American Journal of Education and Learning

Volume 5, Number 1 (2020) pp 13-23 doi 10.20448/804.5.1.13.23 | Research Articles

 

Percieved Psychosocial Factors as Determinants of Drug Use and Abuse among Public Secondary School Youths in Osun State, Nigeria

Sanni, Kamorudeen Taiwo 1Aransi, Waliyi Olayemi 2
1 Faculty of Education, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
2 Department of Adult Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Youths comprise the huge percentage of the world population. This stage is mostly influenced by social interaction with peer group, access to social media, parental background among others. In the light of this, the study was designed to investigate perceived psychosocial factors as determinants of drug use and abuse among public secondary schools youths in Osun State, Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted and simple random sampling technique was used to select two-hundred (200) participants. The research instrument tagged ‘Perceived Psychosocial Factors on Drug Questionnaire (PPFDQ) was used for data collection. The gathered data were analysed with the aid of inferential and descriptive statistical tools. The empirical outcomes indicated that family influence, peer group, gender quality, traumatic life events and frustrations, availability and accessibility as well as media roles are some of the perceived psychosocial factors that influenced youths’ drug use and abuse and that the religious inclination and gender traits of the youth was insignificant to the patterns and problems connected with drug use and abuse among them. Establishment of counselling unit within the school, avoidance of over castigation on academic performance by parents and teachers and maintenance of religious standard to mention a few were suggested in terms of recommendations.

Keywords: Perceived, Psychosocial, Drug Use, Youths, Religious, Gender.

DOI: 10.20448/804.5.1.13.23

Citation | Sanni, Kamorudeen Taiwo; Aransi, Waliyi Olayemi (2020). Percieved Psychosocial Factors as Determinants of Drug Use and Abuse among Public Secondary School Youths in Osun State, Nigeria. American Journal of Education and Learning, 5(1): 13-23.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019 .

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • The study explored perceived psychosocial factors as determinants of drug use and abuse among public secondary schools youths in Osun State, Nigeria.
  • Survey research design was employed and two-hundred participants were sample through simple ramdon sampling technique.
  • The empirical outcomes indicated that perceived psychosocial variables influence youths towards drug use and abuse, while youths’ religious inclination and gender attributes were insignificant to the patterns and problems originated from drug use and abuse.

1. INTRODUCTION

Education according to Dictionary of Education cited in National Council of Educational Research and Training (2014) is defined as “the aggregate of all the processes by which a person develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour of practical values in the society in which he/she lives; the social process by which people are subjected to, the influence of selected and controlled environment (especially that of the school), so that they may obtain social competence and optimum individual development”. Education could be seen as the process of development, wherein every member of the society is prepared not only to meet up with but also gradually adapts to various components of the environment vis-à-vis physical, economics and social environments. This has reflected in the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century Report to UNESCO to regard quality education as the kind of education receive that is meant and applicable throughout one’s life which is expected to base upon four principles. Firstly, quality education should premise on principle of ‘learning to know’ which acknowledges building knowledge which aims at accommodating learners’ indigenous and external cultural components. Secondly, learning to live together which entails acquiring soft skills that is free from usual discrimination and segregation, as well as encouraging equal chance to develop oneself, immediate family and society at large. Thirdly, learning to be which works towards unravelling participants’ potential. Fourthly, learning to do focuses at turning theoretical elements of what is learnt into practical application which could also be referred to as functional education (EFA, 2005).

In the light of this, growing commitment towards quality education has been noticed on the part of stakeholders of education. The commitment on the part of government and non-governmental bodies has facilitated the stakeholders in the educational industry to belief that youths who are within school settings should be properly guided and mentored in order to excel in the present dynamics society (Bettinger and Slonim, 2007). However, the dynamic nature of the present society might make some youths to opine that for them to be able to attain academic targets at their respective institutions, they need to involve in the use and abuse of drug (Agbongbale and Okaka, 2014). Meanwhile, it is an accepted belief that the socio-economic development of a nation is tied to the good health of its people. This is an indication that a healthy population is an economic asset since the assured supply of a healthy labour force is an essentials factor in growth and development of any country. Therefore, effort must be made to prevent all forms of perceived psychosocial factors that can militate against the good physical and mental health of school going Nigerians most especially youths who constitute hefty proportion of the entire population. As a result, youth can be described as a stage in life within the chronological age of 15 and 24 years (United Nations General Assembly, 1981). This period in human life could be mostly influenced by varieties of perceived psychosocial factors like peer group and family background. Besides, they have curiosity to practise new thing, to have saying among their peers as well as to find remedy to any of the identify problems that come their ways which may in turn  engineer them to engage in drug use and abuse.

