Volume 4, Number 2 (2019) pp 200-209 doi 10.20448/804.4.2.200.209 | Research Articles
The place of teachers in school resource management is so significant that it cannot be swept under the carpet. It is as pertinent in national development in not only Nigeria as a developing country but the entire countries of the world. More so that no quality of a nation’s education can rise above the quality of her teachers. The paper discussed: concept of teacher education, school resource management and school resources, national development as well as difficulties faced by teachers in Nigeria in schools’ resource management. It was concluded in the paper that government in developing countries, Nigeria in particular pay very little attention to this and that if the problems are not promptly attended to, might bring a total crash in the standard of education in the country, and this will impede the desired development in Nigeria. It was therefore recommended in the paper amongst others that government should provide adequate resources for use in the institutions of learning and should institute an all-embracing staff mentainance programme in Nigeria.
Keywords: Teacher-education, School-resource, Management, Sustainable, National development, Developing countries.
Citation | Fashiku, Christopher Oluwatoyin; Yusuf Abiola Abubakar (2019). Teacher Education and School Resource Management: Any Relevance in Sustainable National Development in Developing Countries Like Nigeria? American Journal of Education and Learning, 4(2): 200-209.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Funding : This study received no specific financial support.
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
History : Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019/ Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019.
Publisher: Online Science Publishing
Highlights of this paper
Over the years, education has become a necessary tool for sustainable national development. This is because it enables one to be acquainted with the appropriate pedagogical skills, knowledge, values and attitude that would make one contribute positively to the development of the society where one belongs. According to John and Agba (2010) education is the single major factor for stimulating national development. This agrees with Ehusani (2002) who opined that, the process of education is to develop the cognitive, affective and psychomotor faculties of individuals and groups in order to equip them with knowledge and skills necessary to survive and make the society to progress. A good educational system is vital in any country as it produces the desired personnel required to function in any facets of national life and development process. National Economic Empowerment & Development Strategy (NEEDS) (2004) opined that “the goal of wealth creation, employment generation , poverty reduction, and value reorientation can be effectively pursued, attained and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional education system.” In consonance, Adebakin and Subair (2014) concluded that training and re training of teachers are very essential in bringing about a functional education in any country. Therefore, any country that has not taken the issue of education of her citizen with utmost seriousness is endangering her future growth and national development.
The significance of education in sustainable national development in Nigeria is evident in the FRN (2014) that, education is the instrument “par excellence” for effecting National development. Despite the provision of the policy document, the education system seems to be in a state that calls for the attention of all the stakeholders in education. Corroborating this. Ogunsaju (2004) stated that, academic standard in all Nigeria educational institutions have fallen below the societal expectations. On this note, several measures have been taken by the Nigeria Government to stabilize higher institutions’ education so as to attain its goals and objectives. However, as a backdrop, it becomes pertinent to discuss the concept of teacher education and school resource management, equally, conceptualize National development, as well as discuss the difficulties faced by the teachers in school resource management in Nigeria and put forward recommendations for solving the identified problems for sustainable national development in developing countries.
Teacher education can be regarded as the process of providing teachers and potential teachers with the skills and knowledge necessary to teach effectively in the classroom. It involves a set of activities skills and programmes planned and organized to enhance the teaching profession It is most likely that, the reason for this made the Federal Republic of Nigeria 2014 to make specific policy provision for teacher education programme in Article 9 subsection 5 os the National Policy on Education. This programme is offered in Colleges of Education, National Teacher Institutes (NTI), and Faculty of Education in Nigeria Universities, National Mathematical Centre and Nigerian Language Centre. Ejima (2012) also pointed that, schools of Education in many polytechnics offer teacher education programme.
Also, Adelanusi (2010) perceived teacher education as policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with knowledge, attitudes, behavior and skills required to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community. Akolawole (2012) is of the view that, teacher education refers to that aspect of skill acquisition aimed at influencing and developing a set of people specialized in developing others. Nwadiani (2003) asserted that, teacher education is a systematic instruction for the development of character or mental power. Hence a teacher is regarded as a person who instructs to promote the learning process for development. Lawal (2008) noted that a greater teacher enhanced national development only when such teacher is highly empowered with the needed variables like quality education, better remuneration and conducive environment. On this note, quality teaching must be planned as an integral part of national development.
