American Journal of Chemistry

Volume 3, Number 1 (2018) pp 6-10 doi 10.20448/812.3.1.6.10 | Research Articles

 

Control of Pegomyia hyoscami (Vill) (Diptera: Anthomyidae) using Chitosan and Nano Chitosan

Sabbour M.M 1
1 Department of Pests and Plant Protection, Agriculture Division. National Research Center, Eygpt

ABSTRACT

Sugar beet is considered one of the most important crops in Egypt because it was used in the production of sugar as it contains 15-20% sugar Pegomyia hyoscami (Vill) ((Diptera: Anthomyidae); harmful insect pest causing a lot of damage of the sugar crop. Chitosan (CS)-g-poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles, which are well dispersed and stable in aqueous solution have been prepared by template polymerization of acrylic acid in chitosan solution which have an insecticidal effect on insect pests. The usage of chitosan and nano chitosan test against Pegomyia hyoscami Results showed that, the LC50 obtained 111 and 56 ppm after P. hyoscami treated with different concentrations of chitosan and nano chitosan. Also, under field conditions when P. hyoscami treated with the chitosan and nano chitosan, the number of eggs significantly 53±1.7and 9±8.3eggs/ female as compared to 272±8.7 eggs /female in the control. The percentage of egg hatching, larval mortality, malformed pupae and malformed adults significantly decreased in case of chitosan treatments and almost reduced after nano chitosan treatments. The weight of sugar beet significantly increased to 2490±66.11and 1220±45.09 kg/ feddan as compared to 1780±55.43and 1220±45.09 kg/ feddan in the control during season 2016 and 2017 respectively.

Keywords: Nano, Chitosan, Pegomyia hyoscami, Sugar beet.

DOI: 10.20448/812.3.1.6.10

Citation Sabbour M.M (2018). Control of Pegomyia hyoscami (Vill) (Diptera: Anthomyidae) using Chitosan and Nano Chitosan. American Journal of Chemistry, 3(1): 6-10.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : National research center supported project No 11030139

Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

History : Received: 5 February 2018 Revised: 20 February 2018/ Accepted: 23 February 2018/ Published: 27 February 2018

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

1. INTRODUCTION

Sugar beet is considered one of the most important crops in Egypt because it was used in the production of sugar as it contains 15-20% sugar. The sugar beet has currently been infested with many insect pests which cause high losses in the crop yield and decrease its sugar content (Bassyouny, 1993). Among these insects, Pegomyia hyoscami (Diptera:  Anthomyidae). Chemical insecticides were used to control these insect pests, but they were always causing a lot of pollution to the environment (Goodwin et al., 2007).  Thereafter microbial control agents were advocated to be used against such pests. Chitosan (CS)-g-poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles, which are well dispersed and stable in aqueous solution have been prepared by template polymerization of acrylic acid in chitosan solution (Sahab et al., 2015). The prepared CS-PAA had a white powder shape and was insoluble in water and diluted acid. Chitosan nanorod with minimum particle size of <100 nm was prepared by crosslinking low molecular weight chitosan with polyanion sodium tripolyphosphate and physicochemically characterized. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N -deacetylation of chitin. It has been widely used in food and bioengineering industries, including the encapsulation of active food ingredients, in enzyme immobilization, and as a carrier for controlled drug delivery, due to its significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, and polycationicity. The aim of this work to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan and nano chitosan against Pegomyia hyoscami (Diptera:  Anthomyidae).

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Laboratory studies. The sugar beet insects Pegomyia hyoscami; (Diptera:  Anthomyidae) was reared under laboratory conditions (26± 2 Co  and 60± 5 %RH) in cages 50X 50X 60 cm per each. The third larval stage was used in the experimental work .

Preparation of Nano-Chitosan. Chitosan Nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolyzing titanium tetra isopropoxide in a mixture of 1:1 anhydrous ethanol and water. 9 ml of titanium tetra isopropoxide is mixed with 41ml of anhydrous ethanol (A). 1:1 ethanol and water mixture is prepared. (B) Solution A is added in drop wise to solute ion B and stirred vigorously for 2hrs. At room temperature hydrolysis and condensation are performed, using 1M sulphuric acid and stirred for 2 hrs. Then the ageing was undertaken for 12hrs. The gel was transferred into an autoclave and tightly closed, and the mixture was subjected to hydrothermal treatment at 353K for 24hrs. After filtration the solid residue was washed thoroughly with water and ethanol mixture, dried at 373K in an oven and calcined at 773K.