Balogun (2006) considered  drug  as a  substance  which is responsible in bringing noticeable change  in  biological functioning of man as a result of  its  embedded chemical content and actions. Drug use could be seen as substance in which its intake is liable to modify perception, change mood and overall functions of the body. In addition, drug use alters the body system either positively or otherwise depending on the body composition as well as the kind and volume of drugs consumed. Similarly, Fareo (2012) acknowledged that traditional medicine is useful in healing and controlling diseases. This scholar opines further that correctly administered drugs would be a blessing to the user and not likely to constitute any danger. Drug use refers to the use of drug generally, such as, the use of prescribed and dispensed drugs.

However, use and abuse of drug are concepts that are trending in drug discourses. Use is employed to describe the purpose for which drug is consumed by human beings. Also, drug abuse entails the use of drug by man to the extent that definite impairment is recorded towards social, psychological or physiological functioning of the people in question (Abdullahi, 2006).  This has made (Jerome et al., 2013).

to see drug abuse in terms of consumption of illegal substance, illegal use of substance as well as misuse of prescribed drugs. Meanwhile, abuse of drugs can impose remarkable damage to users’ most especially youths’ well-being in all ramifications.

It is on this note that made (Odejide, 2000) to advocate that  individual who  displays some symptoms  like high tension,  anxiety disorder, demoralization and  negative change in behavior as a result of drug use and abuse should  be attended to by qualify personnel in order to save him/her from deadly diseases. Jiloha (2009) opined that parents who are drug user and abuser are likely to have their wards following their footsteps due to availability and accessibility of the items. This is because a youth who has an easy access  to drugs while  his parents or elder  siblings  are using it is more likely  to  use  these drugs  than  those whose parents or anyone else  is not using in the family. On gender, it was argued that male tend to abuse drugs more than their female counterparts. Enang (2007) concurs that provision of drugs by peers could make youths  to engage in its consumption.

Ahmad (2014) maintained that psychological issues like achieving high self-esteem and making sound decision are some of the reasons for drug use and abuse among youths. Besides, an increase in the chronological age of the youths who involve in drugs would likely bring about increase in taking hard drugs. For the youths to be protected from using and abusing drugs, their active free time is expected to be monitored and maintenance of positive emotion within the family (Almasiova and Katarina, 2015). They submit that passive spending of free time could be connected with a higher frequency of drug use and abuse among youths. This is in agreement with submission made by Whitesell et al. (2013) in which youth maltreatment within the family, unfriendly parenting styles and  single parenting to mention a few are some of the factors responsible for drug use at family level. Moses et al. (2019) attributed significance practise of drug use and abuse among youths to weak parental control, easy access to drugs, and emergency in the culture of street stars.  However, both protective and risk factors according to Kabíček and Hamanová (2005.), are classified into individual, family and societal phases. At individual, protective factors consist of the positive knowledge from the peer groups, exhibition of high level of intelligence and self-control towards avoidance of drugs. Risk factors entail low level of self-esteem, general neglect and unemployment issue. At family stage, risk and protective factors could premise on prevailing parenting styles and pressure group. And some of the protective factors at societal level entail a sound education, formulation and enforcement of drug legislation, while risk factors involve low socio-economic status, glorification of negative behaviour in the media to mention a few.

Chinwong et al. (2018) concluded that gender play a significant role in the formation of drug use and abuse as well as  mind set to desist form it. This is premised on the ground that males are more likely to engage in drugs most especially smoking habits than their female counterparts. Even, females are more likely than males to desist from consuming drugs. On religious inclination, Hormenu et al. (2018) said that youths who are Muslim by religious are likely to involve in drug like marijuana as compared with their Christians counterparts. In contrary, Michalak et al. (2007) found that Muslims have strongly condemned the use of drug and are less likely to drink alcohol compare with other religious counterparts in the societies. Adewumi (2017) said that gender, religiosity and self-esteem had significant influences on drug abuse.

Jiloha (2009) ascribes traffic accidents to drug use and abuse. This is in tandem with submission made by Partnership for a Drug-Free America, that nearly half of all deaths from traffic accidents are connected with drug use and abuse, even an estimated 18% of drivers drive under the influence of drugs. Similarly, Osarenren (2002) mentioned that declining in academic performance, incessant absent from school and early dropout from school are some of the school-related problems connected with drug use and abuse. Ayatse (2005) reported that drug use and abuse are precondition for the initiation of cult members. This is to say that taking drugs would make them to be bold in carrying out some operations. It is on this juncture that made (Jiloha, 2009) to note that youths who use drugs are more likely than non-users to have sex which would placee them at a greater  risk  of unplanned  pregnancies,  HIV/AIDS as well as other sexually transmitted diseases.

