American Journal of Education and Learning

Volume 1, Number 2 (2016) pp 69-75 doi 10.20448/804.1.2.69.75 | Research Articles

 

Developing a Research Tool to Measure the Opinion of the University Teachers towards Educational Television Programmes

R. Jayakumar 1
1 Assistant Professor Vivekanandha College of Education, Puducherry

Abstract

This research tool focuses on gathering information about the opinion of the university teachers towards educational television programmes. The opinion plays a vital role in effective change in the television during its earliest stage of growth in a given developing country is useful mainly as a means to reach and influence policy makers in urban settings. Television is a powerful media of communication with a tremendous potency to inform, to entertain and to educate. Television can communicate visually through persons, objects, models, pictures, dioramas, diagrams etc.  It can communicate aurally through spoken word, music and sound effects.  It can also present text, which uses the visual effects, sound effect, It can reproduce the animates and inanimates.  It can reproduce rest as well as motion.  Television, particularly the digital television can reproduce reality to a large extent. Thus television can produce comprehensive views mixing different stimuli.

Keywords: Opinionnaire, Educational television programme, University teachers and item analysis.

DOI: 10.20448/804.1.2.69.75

Citation | R. Jayakumar (2016). Developing a Research Tool to Measure the Opinion of the University Teachers towards Educational Television Programmes. American Journal of Education and Learning, 1(2): 69-75.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

History : Received: 20 June 2016/ Revised: 6 July 2016/ Accepted: 11 July 2016/ Published: 14 July 2016

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

1. Introduction

Improved technology of mass communication is confronting educators with the opportunity for a scientific revolution in the field of teaching and learning. Actually, mass communication has helped to make a new kind of society. It has given the teacher a different kind of student to teach. It has modified the role of the teacher and of the administrators. It has provided educators with new tool which can improve teaching and increase learning. The advent of commercial television has had considerable influence in this field. What could be more logical than to employ the same medium, which has also greatly contributed to this new age, in helping to provide some of the improved concepts in education demanded by times?. This philosophy is reflected in the statement by Benjamin C.Willis (1956) “It is only fitting that education, which creates technological advance, which makes it possible for our engineers, scientists and scholars to invent and create new media should take advantage of some of its products and attempt to use these new advances in the instructional process”.

Despite its tremendous potential however, valid consideration of television in education must go beyond the more study of this new instructional tool. The development must be viewed within the very framework of the educational process. It cannot be overemphasized that television is a means and not end in itself. There are no simple or final solutions to the many problems that exist in the conditioning intellect improvement of mankind. Great through the potential of educational television might be the medium presents the profession with new questions regarding teaching and learning, providing appropriate answers continuous to dominate the thoughts and explorations of many responsible educators. Henry Carrier of UNESCO points out that printed media can no longer convey the messages required in today’s instructional procedures. His opinion: Pictures and TV are now regarded much as visual aids. We can best use verbal aids to enrich the picture instead of the reverse, as it is traditional. Printing crystallizes into static notions that which should be seen only in motion.  We need both the word and the picture, combined into a single whole, to convey many of today’s developments and problems.  This is one concept we must explore and develop concept of TV as a different type of aid, not simply as an additional one in the usual sense. To evaluate television in relation to other media of learning requires familiarity with the limitations and capabilities of each.  Television is not thoroughly and efficiently employed if it does only what other tools and other media can do.  The need is for quality education economically achieved, not cheaper education.  If electronic devices are an important factor in the education of American youth, then practitioners who are competent in these areas must accept the responsibility of implementing acceptable techniques in improving the process. One of the complicating factors in introducing new tool into the educational process is the need for facing attitudes established long before the innovation was conceived. Passi B.K (2000) Some of television’s most enthusiastic supporters have actually related its acceptance by school personnel because of irresponsible claims and unfounded predictions. Such ill-considered generalization as “The master teacher will replace the regular class room teacher” and “Television will eventually eliminate most teacher positions!” is still prevalent.  There are still other spectators raised involving the “doubtful quality of televised education” and the fear that future generations will tend to become only dependent on this new medium. Television is a powerful media of communication with a tremendous potency to inform, to entertain and to educate.  Television can communicate visually through persons, objects, models, pictures, dioramas, diagrams etc.  It can communicate aurally through spoken word, music and sound effects.  It can also present text, which uses the visual effects, sound effect, It can reproduce the animates and in animates.  It can reproduce rest as well as motion.  Television, particularly the digital television can reproduce reality to a large extent. Thus television can produce comprehensive views mixing different stimuli.

