American Journal of Creative Education

Volume 2, Number 3 (2019) pp 149-160 doi 10.20448/815.23.149.160 | Research Articles

 

The Effects of Manpower Development Efforts of the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TET-Fund) on Productivity and Performance of Academic Staff Members of Colleges of Education in Nigeria

G.O. Eneasator 1 , Ken A. Azubuike 1 Orji, Friday Oko 3
1 Department of Educational Administration, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra Statem Nigeria.
3 Department of Educational Management and Policy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The research project examined the effects of manpower development efforts of the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TET-Fund) on productivity and performance of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria. The study further investigated the extent to which academic staff members avail themselves for maximum participation in manpower development efforts of TET-Fund. The descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The study was guided by 3 research questions and 2 null hypotheses. The population of the study consists of all the academic staff members of the 140 colleges of education in Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample size of 5,802 academic staff members. The reliability coefficient (r=0.84) was gotten through test-retest method and was considered satisfactory. The study adopted the Mean (X) and Chi-square (X2) tools for statistical analysis, and they were used to analyse the data. The results show that there is significant evidence that academic staff members do not make maximum use of the staff development programme available to colleges of education in Nigeria. It also indicated that there is significant evidence that staff development programmes of the TETFund influence the productivity and performance of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria. It was concluded that the benefits in personnel development will always outweigh the doubts, if the process is well managed.

Keywords:Manpower development, Productivity, Academic members of Staff, TETFund, Colleges of education, Organisational performance.

DOI: 10.20448/815.23.149.160

Citation | G.O. Eneasator; Ken A. Azubuike; Orji, Friday Oko (2019). The Effects of Manpower Development Efforts of the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TET-Fund) on Productivity and Performance of Academic Staff Members of Colleges of Education in Nigeria. American Journal of Creative Education, 2(3): 149-160.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 2 August 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019 .

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • This study examined the effects of manpower development efforts of the   Tertiary   Education    Trust   Fund   (TET-Fund)    on   productivity   and performance of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria.
  • The descriptive survey research design was used for the study.
  • This study concluded that the benefits in personnel development will always outweigh the doubts, if the process is well managed.

1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Essentially, colleges of education in Nigeria are among the institutions of higher learning that have been bestowed with the mandate of training teachers for the successful implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme of the federal government of Nigeria. They therefore produce teachers not only for the primary schools, but also for the junior secondary school system. The importance of quality teachers in any educational endeavor can never be over-emphasized. The teachers are the hub on which the educational system of any nation rotates. They are the agents through which a well-articulated curriculum finds its actualization.

However, of greater and more critical importance are those who train and produce these classroom teachers. They are to a greater extent the academic staff of colleges of education. These groups of individuals must not only be academically sound, but also possess professional exposure, carriage and altitude which are important for effective and efficient implementation of their official .responsibilities in the colleges. Therefore, the colleges of education in Nigeria must not only strive to employ and retain the best brains on their academic staff list, but must also ensure that the academic staff members are abreast, with current knowledge in their various fields. They should also be able to demonstrate world best professional practices to be role models to the student teachers. It is a well-known fact that knowledge keeps on changing. In fact, the knowledge we acquire today, will probably by next five to ten years become obsolete and irrelevant.

Again, new knowledge is being discovered on a daily basis, and new technological practices are equally being introduced in the system; these make it mandatory that academic staff of the colleges of education, who are teacher-educators, must be very conversant with new knowledge and technological practices, which are very essential for sound pedagogical practices. This, therefore establishes the need for academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria to pragmatically avail themselves of the opportunities offered by different staff development programmes in the country and abroad, to update themselves, these will definitely help them to become highly abreast with the current relevant body of knowledge, not only in their various academic disciplines but also in the critical area of teaching and learning. The need for improved productivity and organisational performance through human resource development can never be over-emphasised.