2.1. Nano Encapsulation

The Nano encapsulation is a process through which a chemical is slowly but fficiently released to the particular host for insect pests control. “Release mechanisms include dissolution, biodegradation, diffusion and osmotic pressure with specific pH” (Vidhyalakshmi et al., 2009). Encapsulated of the Chitosan nanoemulsion is prepared by high-pressure homogenization of 2.5% surfactant and 100% glycerol, to create stable droplets which that increase the retention of the oil and cause a slow release of the nano materials. The release rate depends upon the protection time; consequently a decrease in release rate can prolong insect pests protection time (Nurruzzmzn et al., 2016).

 2.2. Efficacy of Chitosan Against the Target

The insecticide Chitosan and Nano chitosan were tested at the 6 concentrations: 6 ppm, 5ppm, 4ppm, 3ppm, 2ppm, 1ppm. The insecticide, prepared 6 concentrations.  Percentages of mortality were calculated according to Abbott’s formula, while the LC50 values were calculated throughout probit analysis (Abbbott, 1925). The experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions at 26±2°C and 60-70% RH.

2.3. Statistical Analysis

Data obtained was statistical analysed using Duncan's multiple range tests according to Finney (1971) Data were statistically analyzed by F-test; LSD value was estimated, using SPSS statistical program software

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1 show that the LC50 obtained 111 and 56ppm after P. hyoscami  treated with different concentrations of chitosan and nano chitosan. Table 2 show that when P. hyoscami  treated with the chitosan and  nano chitosan, the number of eggs significantly 53±1.7 and 8.3eggs/ female as compared to 272±8.7 eggs /female in the control decreased to 266±8.7 eggs/ female . The percentage of egg hatching, larval mortality, malformed pupae and malformed adults significantly decreased in case of chitosan treatments and almost reduced after nano chitosan treatments (Table 2).

The weight of sugar beet significantly increased to 2490±66.11and 2529±51.98 kg/ feddan in plots treated with nano chitosan as compared to 1780±55.43and 12245.09 kg/ feddan in the control during season 2016 and 2017 respectively (Table 3). Figure 1 show the nano particles re coded by scanning electron microscopy. Our findings meet with Sabbour et al. (2014) who found that the bioinsecticides control the percentage of the sugar beet pests significantly decreased during both two successive season 2012 and 2013 after fungi treatments. Sabbour and Abdel-Rahman (2007) found the bioinsecticide decrease C. vaitta under laboratory and field conditions. Sahab et al. (2015) found that the nano chitosan have an insecticidal effect against Aphis gossypii under laboratory and field conditions. 

Similarly, Sabbour (2015a) reported that Imidacloprid and nano-Imidacloprid reduced the rate of infestation by C. capitata and P. oleae in olive trees. Again, Sabbour (2015b) recorded decreased infestation rate by potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella,in plants treated with nano-fungi Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium flavoviride. Similar findings were also attained by Sabbour (2013) against B. oleae, C. capitata and P. oleae in olive trees treated with spinosad

These results are in consistence with those obtained by Sabbour (2015a) for olive trees treated with Imidacloprid and nano-Imidacloprid and infested by C. capitata and P. oleae. Also, treatment of potato plants, infested by P. operculella,with nano-fungi I. fumosorosea and M. flavoviride increased the yield (Sabbour, 2015b). Similar results were obtained by Sabbour (2013) for spinosad-treated olive trees that were infested by B. oleae, C. capitata and P. oleae. Sabbour (2017) found that the olive weight increased after bioinscticid applications. Sabbour and Nayera Solieman 2017, reported that nano-biopesticides application  increase the productivity of the olive fruits under field conditions. Alsso Sabbour and Nayera (2016) control Tuta absoluta by na o chitosan and results showed a reduction in the infestation numbers. Sabbour (2016) use the nano chitosan aginist schistocerca gergaria and found alossof the pess number after treatments under laboratory and field conditions. 