Educational administrators look at TV as a means of functional curricula, of upgrading teachers, and bringing about significant changes in educational practices.

2. The Importance of Television in Education

Television is one of the major means of mass communication. It has rapidly elevated itself to the level ‘big business’ and has become a powerful medium.  It has revolutionized the lives of people in the world.   Technologically, as a combination of sound and pictures, it provides for the most effective temporal and spatial transmission of reality to its viewers.  Due to its widespread network, it has become a major source of information and entertainment of a large number of our people.

The Educational Television (ETV) is a system that presents learning content in various subject areas through programmes prepared by a central agency.  It is an effective means for this purpose, as it has the capability to overcome many of the barriers in mass education.

As we have already mentioned, the potential of television depends how effectively it is being utilized for educational purposes.

3. Need for the Study

The Television in general and Educational Television in particular are widely used in the day to day life of many people. The origanisations like IGNOU, UGC in order to promote education both in Formal and Non-formal involed in the production and telecast of Educational programmes. Also the Doordharshan at National level and at regional level telecasts educational programmes. Further recently Doordharshan at the national level opened up a separate channel to provide educational programmes. Under such circumstances the researcher is very much interested in knowing the impact of these efforts among the teachers at University level. And thus prompted the researcher to take up this research work. Mohanty J (1984)

4. Objectives

To develop a research tool to measure the opinion of the university teachers towards Educational Television Programmes.

5. Statistical Techniques Used

The statistical techniques used in the present study were descriptive analysis and differential analysis (‘t’ - test) on the basis of the obtained ‘t’ - values the hypotheses were tasted. Henry E. Garrett (1981)

6. Method of Study

The method of study followed was survey method. The survey method gathers data from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time. It is not concerned with characteristics of individuals. It is concerned with the generalised statistics that result when data are abstracted from a number of individual cases. The survey should cover all the aspects of the subject selected for the study. In analysing political, social, or economic conditions, one of the first step is to get the facts about the situation or a picture of conditions that prevail or that are developing. These data may be gathered from survey of the entire population. Others are inferred from a study of a sample group, carefully selected to be representative of the total population. At times, the survey describes a limited population which is the only group under consideration. It involves a clearly defined problem and definite objectives. It requires expert and imaginative planning, careful analysis and interpretation of the data gatherers and logical and skillful reporting of the findings. There are different surveys. The survey method is applied to the analysis of existing social conditions including educational conditions, and to the analysis of public - opinion surveys, market surveys. In short, survey deals with what is taking place at present. A list of the data gathering devices that have proved useful in educational research includes schedules, questionnaires, opinionnaires, observation, check list, rating scales, score cards, scaled specimens, document of content analysis, interviews, psychological tests and inventories, sociograms, “guess - who" techniques, and social distance scales.

7. Construction of the Tool

In order to study the opinion of the University teachers about the Educational Television Programmes, the researcher developed an opinionnaire consisting of statements pertaining to opinion about the ETV programmes and personal data of the individual. Initially 59 statement were prepared by the investigator for getting the opinion of the University teachers towards the Educational Television Programmes. The 59 items were finalised after consulting experts in Educational Technology Teacher educators, and experienced teachers. The designed tool with personal data required from the University teachers were administered to 90 University teachers belonging to the Departments of English, Tamil, Economics, Commerce, History, Chemistry, Physics, Botany, Zoology and Education for pilot study.

8. Scoring

The opinion of the University teachers questionnaire statement was having Yes’ or ‘No’ type response. The weightage given to the responses in respect of statements Yes =1, No = 0: It is for only positive statements and negative statements are having the responses Yes = 0, No = 1. In the pilot study the opinionnaire consists of 22 negative statements and 37 positive statements. The Teachers have to put tick mark against each statements.