1.1. Statement of the Problem

Youths form the highest proportion of drug users and abusers in both developed and developing communities. For example, report from United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) indicated that 30% of the global population involved in drug abuse, and at the same time, 230 million people who are within youthfull age bracket use illegal drugs. Besides, varieties of drugs are used and abused as identified by Adegoke et al. (2014) such that rate of consumption of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine among male are 13.4%, 23.3%, 6.6% and 4.8% respectively. This was attributed to availability of drug and free access to it by the youths most especially male ones (Adebiyi et al., 2010; Chikere and Mayowa, 2011). While no attempt was given to female counterparts as well as religious inclination.

However, a number of factors have been identified by past researchers. such as; peer group or encouragement from friends (Enang, 2007; Vishal et al., 2008) stress reduction and frustration minimisation, inquisitiveness and search for exhilaration (Raphael et al., 2017) academic rigour (Makinde, 2004) fast asleep and sexual pleasure (Mercken et al., 2009). The effect of drug abuse among youths are muti-dimentional in nature. Some of these are; truancy and absenteeism (Osarenren, 2002) cultism (Okirika, 2000); (Atere, 2003); (Raufu, 2003) armed robbery and organized crime, prostitution,  high risk sexual behaviour, and hostility (Bassey et al., 2013) personality disorders (Makinde, 2004) involvement in examination misconduct and indiscipline (Olatoye and Afuwape, 2003) and Koechi (2006). The dimensions of these consequences are so disturbing to the individual, families, schools and society at large. Although, previous studies have shown that the problems connected with drug abuse are multi-dimentional in nature across the globe. Meanwhile, not only each of these variables which represent factors but also the patterns of and problems connected with drug use and abuse based on gender and religious affiliation of the youths would be examined which was a great lacuna filled by this research work.

1.2. Objective of the Study

This study’s broad objective was premised on the evaluation of perceived psychosocial factors as determinants of drug use and abuse among youths in Osun State, Nigeria. Specifically, the research work set to:

  1. Evaluate the degree with which perceived psychosocial factors encourage drug use and abuse among public secondary schools youths in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State.
  2. Ascertain the difference in the patterns of drug use and abuse among public secondary  schools youths in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State based on gender and religious affiliation.
  3. Find out the difference in the problems connected with drug use and abuse among public secondary schools youths in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State based on gender and religious inclination.

1.3. Research Questions

The research questions below are put forward to serve as guide.

  1. What is the degree with which perceived psychosocial factors encourage drug use and abuse among public secondary schools youths in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State?
  2. What are the difference in the patterns of drug use and abuse among public secondary schools youths in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State based on gender and religious affiliation?
  3. What are the difference in the problems connected with drug use and abuse among public secondary schools youths in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State based on gender and religious inclination?

2. METHODOLOGY

2.1. Research Design

Descriptive survey research design was adopted. This design gave room for taking representative sample from the target population (Nworgu, 2006). This was considered appropriate because the researchers described the situation that existed and didn’t manipulate the variables of interest in the research work.

2.2. Target Population

All Grade eleven (Senior Secondary School 2) students during 2018/2019 academic calendar in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State  formed the target population.

2.3. Sample and Sampling Technique

Two public high schools-Fatima college and Ayedaade Government High school were purposively sampled within the study area based on attributes like oldest in year of establishment, sustenance of high standard and attraction of large number of students’ enrolment every academic session. Two-hundred respondents (Grade Eleven students) from both schools were chosen with the aid of simple random sampling technique. The beauty of this technique was that it gave equal chance and credence to all the students in that grade level for being involved in the exercise regardless of gender quality and religious affiliation.

2.4. Instrumentation

Quantitative instrument tagged ‘Perceived Psychosocial Factors on Drug Questionnaire (PPFDQ)’ was used. This comprised two sections, such that demographic characteristics of the respondents are embedded in section A and section B entailed items on perceived psychosocial factors coupled with  patterns of and problem connected with drug use and abuse.

2.5. Validity and Reliability of the Instrument

The researchers ensure content and face validity of the instrument by taking into consideration research objectives during formation of the items used in the instrument and statement are worded in simple and concise format. For reliability of the instrument, the instrument was administered on fifty (50) respondents which were not part of the respondents slated for the research. Cronbach technique was used to test the reliability of the instrument which produced 0.75. This indicated consistent, suitable and appropriate of the research instrument for the work.