In a similar vein, teacher education may be divided into three stages: Initial teacher training (a pre-service training before entering the classroom as a full professional teacher), Induction training which is probably the process of providing support during the first few years of teaching or first year in a particular school; and teacher development which may include Continuing Professional Development programme (CPD) and intensive process of practicing teaching profession (Dele, 2012).
It is in this regards that, Ejima (2012) posited that, the quality of a teacher is dependent upon his preparation for professional roles as a distinct practitioner. This implies that, teacher education institution and teacher educators are key agents in reorientation education to address sustainable national development. Rao (2001) however asserted that, there is an immediate and urgent need for giving quality education to the citizens in order to build up the future through effective and proper management of institutions in the country.
In Nigeria, the objectives of teacher education are clearly stated in the FRN (2014) among which include:
However, to achieve the above stated objectives, teacher education was placed as high valued social service in every country of the world. This makes the role of the teacher not to be underscored in ensuring sustainable development. Teachers’ indispensable efforts in the delivery of the curriculum and institutions is to develop and bring about sustainable national development. In the light of this, teaching is indeed, according to Peretomode and Chukwuma (2007) a challenging profession and the teacher is the main factor in the learning environment of the child. This has explained why it was stressed by the Federal Government of Nigeria in the FRN (2014) the need to accord Teacher Education a prominent place in Educational Planning. The Policy further maintains that among other things, the goal of administration should be: to produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teacher with intellectual and professional backgrounds, adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any challenging situations, not only in the life of their country but in the wider world. Hence, higher institutions in Nigeria operate within the guidelines provided in this document.
Teacher education and training are a means for professional updating which deals with all developmental functions directed at the maintenance and enhancement of one’s professional competence.
Resource management according to Alagboye (2004) is concerned with the prudent utilization and maintenance of human , material, financial and other available resources for the optimal achievements of educational goals and objectives. Also, Adetoro (2002) posited it to be the efficient, and effective development of organization’s resources as at when needed.
In line with other scholars, Banjoko (2002) perceived it to be the effective acquisition, utilization and maintenance of the supplies needed in the educational system. Considering the views of different authors, one can conclude that resource management is concerned with the procurement, acquisition, utilization and maintenance of teaching and learning equipment and facilities by the managers of educational institutions through an effective training of the teachers.
Prudent, efficient and effective management of the available but scarce institutional resources hinges on the leadership of the education institutions who are expected to be dynamic and up and doing in the training of the teachers. Basically, educational resources to be managed by the managers of the institutions are both human and material. Among such material resources according to Fashiku (2008); Adetoro (2009) and Akpan et al. (2012) are: physical, financial and information resources in educational institutions. These resources are crucial inputs to be well managed by the institutional heads through their well trained teachers in their job performance.
School resource management in this context refers to allocation and utilization of the available organization resources to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. This resources are: human, material, financial and information resources. According to Nwankwo (2000) human resource are truly the highest assets of an organization, because no matter the amount of capital invested in an organization, its success or failure depends on the quality of people who plan and execute its programme. Oden (2001) noted that, human resource management (HRM) has big impact on team work and consequently affects organization performance, which has emerged as the central question in personnel/HRM field. Iyede (2001) viewed human resource management as the harnessing of the totality of people, skills, energies, talents and latent capabilities to achieve educational objectives which management of school record is part and parcel. Hence, human resource refers to stakeholders in educational institutions.
Fan et al. (2013) posited that, material resources such as physical facilities, classrooms, textbooks, libraries, laboratories, workshops, furniture and fittings are required for effective academic work. Financial resource refers to the available money allocated to any organization for spending. This can probably be in form of cash for schools in order to be able to operate efficiently and sufficiently well towards the attainment of overall sustainable development in institutions in developing countries. On this note, Ukeje (2006) refers to financial resource as means or purchasing power, in form of cash or credit. Perry (2005) submitted that, financial management is an important dimension of administrative effectiveness in higher institutions.