9. Item Analysis

The collected data were taken for item analysis on the basis of their total score top 27% and bottom 27% were separated and considered for item selection Point - Biserial V Co - efficient of correlation method was used for item selection. The point Biserial ‘r’ value for each statement was calculated by using the formula

The Point - Biserial values of 59 statements are given in the Appendix-C.
Among the 59 statements Point - Biserial value ranging from 0.41 to 0.70 were taken into consideration.
(Appendix-D) The number of statements selected for the final study were 20. (Appendix-B)

10. Final Study

The opinionnaire finalised for the final study consists of 20 statements and personal data required from the respondants. The stratified random sampling method was used to select the sample. 110 University teachers namely Professors, Readers and Lectures belonging to the various departments of Arts and Science were considered for the final study. The distribution of the sample is provided in Table -1

Table -1. Distribution of the Sample
Source: Jayakumar. R. ‘Opinion of the University Teachers’ towards Educational Television Programme’, Lambert Academic Publishing, Haroldstr. 14, D – 40213 Düsseldorf, Germany, (ISBN 978-3-659-86079-9).

APPENDIX-C

Opinionnaire Item Analysis-Pilot Study
Source: Jayakumar. R. ‘Opinion of the University Teachers’ towards Educational Television Programme’, Lambert Academic Publishing, Haroldstr. 14, D – 40213 Düsseldorf, Germany, (ISBN 978-3-659-86079-9).

APPENDIX-D

Opinionnaire Item Selected For Final Study
Source: Jayakumar. R. ‘Opinion of the University Teachers’ towards Educational Television Programme’, Lambert Academic Publishing, Haroldstr. 14, D – 40213 Düsseldorf, Germany, (ISBN 978-3-659-86079-9).

APPENDIX-B

The Opinionnaire Finalised For the Final Study Consists of 20 Statements
Source: Jayakumar. R. ‘Opinion of the University Teachers’ towards Educational Television Programme’, Lambert Academic Publishing, Haroldstr. 14, D – 40213 Düsseldorf, Germany, (ISBN 978-3-659-86079-9).

Apart from the statements provided above, provide your own views about ETV programmes below:

11. Validity

In the beginning of the process of tool construction the selected statements were given to experts on educational psychology and testing for their approval. They judged the appropriateness of the statements. The statements were modified with their suggestions prior to administration and thereby the research tool validity was ensured.

12. Conclusion

This research tool focuses on gathering information about the opinion of the university teachers towards educational television programmes. The opinion plays a vital role in effective change in the television during its earliest stage of growth in a given developing country is useful mainly as a means to reach and influence policy makers in urban settings. We know a great deal today about the role ETV often plays in "agenda setting" This research tool will be of immense use of for the Educational administrators, Teacher Educators and Teachers, which will throw light upon the opinion of the university teachers towards educational television programmes. ETV continues to reach policy makers and community opinion leaders and, in addition, reaches significantly large numbers of individual householders. It is during this stage that television begins to reach the "neediest of the needy" in significantly large numbers.

References

Benjamin C. Willis,(1956), http://blog.commarts.wisc.edu/2013/04/01/diagnosis-media-amnesia-and-education/ pg. no. 273.

Henry E. Garrett et.al., Statistics in Psychology and Education. David me day company, INC., New York ., 1981.

Jayakumar. R., ‘Opinion of the University Teachers’ towards Educational Television Programme’, Lambert Academic Publishing,  Haroldstr. 14, D – 40213 Düsseldorf,  Germany, 2016.  (ISBN 978-3-659-86079-9).

Mohanty J. Educational Broadcasting: Radio and Television in Education, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd , New Delhi-16,1984.

Passi B.K et. al "Education Television" National Psychological Corporation. Agra-04 (India) First Edition 2000.

About the Authors

R. Jayakumar
Assistant Professor Vivekanandha College of Education, Puducherry

Corresponding Authors

R. Jayakumar

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