Volume 4, Number 2 (2019) pp 292-301 doi 10.20448/804.4.2.292.301 | Research Articles
The role of family education, school and society is needed to achieve the success of students. Not without reason, the development and influence of the environment today will affect the child’s developmental body indirectly will have an impact on his future later. Children are a source of great potential for the continuity and progress of the nation. Literature studies conducted aim to provide an understanding of the importance of the role of partnerships in family education, schools and communities to shape the character of the nation’s children and explain how the process must be carried out to achieve these goals. The results of the study reveal that First, family environment, and the community environment has a very big role in supporting the achievement of educational programs in schools. Educational programs in schools cannot be achieved if they are not fully supported by families and communities. Second, the role of families in the process of achieving educational goals in schools can be seen from their participation in assisting and motivating children in learning, including in terms of financial support.Third, community participation in supporting the achievement of school goals can be realized in the form of participation in carrying out community learning hours, maintaining school safety, supporting various school programs that are directly in contact with the community.
Keywords: Education, Family, School, Society.
Citation | Binti Maunah (2019). The Contribution of Family and Community Education in Realizing the Goals of School Education. American Journal of Education and Learning, 4(2): 292-301.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Funding : This study received no specific financial support.
Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
History : Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019 .
Publisher: Online Science Publishing
Highlights of this paper
The teaching and learning process is at the core of the overall education process with the teacher as the main role. The teaching and learning process is also a process that contains a series of actions by teachers and students on the basis of reciprocal relationships that go on in educational situations to achieve certain goals. "Interaction or reciprocal relationship between teacher and student is the main requirement for the continuation of the teaching and learning process.”(Usman, 1999). In learning, students use the principle of education and learning theory is the main determinant of educational success. "Learning is a two-way communication process, teaching is done by the teacher or educator, while learning is done by students."(Sagala, 2008).
Family is the first educational environment, because it is in this family that the child first gets education and guidance. The main task of the family for the education of children is the foundation for the moral and religious life education, because the nature and character of children are mostly taken from their parents and other family members. "The involvement of parent education in schools is related to the academic success of students. The involvement of parents' academic socialization seems to be better at promoting the success of children's education to achieve socio-economic status in the future."(Benner et al., 2016).
"In addition to the role of the family there is also the role of school education and society, because it is all very closely related, because it is both encouraging and educating. Like school education, school education is education that is deliberately designed and carried out with strict rules, such as having to be tiered and continuous so that it is called a formal pendidian"(Raharja and Sula, 1998).
The learning process is a very complex concept in making learning activities happen to be more effective, efficient and conducive. This process involves various elements in a learning environment, both teachers, students, media, and other elements that support the occurrence of learning interactions. Learning that has happened so far is defined as conventional learning which only focuses on verbalistic communication, centralization of teachers, authoritarian learning, teachers who have the right to determine what students will learn and ideas that do not provide space for students to develop innovative learning and creative.
The curriculum Education is dynamic because it always changes according to the development and challenges of the times. The more advanced the nation's civilization, the more heavy the challenges that will face it. Competition in science is increasingly being carried out internationally. So that a nation is also demanded to be able to compete globally in order to lift the nation's reputation. Therefore, to face the challenges that will befall our world of education, the firmness of the curriculum and its implementation is very much needed to improve the performance of education that is far behind the developed countries in the world.
This becomes the basis of the gap between teachers and students in learning. Attitudes, understandings, or habits that occur as mentioned are an unpleasant learning atmosphere. Of course the greatest desire of parents, educators and the community towards their students is the success and success of life. "What should the family do, what should the school and the community do, and what should students do to achieve their common goals for the success of children in school and in the future?.”(Epstein, 2018).
Responding to this, the researcher tried to warm up several learning models that could be aimed at being referred by teachers in applying innovative learning strategies and oriented to constructive principles which are currently recommended for each teacher in carrying out classroom learning. This innovative learning is equipped with varied models with syntax or steps. These include direct, cooperative learning, problem-based learning, inquiry, or through discovery.