2.6. Data Analysis Technique

Both descriptive and inferential tools of statistics were employed. These consisted of simple percentage, independent student t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

3.FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

Table-1. Descriptive statistics of the respondents’ opinion towards the extent to which perceived psychosocial factors influence drug use and abuse among youths.
Statement
SA
A
SD
D
Family influence
80(40%)
80(40%)
30(15%)
10(5%)
Peer influence
100(50%)
70(35%)
20(10%)
10(5%)
Gender attribute
80(40%)
70(35%)
30(15%)
20(10%)
Traumatic life events and frustrations
100(50%)
70(35%)
20(10%)
10(5%)
Availability and accessibility
100(50%)
80(40%)
10(5%)
10(5%)
Media influence
130(65%)
50(25%)
10(5%)
10(5%)

Table 1 indicated that eighty (80) participants which represented 40% of the aggregate participants agreed and strongly agreed that family influence played a significant role towards youths involvement in substance use and abuse, and thirty (30) of them strongly disagreed which accounted for 15% while ten (10) participants which amounted to 5% disagreed with the statement. Also, on the ground of peer influence both within and outside the school, one hundred (100) of the respondents strongly agreed which made up of 50%, seventy (70) agreed which constituted 35% and twenty (20) of them strongly disagreed which accounted for 10% while ten (10) participants disagreed that peer influence encouraged substance use and abuse among youths. Besides, eighty (80) respondents were of the view that gender of the youths is the principal factor in determining rate and level of substances use and abuse among them which amounted to 40%, seventy (70) agreed, thirty (30) strongly disagreed and twenty (20) disagreed with the assertion which comprised 35%, 15% and 10% of the entire participants respectively. However, 50%, 35%, 10% and 5% of the participants were of the opinion that traumatic life events and frustrations caused youths’ involvement in substance use and abuse. Besides, one-hundred (100) participants which represented 50% strongly agreed that availability of the drug and accessibility of the youths instigated them to involve in substance use and abuse, eighty (80) of them agreed and ten (10) strongly disagreed and disagreed with the statement. One-hundred and thirty (130) and fifty (50) respondents which constituted 65% and 25% strongly agreed and agreed that media influence caused secondary school youths’ involvement in drug use and abuse, while, ten (10) of them which represented 5% strongly disagreed and disagreed with the idea.

Table-2 .  T-test result based on gender indicating degree of difference in the patterns of drug use and abuse among youths.
Gender
Number
Mean
SD
Df
T-cal.
T-tab.
Female
100
36
5.8
198
1.39
1.96
Male
100
35.1
7.2

From the Table 2, the t-calculated which is 1.39 is less than the t-tabulated value of 1.96. This suggested no significance difference on the patterns of drug use and abuse among youths on the basis of gender. This indicated that youths involve in patterns like smoking, inhaling, drinking, chewing, swallowing, injecting and inserting substances regardless of gender traits.

Table-3 . ANOVA result showing the patterns of drug use and abuse among youths on the basis of religion.
Sources
Sum of square
Degree of freedom
Mean sum of square
F-calculated
Critical value
SSB
-9.93
2
4.97
 
0.033
 
3.35
SSW
4122.4
27
152.68
SST
4112.47
29

From the Table 3 that is ANOVA table, it indicated that f-tabulated which is 3.35 is greater than f-calculated of the value 0.033. Therefore, no significance difference is observed based on religion affiliation of the participants towards the patterns of drug and abuse among youths. This indicated that youths involve in patterns like smoking, inhaling, drinking, chewing, swallowing, injecting and inserting substances regardless of their religion affiliation.

Table-4 . T-test result based on gender showing the degree of difference in the problems connected with drug use and abuse among youths.
Gender
Number
Mean
SD
Df
T-cal.
T-tab.
Female
100
35.1
4.7
198
0.77
1.96
Male
100
34.6
5.7

From Table 4, the critical value of 1.96 which is greater than the t-calculated of the value 0.77.  Hence, no significance difference is found on the problems connected with drug abuse among youths based on gender. That is, sluring of speech, emotional changes, anxiety, untimely death, heightened sexual desire to mention a few are some of the problems associated with drug abuse irrespective of gender attributes.