Information is another vital resource that is needed to be reckoned with in this study and identified in the study of Fashiku et al. (2014). It is critical in the effective management of any organization. According to Longman Dictionary (2005) Information is defined as facts or details that tell one something about a situation, person or event. Specifically, information is service facility for applying for facts or news, and laws; it is numerical measure of uncertainty of an experimental outcome. The relevance of information as educational resource cannot be over-emphasized. Pardo (2001) posited that, organizations need information to carry out their activities and to document actions and decisions. In view of the above assertions by the various scholars, Olaleye (2014) posited that, managing the available resources in schools need competent, professionally trained administrators and planners which are equipped with modern techniques of educational management so as to achieve the goal and objectives of education. Achieving effective school resource management according to Peretomode (2012) set of activities which are classified as planning, organizing and leading are required by administrator in order to use the available resources to achieve desired outcome in the most effective way. Teachers in the school system especially in developing countries like Nigeria need to be well acquainted with efficient use of these resources before meaningful national development can take place.
National development in developing countries’ organization like education sector is an active process of producing quality teachers through training of pedagogical skills for overall improvement in any a phenomenon. According to Oyugi (2000) development is associated with increase in per-capita income, public welfare and subsequent reduction in unemployment and social inequality. Kolade (2001) posited that, development is a multi-dimensional process involving changes in structures, attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth and, the reduction of inequality and eradication of absolute poverty. Alabi (2012) argued that, development in countries all over the world is a wide concept with wide connotations and applications. It generally refers to a process involving a continuous change and progress in different aspect of life of peoples and societies. He further explains that, it should not be measured merely in terms of rise in per capita income, but more importantly, in terms of reduction in poverty among the majority of people in the society and sustained economic growth.
In another clime, national development can be pertinently tied to educational development in which teacher seems to be a critical element. This however makes sustainable national development to remain a multi-dimensional construct in developing countries especially in Nigeria higher institutions where several programmes hold. Probably, sustainable national development can only be achievable in organizations when adequate education is imparted in an institutions and where administrators embrace productive and functional tools in the delivery of instructions. These tools remain the quality teachers and available school resources. When it is well managed, sustainable national development would be achieved in higher institutions thereby meeting up with the desired yearnings and expectations of the people in the society at large. In consonance, Olatunji (2011) was of the opinion that, every nation strives after development; this is because, development is one of the basic necessities of modern life. He further explains that, development is a holistic concept, it is multi-dimensional and generally inter-related; it is related to all spheres of life vis-à-vis political, economic and cultural development. In a similar view, the 2002 world summit on sustainable development presented three angles of development which are: economic development, socio-cultural development and environmental development. The conception of this assertion according to Olatunji et al. (2014) could be that, development is about improvement in the material and non-material culture of the society. Further explanation was stated that, if one looks critically, one would observe that, what can generally be inferred to development in a particular sphere is the improvement of how thing are done. For instance, the development in technology has made life easier in many ways. In other words, sustainable national development could only be attained when teachers are adequately educated and institution’s resources are efficiently and effectively managed in the developing nations like Nigeria. In the attempt to do this, teachers experience the following bottle necks.
The following problems are encountered in the bid to bring about quality teacher education in resource management for national development.
This situation refers to the appointment of administrators in higher institution which is not always by merit and professional qualification, but by political affinity. For example, in spite of the examination and interview conducted for administrator vying for positions in higher institutions, people still have to lobby before they can be given the leadership appointment. As a result of this, the leadership of higher institutions may deviate to the side of the government that fixed them up on issues relating to the welfare of the staff. This in effect results in the experienced incessant labour unrest in higher educational institutions in developing countries with no exemption of Nigeria.
For any organization to achieve desired sustainable growth and development, finance is a vital instrument. But in developing countries, in which Nigeria cannot be left out, reverse is the case. Inadequate funding has plagued the education sector since the history of formal education in the country. Education funding in Nigeria seems to have been struggling to meet the 26 percent allocation recommended by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization as a means of training and attaining quality education and education for sustainable national development in Nigeria since 2005-2014. In this regards, Lawal (2003) opined that, inadequate finance from both the federal and state governments militate against the progress of Colleges of Education and teacher education generally, and this poses a serious threat on professionalism in teaching. Nwadiani (1998) observed, schools in the third world countries (Nigeria included) are heavily affected by Macro-economic aggregates such as budget deficits, fluctuating foreign exchange rates, inflation, and slow to change. Additionally, public school managers exercise very limited powers over initiation in procurement of education resources.