In recent times, the TETFund, an education friendly agency of the Federal Government of Nigeria has been helping a lot in funding tertiary education in Nigeria. In addition to the massive provision of critical teaching and learning infrastructure and facilities, TETFund is also actively involved in both academic and non-academic staff development in tertiary institutions. Many Nigerian academic staff members in higher institutions have benefitted from TETFund's sponsorship of assorted staff development programmes including in-service training for post graduate degrees, locally and abroad, local and international conferences, workshops, and so on.
Peretomode and Chukwuma (2005) posited that the need for improved productivity has become universally accepted and it depends largely on efficient and effective training of manpower for organizational growth, increased employee motivation, increased employee morale, job satisfaction and so on. It is understandable that if human resource development is given partial attention in an organisation, staff members of such organization must be performing below internationally acceptable standard. Sequel to this, organizational efficiency and effectiveness would be hampered. It therefore becomes very necessary for TETFund and colleges to remain committed to the implementation of manpower development programmes for college staff members, especially the academics, so as to remain abreast of current best international practices that will enhance their productive capacities.

1.1. Statement of the Problem

Teachers are very important in any educational system because they are the agents through which the curriculum is implemented. They must be highly abreast both in content and methodology for them to be effective and efficient in teaching and learning. And of even greater importance are the teacher-educators that is, those who train the teachers. These teacher-educators, who are mostly the academic staff members of the colleges of education, should be able to get themselves updated with the current knowledge, both in their academic discipline and their professional practices. However, it is not very evident that the academic staff members are making the maximum use of the opportunities offered by the various staff development programmes in the country. It is equally not evident on the reasons why majority of the academic staff members do not avail themselves of the various human development programmes of TETFund for colleges of education. It is also in vague whether those academic staff members who shy away from taking maximum advantage of human capital development programmes of TETFund understand the real impact of training on productivity and performance of workers. Hence, this study has been designed not only to investigate the effect of TETFund manpower development efforts on academic staff productivity, but also to provide answers to the foregoing probing and disturbing issues.

1.2. Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of the research project is to determine the impact of TFTFund manpower development intervention on productivity as perceived by academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria. Specifically the research project intends to:

  1. Find out the extent to which the academic members of staff of colleges   of education avail themselves of the opportunities offered by various TETFund manpower development programmes.
  2. Determine  the  effect  of the  various  TETFund   staff development programmes on   the   productivity   and   performance   of  colleges   of education as perceived by the academic members of staff in Nigeria.
  3. Find out the reasons why academic staff members of colleges of education do not take maximum advantage of staff development programmes made available by TETFund.

1.3. Research Questions

This study is guided by the following research questions:

  1. To what extent are the academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria availing themselves of the various TETFund staff development programmes available to them?                                                             
  2. Why are academic staff members of colleges of education not taking   maximum   advantage of the various TETFund staff development programmes available to them?
  3. What are the effects of TETFund staff development programmes on the productivity and performance of Academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria?

1.4. Research Hypotheses

The researchers developed the following null hypotheses in order to further provide necessary guide to this study:

Ho1: There is no significant evidence that academic staff members do not make maximum use of the TETFund staff development programmes available to colleges of education in Nigeria.
Ho2: There is no significant evidence that TETFund staff development programmes influence the productivity and performance of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria.

1.5. Significance of the Study

The direct beneficiaries are the major stakeholders in educational management. These may include the Vice chancellors of universities, Provosts of colleges of education, Rectors of polytechnics and academic staff members of our tertiary institutions. This is as a result of the fact that the outcome of the research will bring into sharp focus the critical essence of continuous manpower development and probably trigger off the need for conducting training needs assessment to ensure that the right type of training is given to staff members:

TETFund Board will equally benefit from the research because it will .avail them with empirical information on how well their training programmes have contributed in meeting educational goals of the colleges of education in Nigeria. The outcome of this research will add to evidences available to TETFund when defending their annual budget to the government. Also, subsequent researchers on related topical issue will find the content of this research valuable. This is because it will- help to provide them with relevant literature and guide towards carrying out further researches that may validate the current study.

The National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) will equally benefit from the outcome of the research because it will provide the basis for tackling the non-challant attitude of some academic staff members towards staff development programmes, especially when their accreditation teams visit the colleges. It could also provide them with the basis for conducting training needs assessment to ensure that the right type of training is envisaged and implemented.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS

Education is one of the universals in the development of the individuals and the society. It is also one of the catalysts that bring about rapid economic and national development. In order to achieve through education the highly needed human capital necessary for social well-being, economic growth and development, there has to be a good stock of quality human and manpower resources. This is of course in addition to the physical and financial resources. It is the manpower resources that manipulate the available physical and financial resources to provide the services and functions that eventually bring about, economic and national development. It is therefore very essential that organizations should have well trained and highly motivated workforce to be able to achieve their goals with maximum efficiency.