By focusing on children and adolescents as students, dealing with critical education and organizing collaborative actions and initiatives that support students, and deeply involving community resources. One of them through, "The Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) approach offers important opportunities that will improve the achievement of healthy education and development for students." (Lewallen et al., 2015).
This research is expected to be one of the reference sources to develop the ability of the learning process based on the principles of innovative learning.
Thus education in schools can be used to build the character and personality of noble students, with strong character, such as creative, competitive, disciplined, upholding the spirit of nationalism, and ready to become strong human beings and can improve the various problems of personality and morals of students (Maunah, 2015). Some things can be done to establish partnerships between schools and families. All forms of cooperation are very beneficial and meaningful in advancing school education in general, and students in particular.
"Society is a group of people who occupy an area, bound by the same experiences, and can act together to meet the crisis of life. Public relations plays an important role in helping the effectiveness of tasks in school management."(Kusumastuti, 2002).
The function of education in the community is to prepare the younger generation to play certain roles in society in the future, transferring knowledge related to these roles from the older generation to the younger generation, and moving the values that aim to maintain the need and community unity which is an absolute condition for the continuation of the life of a society and civilization.
According to Edwin B. Flippo, "Education is an increase in general knowledge and understanding of our environment as a whole, while training is an effort to increase the knowledge and expertise of an employee to do a particular job."(Ramayulis, 2011).
In understanding a family, the family has several meanings. The family is a social group consisting of two or more people who have blood ties, marriage, or adoption. "Thus it can be taken an essence of understanding of the family, namely: 1) the family is the smallest social group which generally consists of father, mother and child, 2) social relations where the family is relatively fixed are based on blood ties, marriage or adoption, 3) the relationship between families is inspired by the arrangement of affection and sense of responsibility, and 4) the function of the family is to restore, care for, and protect children in the context of socialization so that they are able to control themselves and have a social spirit."(Hafid, 2013).
In terms of education, the family is a unit of life (social system), and the family provides learning situations. As a unit of living together (social system), the family consists of father, mother and child. Family ties help children develop the nature of friendship, love, interpersonal relationships, cooperation, discipline, good behavior, and recognition of authority (Hasbulloh, 2011).
Meanwhile, with regard to families providing a learning situation it can be seen that babies and children are very dependent on parents, both from their physical condition and intellectual, social, and moral abilities. Babies and children learn to imitate what their parents teach.
As the first and foremost education, "Family education can print children to have personalities which can then be developed in subsequent institutions, so that the authority of these institutions does not change what they already have in the wearer, but enough by combining the education obtained from the family with the family pendidian, so that mosques, Islamic boarding schools, and schools are transitional places of family education."(Mujib and Mudzakkir, 2008). "Family donations for children's education are as follows: 1) the way parents train their children to master ways to take care of themselves, walk, pray, truly imprint on themselves because they are closely related to their personal development; 2) The attitude of parents greatly influences children's development. The attitude of accepting or rejecting, the attitude of compassion or indifference, patience or haste, the attitude of protecting or letting directly affect the child's emotional reaction."(Hafid, 2013).
It is natural and logical if education is in the hands of parents and cannot be carried by others because it is the blood of the flesh, except for the limitations of these two parents. So, as the responsibility of education can be delegated to others, namely through school. The educational responsibilities that need to be based and nurtured by both parents of children include: a) maintaining and raising it, this responsibility is a natural impetus to be carried out because the person needs to eat, drink and care so that he will continue to live sustainably, b) protect and guarantee their health, both religiously and spiritually, from various diseases or environmental hazards that can endanger themselves, c) educate him with a variety of knowledge and skills that are useful for his life so that if he is an adult he can stand alone and help others, and d) giving them religious education.
