3.2, 3.2, 2.9 and 3.1 which are above the criterion of acceptance fixed at 2.5 and above. It means that poor salary of teachers, high rate of employed graduate teachers, poor motivation of teachers are some of the causes of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes.

Research Question 2.What are the effects of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes.

Table-2. Mean rating score on the effects of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes.
S/N
ITEMS
REMARK
6
It has lowered students compliance to school rules
and regulations                                   
2.9
Agree
7
It has made our schools breeding ground for all
kinds of social vices
3.1
Agree
8
It has led to shortage of teachers in some technical
Subjects
3.4
Agree
9
It has created imbalance in character molding of the
young ones           
3.2
Agree
10
It has made teaching to be a dumping ground for
People with all kinds of certificates
2.9
Agree

Source:Field Survey, 2019.

The result presented in Table 2 shows that items 6 – 10 were rated high by the respondents. This was clearly indicated from their respective mean scores of 2.9, 3.1, 3.4, 3.2 and 2.9 which are above the criterion of acceptance fixed at 2.5 and above. It means that poor  enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programmes have lowered students compliance to school rules and regulations, made our schools breeding ground for all kinds of social vices, shortage of teachers in technical subjects among others.

Research Question 3:What are the strategies to encourage male enrollment into teaching and teacher education programmes.

Table-3. Mean rating score on the strategies to encourage male enrollment into teaching and teacher education programmes.
S/N
ITEMS
REMARK
11
Regular payment of teachers salaries             
3.2
Agree
12
Provision of employment for graduate teachers
3.4
Agree
13
Increment of teachers salaries and allowances
3.4
Agree
14
Free and quality education at all levels         
3.1
Agree
15
Provision of adequate infrastructures in schools
2.9
Agree

Source:Field Survey, 2019.

The result presented in Table 3 shows that items 11-15 were rated high by the respondents. This was clearly indicated from their respective mean scores of 3.2,3.4, 3.4, 3.1 and 2.9 which are above the criterion of acceptance fixed at 2.5 and above. It means that regular payment of teachers salaries, provision of employment for graduate teachers, increment of teachers salaries and allowances, provision of adequate infrastructures are some of the strategies to encourage male enrollment into teaching and teacher education programme.

4. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The result of the analysis of research question one shows that the causes of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programme are; teaching is considered to be  women profession, teachers are poorly paid and not motivated, high rate of unemployed graduate teachers. These findings are in line with Okafor (2012) and Iwuji (2014) both scholars observed that unemployment of graduate teachers, poor salary of teachers and poor condition of service are serious impediments to male enrollment into teacher education programmes and teaching.

The result of the analysis of the research question two shows that the effects of poor enrollment of male students into teaching and teacher education programme include; lowering of students compliance to school rules and regulations, shortage of teachers in some technical subjects, created imbalance in character molding of the young ones among others. These findings are in agreement with Patrick (2010) stated that insufficient supply of male teachers in our primary and secondary schools have contributed to inadequate number of teachers in technical subjects like mathematics, physics, chemistry, introductory technology among others.

The result of the analysis of research question three shows that regular payment of teacher salaries and allowances, provision of employment for graduate teachers, increment of teachers salaries and allowances, provision of free and quality education among others are strategies to encourage male enrollment into teaching and teacher education programme. Iwuji (2014) and Okafor (2012) have advocated for free and quality education and better welfare services as strategies to encourage male enrollment into teaching and teacher education programmes.

5. CONCLUSION

Gender inequality in teaching and teacher education programmes in Nigeria are serious issues that need to by addressed by the government, individuals and stakeholders in education. Therefore, poor funding of education, neglect of teachers welfare, poor condition of service and inadequate teaching and learning infrastructures in schools, high cost of education must be quickly resolved by the government. The implementation of free and quality education will attract high level man power into teaching and teacher education programme and dismantle gender imbalance in our educational system.

6. RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the issues highlighted above, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Government at the state and federal levels in Nigeria should provide a worthwhile condition of service for teachers in the country.
  2. Government should provide free and quality education at all levels.
  3. Teaching and learning infrastructures should be provided in our schools.
  4. Government should employ more male graduate teachers to fill the existing vacancies in our primary and secondary schools.
  5. Teachers salaries and allowances should be the same with other civil servants in Nigeria.
  6. Teachers should be properly motivated through in service training, exposure to work shops and seminars as ways of training and re-training them in teaching skills and methods.

REFERENCES

Abdulazeez, N., 2015. Pension scheme in Nigeria. History, problems and prospects. Arabia Journal of Business Management Review, 5(2): 5.

Adebule, O.I., 2014. Reforms and innovations: A sure step towards qualitative education. A Paper Presented by the Secretary to Lagos State Government in 2014 Education Summit.

Ajayi, K., 1997. Breaking the barriers to full professionalization of teaching in Nigeria by the year 2010 and beyond. Studies in Educational Planning and Administration, 1(1): 1-9.

Ezeokeke, A.V., 2018. Education and the law: Teacher registration, recruitment of teachers, discipline and gratuity In I.N. Nwankwo (Ed) Education and National Development: Issues and Way forward. Ikwo: Ebonyi State College of Education Publication.

Igomu, T., 2018. Unending sex for marks. Daily Sun Newspaper: April 17. pp: 30.

Iwuji, S.E., 2014. Gender equality and security: Panacea for the challenges of the girl-child in Nigeria. Paper Presented at a Two-day Workshop on Gender Equality; Sustainable National peace. University of Port-Harcourt.

Mulagata, T., 2012. Teacher education policies from gender perspective. The case of Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal. Addis Ababa-Ethiopia: UNESCO.

Ofoefuna, M.O., 2016. Teaching: The paradigm shift and the needed change by educational technology. Second inaugural lecture series. Anambra State: Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe.

Ogu, A., 2014. Gender disparity in teaching staff of four primary schools in Benue State. Ehamufu, Enugu State: An Unpublished Seminar Paper of Federal College of Education.

Okafor, V.E., 2012. Evaluation of social studies instruction in junior secondary schools in Anambra State. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, Imo State University Owerri.

Patrick, O., 2010. Gender and teacher education in Nigeria. Jounal of Research in Education and Society, 1(1): 166-177.

Paul-Cookey and Ngozi, R., 2013. Role of educated women in educational development of youths. International Journal of Gender and Development, 1(1): 5.

Research and Statistics Department Records, 2013. Owerri: Owerri Education Zone Publication. pp: 8.

Staff Directory, 2017. Nsugbe: Nwafor Orizu College of Education Publication. pp: 5&10.

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About the Authors

Okafor, Victor Emeka
Department of Curriculum and Instructional Technology NwaforOrizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State Nigeria
Ezeoba, Kate Oge
Department of Curriculum and Instructional Technology NwaforOrizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State Nigeria

Corresponding Authors

Okafor, Victor Emeka

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