Table-5 . ANOVA result showing the difference in the problem connected with drug use and abuse among youths based on religion affiliation.
Sources
Sum of square
Degree of freedom
Mean sum of square
F-calculated
Critical value
SSB
7.4667
2
3.7334
 
0.0318
 
3.35
SSW
3165.9
27
117.2556
SST
3173.3667
29

From the Table 5 that is ANOVA table, the critical value of 3.35 was obtained and f-calculated value stood at 0.0318. However, it is inferred that critical value of 3.35 is greater than the f-calculated value of 0.0318 which revealed no significance difference in the problems connected with drug use and abuse among youths on the basis of religion. This is to say that youths’ religion affiliation is insignificant of problems connected with drug use and abuse like sluring of speech, emotional changes, anxiety, untimely death and heightened sexual desire.

4. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The empirical findings revealed that family influence, peer role, gender quality, traumatic life events and frustrations, availably and accessibility as well as media influence are some of the perceived psychosocial factors that could engineer senior secondary youths to engage in substance use and abuse. This means that youths immediate environment such as prepared ground by the family members could play a prominent role in attracting or discouraging their wards towards substance use and abuse. This is because, some habits can be learnt by the youths through their interaction with the people in the vicinity. Such that the parents who are abuser of drugs would likely observe their youths acquiring the skill and therefore putting the act of using and abusing drugs into their habitual character. Mulhall et al. (1996) acknowledged inverse relationship between parental background including parenting styles and drug use. This is premised on the ground that good rapport in terms constant communication and supervision of the youths by their parents would help them to desist from drug use and abuse. In another development, Harrison et al. (1997) attributed youth’s involvement in drug to ineffectiveness of their parents as well as availability and accessibility of the drug at home.

Besides, it also evinced that degree of availability and easy accessibility of drugs instigated some of the youths to practise the act. This is due to the fact that no restriction is placed on some substances which had made youths to have direct access to them and get addicted. In addition, traumatic life experiences and frustrations of any form could ginger youths to involve in drug use and abuse. This is to conclude that youths have to be monitored and mentored by both parents and teachers. The implication is that their involvement in drug use and abuse could be triggered by prevailing conflict emanate either at the home or from school. This is in accordance with the submission made by Ahmad (2014) in which childhood problems, depression, anxiety, risk taking and decision making confidence are identified as key predictors of substance use and abuse among users. Based on peer influence, youth usually influenced by his/her peer group in order to increase his/her popularity as a member of the pressure group which is in consonance with research outcomes reported by Trucco et al. (2011); Tucker et al. (2011).

With respect to patterns of and problems associated with drug use and abuse, it indicated that gender of the youth and their religious affiliation had insignificant difference towards the pattern of and problems connected with drug use and abuse. This posited that youths engaged on patterns like smoking, inhaling, drinking, chewing, swallowing, injecting and inserting substances which produced problems like sluring of speech, emotional changes, anxiety, untimely death and heighten of sexual desire regardless of their gender qualities and religious inclination. This was in tandem with submission made by Flavio et al. (2012) and Jason and Terrence (2012) in which youths’ higher attendance in church is expected to reduce their involvement in drugs use and abuse. The empirical findings was in line with previous researches in which gender was reported not having significant difference for drug use or any crime (Messina et al., 2000; Acharyya and Zhang, 2003).

5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The study concluded that family influence, peer group, gender quality, traumatic life events and frustrations, availability and accessibility as well as media influence are some of the perceived psychosocial factors that influenced youths’ substance use and abuse. And that patterns and problems associated with substances use were insignificant of gender traits and religious affiliation. Based on the empirical outcomes that emanated from this research work, the following recommendations are suggested for concern stakeholders in the society.

  1. Stakeholders of education most especially those at school level is advised to create a counselling unit in schools which is expected to saddle with responsibility of organising talks on negative consequences of substance use and abuse among youths.
  2. Stakeholders should as a matter of priority formulate policies which aimed at establishing and maintaining the standard of religious and moral institutions in all aspects of our society as such institution will ensure that the basic morals needed to keep our youths out of crime are imbibed by the youths. Hence, creating a sense of responsibility for themselves and to the society in general.
  3. There is need for an intensification of public enlightenment compaigns through mass medium facilities which aimed at informing the youths about the  negative consequences that are connected with drug use and abuse.
  4. Parents and guardians should monitor the perfomance of their wards at school on regularly basis and avoid unnecessary castigation whenever a student perform below expectations.  As this would not encourage youths to look for solace in substance use and abuse.

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About the Authors

Sanni, Kamorudeen Taiwo
Faculty of Education, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Aransi, Waliyi Olayemi
Department of Adult Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Corresponding Authors

Aransi, Waliyi Olayemi

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