The awareness of the responsibility of educating and fostering children continuously needs to be developed for every parent so that the education they do is no longer based on the habits seen from parents, but the age-old people who tend to change. The main task of the family in education is as a foundation for moral education and religious outlook. The characteristics of children are mostly taken from their parents and other family members.
This research uses a literature study approach (literature study). The library study in question is based on a review of the latest developments in education, particularly the latest literature that discusses the implications of developing family, school and community education, both from quality books, and from internationally reputable scientific journals. The data is managed through four stages, namely 1) after the data is collected, 2) the data is filtered so that the data presented is truly valid, 3) the classification is then based on the theme, and 4) then the conclusion is drawn. Temporary conclusions have been drawn since the data collection process, it's just continued to be developed until getting a final conclusion. This final conclusion is the finding of this study.
Reginald M. Clark revealed that the structural characteristics of families are the most important indicators of academic potential embedded in family culture. An interesting implication for the education policy revealed is that if school performance does not depend on family structure or income, parents can learn to instill survival skills in school for their children (Clark, 2015).
"A good cooperative relationship can create a harmonious work environment between group members so that they can feel in one family (one corps). If the problem in completing the work, it will be easier to complete it in a family manner."(Setiyani, 2012).
Learning activities in schools, as well as parent and teacher cooperation are very important and strategic towards improving the quality of education of their students. "Cooperation between parents and teachers can provide knowledge and experience in terms of carrying out learning activities to children. The teacher can obtain information that is needed for the learning of his students and parents can get information from the teacher about the life and character of their children in school."(Abdurahman, 2003).
Education is a shared responsibility between family, community and government. The school is only a helper for continuing education in the family because education is first and foremost obtained by the family. The transition from the form of education outside the school to the school education pathway (formal) requires 'cooperation' between parents and schools (educators). The attitude of children towards school will mainly be influenced by the attitude of their parents. Likewise, it is very important for parents to trust schools (educators) who have replaced their duties so far in the school room. This is very important to note, considering the recent frequent occurrence of actions that are less praiseworthy for students, while parents seem to not want to know, even tend to blame the school.
Parents must pay attention to their child's school, namely by paying attention to their experience and respecting all their efforts. Likewise, parents must show their cooperation in directing children's ways by teaching their homework, not confiscating their children by doing housework, parents must try to motivate and guide children in learning.
"Based on the results of research that the work of teachers (educators) in schools will be more effective if he knows the background and experience of students in his household. Students who are less advanced in learning, thanks to the cooperation of parents of students with education, have many shortcomings that can be overcome. Gradually, parents also realize that education or the state of the household environment can help or reduce the difficulties of children in school."(Hasbulloh, 2011).
Whatever is brought by students from their families is not easy to change. This fact must be really underlined and known by educators. Basically there are quite a number of ways that can be taken to establish cooperation between families and schools. Here are some examples.
The implementation of visits to the homes of these students has a very positive impact, including: a) visits give birth to feelings to students that the school is always watching and watching, b) the visit gives the educator the opportunity to see for themselves and observe directly the way students learn, their life background, and about the problems they face in the family, c) educators have the opportunity to provide information to students' parents about good education, ways to deal with problems that their children are experiencing (if their child has a problem), and so on, d) the relationship between parents and school will increase, e) visits can motivate students to be more open and work together in an effort to advance their children's education, f) education has the opportunity to hold interviews about various kinds of circumstances or events about something he wants to know, g) the occurrence of communication and mutual information about the situation of the child and giving each other between teachers and parents.
If there are various activities organized by the school that allow parents to attend, it will be very positive, meaning that if parents are invited to attend school. Activities are discussed, for example a class meeting that contains competitions that demonstrate the ability of children in various fields, exhibitions of children's handicrafts, educational film screenings, and so on. The invitation to parents to this school should be done at least once a year.
Case Coference is a meeting or conference about a case. Usually used in counseling. Conference participants are people who really want to come to discuss the problems of students openly and voluntarily, such as parents of students, teachers, other guidance officers, experts who have a relationship with guidance such as social workers and so on. Conferences are usually led by people who know the most about counseling issues, especially the intended cases.