The success and failures of any organization counts on availability of infrastructure, equipment, facilities for the attainment of educational goals and objectives for sustainable development. Commenting on the role of infrastructure in higher institution (Onyeukwu and Nwanouruo, 2006) noted that, the absence of adequate infrastructures in the institutions constitutes a real source of worry. They pointed out that, when prospective teachers are brought up in buildings that do not merit to be called schools, one can only expect in return, a rough and uncouth generation. Ololube (2006) maintained that, dilapidation which characterized Nigerian institutions is a serious challenge.
The frequent change of government brings about incessant changes and reforms regarding education. It is usually common that, successive administration in Nigeria always discontinue policy and education reform programmes established by the previous administration thereby affecting the educational plans of the school. Similarly, inconsistent on quality improvement, category of people to be involved pose a big challenge to the stakeholders in the sector and such usually have adverse effect on the performance, management and administration of secondary schools. This serves as a challenge in the sense that, it makes education policies tentative and inconsistent. To be precise, since 1977 to 2014, National policy on education in Nigeria has been revised to accommodate social, political and economic changes in the country (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014).
Insecurity seems to be one of the challenges militating against effective utilization of school resources. For instance, the constant “Boko Haram” , Armed Robbery, Cultism and Kidnapping of Teacher Educators in different parts of the country and the existence of insurgents in some other neighboring countries affect teacher education programme The rate at which people apply for admission in the Northern zone of Nigeria has reduced.
It is not enough for the government to make policies without their adequate and effective implementation on Teacher education in developing countries. However, the following are the recommendations for solving the identified practical challenges for sustainable national development.
Government should endeavor to provide higher institutions with sufficient infrastructure, equipment, fund and learning resources. These resources seem to facilitate effective management of school. It is worthy to note that, funding of education in Nigeria has been a yoke on the government being the major financer. As a result, for schools to be successfully financed, government of Nigeria should persistently strive to ensure that adequate funds are available for higher institutions for procurement of necessary materials that will aid effective teacher education programme. UNESCO (2006) recommends that, allocation of 26% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of each of the country in the world should be devoted to education. With this, it has become imperative for private sectors including stakeholders, companies, non-governmental organization to contribute to the funding and sustenance of education in the developing countries.
Staff maintenance is the process of staff improvement through appropriate training, job placement, and regular supervision and evaluation. These foster self-development, self-actualization and improvement of pedagogical skills of personel which serves as one of the major methods of achieving effective school resource management. When this is done, it ensures the sustenance of desirable productivity levels of the teacher in higher institutions. This assertion by the researchers implies that, regular training; monitoring, supervision and evaluation of school personnel enhance the performance of teachers and even makes them school resource effectively.
This presentation was presented as a position paper that discussed to an extent the need to have good teacher education in the management of educational resources in developing countries with a particular emphasis on Nigeria. The discussion covered among others, human, physical, financial and information resources that teachers in various institution need to prudently manage for national development. The presentation was done through an extensive review of related and current literature. Problems confronting teacher education and resource management for national development were discussed. No data was collected and no data was statistically analysed. Conclusion was made based on the discussion in the work and recommendation was made inform of advise in solving the discussed problems in teacher education and resource management and national development.
The place of Teacher education in resource management is so central and indispensable in enhancing sustainable national development in developing countries. It is quite unfortunate and disheartening that government in developing countries like Nigeria pay little or no attention to this as it can be observed in the various obstacles that bedeviled the nations’ educational institutions as stated in this write up. This problems if not promptly attended to will further lead to a total crash in the educational standard and national development the concerned countries in the world. However, if the recommendations stated above are effected, teacher education will maximally meet up with the desired expectations of the developing countries of the world.
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