In conclusion, nano-formulation of chitosan was more effective than chitosan in controlling Pegomyia hyoscami These results encourage the extension in the use of nanotechnology for insect pest control. 

Table-1. Evaluation of, tested chitosan and Nano chitosan on Pegomyia hyoscami under laboratory conditions
Treatments LC50 ppm S V 95% Confidence limits
chitosan 111 0.2 1.1 88-163
Nano chitosan 56 1.1 1.3 90-149

Table-2. Effect of the against the target insects P. hyoscami  biology
Treatments No of eggs laid/female % of egg hatching % of larval mortality % of malformed larvae % of malformed pupae % of emerged adults % of malformed adults
               
chitosan
53±1.7b
19
65
71
79
12
70
Nano chitosan
9±8.3c
0
91
97
94
0
0
Control
272±8.7a
100
-
-
-
100
-
 F value
30.4
2
5
5
22
20
21
     Lsd5%
10.1
1
3
3
10
10
9

Table-3. Assessments of damage caused after treatment with the chitosan Nano chitosan
Target pest
Season 2016
Wt Wt. of suger beet (kg/ feddan)
Season 2017
Wt. of suger beet (kg/ feddan)
Chitosan
2225± 54.66
2569±67.91
Nano chitosan
2490±66.11
2529±51.98
Control
1780±55.43
12245.09

Fig-1. Scanning electron microscopy of chitosan.

REFERENCES

Abbbott, W.S., 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economics Environmental, 18(2): 265-267. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Bassyouny, A.M., 1993. Studies on preferability and injury level of some main insects to certain sugar beet varieties in Egypt. Journal of Applied Sciences, 8: 213-219.

Finney, D.J., 1971. Probit analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goodwin, B., T. Babb, S. Kaffka and L. Godfrey, 2007. Biorational management of beet armyworms in sugar beets in the Central Valley, Larry Godfrey and Tom Babb. Available from http//sugar beet.Ucdavis.edu.2007.

Nurruzzmzn, N., M.M. Rahman, Y. Liu and R. Nadidur, 2016. Nanoencapsulation, nano-guard for pesticides: A new window for safe application. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(7): 1447-1483. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Sabbour, M.M., 2013. Efficacy of Nomuraea rileyi and spinosad against olive pests under laboratory and field conditions in Egypt. Global Journal of Biodiversity Science Management, 3(2): 228-232. View at Google Scholar 

Sabbour, M.M., 2015a. Nano-imidaclorprid against three olive pestsunder laboratory and field conditions open science. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2(5): 45-49.

Sabbour, M.M., 2015b. The toxicity effect of Nano Fungi Isaria fumosorosea and metarhizium flavoviride against the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). American Journal of Biology and Life Sciences, 3(5): 155-160.

Sabbour, M.M., 2016. Observations of the effect of Chitosan and its nano compositions against the locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae ). International Journal of ChemTech Research, 9(06): 270-276. View at Google Scholar 

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Sabbour, M.M. and A. Abdel-Rahman, 2007. Evaluations of some terpenes and entomopathogenic fungi on three sugar beet insect pests. Journal of Biological Pest Control, 17(1/2): 22-29. View at Google Scholar 

Sabbour, M.M., Nayera and Y. Soliman, 2014. Determinations of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria brongniartii on three sugar beet pests. European Journal of Academic Essays, 2(10): 23-28.

Sabbour, M.M. and S.Y. Nayera, 2016. The efficacy effect of using chitosan and nano-chitosan against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 8(3): 548-554.

Sahab, A.F., A.I. Waly, M.M. Sabbour and N.S. Lubna, 2015. Synthesis, antifungal and insecticidal potential of Chitosan (CS)-g-poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles against some seed borne fungi and insects of soybean. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 8(2): 589-559. View at Google Scholar 

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About the Authors

Sabbour M.M
Department of Pests and Plant Protection, Agriculture Division. National Research Center, Eygpt

Corresponding Authors

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