School auxiliary bodies are parent or guardian organizations of students and teachers. The organization in question is the most organized collaboration between the school or the teacher and the parents of the students. Until now, this organization has changed its name several times because it was adapted to the development of the educational situation and the community at first named the Student and Teacher Parent Development (POMG), later turned into a Parent Student Association (POM), Bandan Education Organizing Assistant (BP3) ), now known as the school committee.
This correspondence is needed especially at times needed for the improvement of students' education, such as reminder letters from teachers to parents if their children need to be more active, often ditching, often making noise, and so on. This correspondence is actually very good if done by parents to the teacher or directly to the principal / madrasah to monitor the child's condition in school.
Report cards that are usually given every quarter of the students can be used as a liaison between school and parents. Schools can give a warning letter or ask for help from parents if the results of their report cards are not good, or if they have children in a subject, so they can develop their talents more or at least be able to maintain what they have achieved."(Hasbulloh, 2011).
As stated earlier, that society is the third institution as an educational institution, in the context of the implementation of education itself has a huge role. How the progress and existence of an educational institution is very much determined by the participation of the community without the support and participation of the community, do not expect education to develop and grow as expected.
Therefore, as an environment for the occurrence of educational activities, the community has a very large influence on the ongoing activities involving the education problem. Especially when viewed from the material being worked on, it is clear that educational activities, including the school path, consist of young people who will continue the life of the community itself. For that material what is given to students as the younger generation must be adjusted to the circumstances and guidance of the community where the pendidian activities take place. The following are some of the roles of the community towards education (school): a) the community plays a role in establishing and financing schools; b) communities play a role in overseeing education so that schools continue to help and support the aspirations and needs of the community, c) it is the community that provides various resources for their school to be invited to the school to provide information about a problem students are studying. People who have special expertise are very much in the community, such as farmers, ranchers, merchants, police, doctors and so on, d) it is the community that contributes to providing educational places such as museum buildings, libraries, art stages, zoos and so on, and e) society as a source of learning or a laboratory for learning (Hasbulloh, 2011).
In addition to textbooks, the community provides a lot of learning material, including natural aspects of industry, housing, transportation, mining plantations, and so on. Thus, it is clear that the role of the community is very large for school education. For this reason, schools need to make the best use of it, at least that education must be able to use the knowledge resources in the community for the following reasons: a) by looking at what is happening in the community, students will get a direct experience (firts hand experience) so that they have concrete experiences that are easy to remember, b) education fosters children from the community, and will return to the community, c) in the community there are many sources of knowledge that the teacher may not yet know, d) the fact shows that the community needs educated people and students also need the community (Hasbulloh, 2011).
"Society is a human who is always related (interacting) with other humans in a group. The life of an ever-changing (dynamic) society is something that cannot be avoided. Humans as social beings always need other humans to meet their needs, a necessity that humans can live individually in their environment."(Hasbulloh, 2011).
Public relations is an activity carried out jointly between institutions and communities with the aim of gaining understanding, trust, appreciation, harmonious relations, and support (good will) consciously and voluntarily.
Public relations aims to obtain support from the community so that the community is willing to support the school's programs and activities. "The existence of support from the community will have a direct impact on the success of the program in achieving institutional goals."(Suryosubroto, 2006).
Education is not only an obligation of the government, schools and teachers, but it is also the responsibility of the family and society. The community is expected to participate in carrying out and conducting education, especially in educating morals, norms, and ethics in accordance with religion and community agreement. Students study in school for a limited time, while the most time is at home and community. "The community can be interpreted as" A community is a group of groups that are in habits a locality "or what is called a group or group of groups that inhabit an area."(Kurniawan, 2011).
Basically, society is a manifestation of human life together, wherein the process of social life takes place, the process between relationships and interactions. In society it consists of various kinds of pendidians, professions, expertise, ethnic groups, cultures, religions, social strata so that it becomes a pluralistic society.
While it is seen from the concept of education, the community is a group of many people with various qualities of self ranging from those who are not educated to educated to those with high education. Meanwhile, viewed from the perspective of education, the community is called a non-formal pendidian environment that gives intentions and intentions but is not systematic. Between communities and education have a connection and play a role. Especially in this era, everyone is always aware of the role and values of education. Therefore, every citizen aspires and actively participates in developing education.
While the school is a form of formal education for humans in which to develop human abilities both academically and nono academically. Therefore, each seems to have a certain program in accordance with the objectives of national education and the school's vision and mission. These programs, in addition to being well-trained, also require support from the community.
The term "school" as an institution or educational institution, both formal and non-formal educational institutions which are a means of implementing learning services and the educational process. Whereas "community" in the school context is a citizen who knows individuals who are in or around a school that is directly or indirectly related to school management.
According to Mohammad Noor Syam in Nuzuar that community relations with education are very correlative. The society is progressing because advanced pendidian and pendidian will only be found by advanced society. Meanwhile, "The relationship between school (education) and the community is the least difficult, can be seen from the following two aspects: a) schools as community partners in carrying out educational functions, and b) school as a procedure that serves educational messages from the community. "(Nuzuar, 2012).
"Relationships between communities and schools include: a) schools are an integral part of society, they are not separate institutions from the community, b) the right to life and survival depends on the community, c) as if it were a social institution that served to serve community members in the education sector, d) school progress and community progress correlate with each other, both need each other, and e) the community is the owner of the school, because the community needs it."(Nuzuar, 2012).
The relationship between the school and the community is a process of communication with the aim of increasing the understanding of the community about the needs and practices of education and striving to serve the community and the community, on the contrary the community benefits from a number of school output, in the form of graduates who have certain qualifications. The school must be able to accommodate the aspirations of the community because the community is the supplier and the output of the school. Good cooperation between the school and the community will benefit both of them. Schools increasingly exist thanks to community support, and the community reap the benefits of quality output.
Schools as part of the national education system cannot be separated from the wider social education system. That is, the school must be able to support the life of the Indonesian people who are better. In school education, the implementation of education is arranged in stages and you have a certain level.
Religius education in schools is basically more oriented to the moral action level, namely that students do not just stop at the level of competence (comet), still have the will (will), and habits (habits) in manifesting religious teachings and values that is in everyday life. "According to Lickona in Muhaimin. (2008) that the core of educating children morally up to the moral action level is that there are three ongoing coaching processes starting from the process of moral knowledge, moral feeling, moral action. In the national education system, the level of education is divided into basic education, secondary education, high education. Each level has a goal known as institutional or institutional goals, namely the goals that must be achieved by each level of the school education institution. All of these institutional goals are a support for achieving national education goals."(Muhaimin, 2008).
The main task of the family in children's education is as a foundation for moral education and religious life views. The nature and character of children are mostly taken from their parents and other family members.
Forms of cooperation between schools and other communities: visits to the homes of students, in the absence of parents to school, case coference, school auxiliary bodies, holding correspondence between schools and families, a list of grades or report cards.
In addition to textbooks, the community gives a lot of material, including natural aspects of industry, housing, transportation, plantations, mining and so on. Thus, it is clear that the role of the community is great for school education. For that, as if you need to use it as best you can. At the very least, education must be able to use sources of knowledge in the community.
The relationship between the school and the community is a process of communication with the aim of increasing community members' needs and practices and striving to improve school. Because the school lives in the midst of the community, serves the community and is supported by the community, the community should benefit from school output, in the form of graduates who have certain qualifications.
To create a quality, it is necessary to have a team work between the family, as if, and the community. harmonious relationships are very necessary in realizing the vision, mission of the school. The success of an institution is nothing but the interference of the three roles.
To achieve educational goals, families, schools and communities must support, cooperate and participate in education for children.
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