The contributions of human capital in the development of any nation have been extensively examined and written about in literature. In this vein, Harbison and Myers (2013)  noted that it is human resources, not capital, not income nor material resources that constitute the ultimate basis of the wealth of nations. Manpower development known as human capital development can be considered on its qualitative and quantitative dimensions. It means that human capital formation includes not only expenditure on training but also the development of right attitudes towards productive processes.

In tertiary institutions, lecturers' development programmes are considered very critical. These development programmes are often planned activities which are concerned with increasing and broadening the capacities of the manpower or lecturers. It equally aids in improving the technical and conceptual skills of lecturers so they enhance the necessary abilities to handle complex situations and efficient job performance. This makes them to keep abreast with new developments in their areas of specialization so as not to become obsolete and made redundant (Peretomode and Chukwuma, 2005). Orji (2014) added that manpower development of lecturers in tertiary institutions should be geared towards equipping and sharpening lecturers’ capacities to help them in performing various obligations, tasks and functions related to their present or future expected roles.
The importance of development programmes for lecturers cannot be overemphasized as Peretomode and Peretomode (2001) buttressed that such training programmes helps to improve knowledge, skill, positive attitude to work, personal and organizational productivity as well as quality services in general. It is understandable that such training programmes culminate in improvement in morale of lecturers; inculcates sense of belonging, reduces absenteeism and turnover rate among lecturers. It equally leads to better coordination of both human and material resources within institutions of higher learning. Amuno (1989) added that the different methods of staff development in order to actualize the aforementioned benefits include in-service training, on-the-job training, conferences, seminars and workshops.

2.1. Productivity

The Pitfield (2012) considered productivity to mean doing the right things the right way, getting more output with less input, getting more output with the same input, punctuality and promptness, elimination of wastes in all forms, .justifying ones pay, improvement in all aspects of life, producing more and more of better quality and being more positive and committed in the pursuit of goals. Productivity is a measure produced by input/output analysis. But different opinions exist amongst experts as regards what constitute the productivity of the individual or organization and how it could be ascertained especially as service such as the school system is intangible. In this vein, Pitfield (2012) posited that it is understandable that productivity measure indicates the rate of growth in strength of different firms in order to actualise their set targets and ensure that consumers receive the goods and services in good condition; at affordable prices and promptly.

Lecturer's productivity could be defined in terms of research findings, published and not published. It is understandable that many of the lecturers had participated in self-sponsored staff development activities while some have benefited from government or institution's sponsorship (Uyeri, 2016). A lecturer's productivity can also be observed in terms of attitudinal changes- such as punctuality to classes, objectivity in handling any assigned task, better demonstration of pedagogical prowess, ability to explain concepts well during classroom instructions, proactive in research and contribution of articles to improve literature in his field, efficiency and effectiveness in assessment and release of students' results etc. It can also be measured on the basis of students' academic performances in the courses he is handling. If a lecturer was appointed as a chairman of a particular committee, the outcome of the tasks assigned to the committee can become part of how productive the lecturer is.

Meanwhile, productivity can be measured at the national, organizational, and individual levels. Succinctly speaking, productivity measure the efficiency of individuals and or the organization in relation to tasks and targets. Efficiency defines the ability of a person and or organisation to achieve a desired result in a minimum time range. Thus, lecturers who achieve desired results in a little time than others can be considered more productive in this regard.

2.2. Theoretical Framework

Although there exist many theories which could be relevant to this research, Human capital theory appears to be most appropriate for this work. Becker propounded the Human capital theory in 1964. The theory recognized that the growth of physical capital stock depends largely on the existence and accumulation of well-developed manpower also known as human capital. Becker (1964) argued that education in the form of training and skill development programmes is positively related to the productivity of workers because it impacts relevant knowledge and expertise on the available manpower. The words of Becker are interpreted to mean that increase or sustained manpower development programmes yield increase or sustained productivity in the organisation.

Continuous training of lecturers through the manpower development programmes of TETFund result into productivity and better organisational performance. In the word of Harbison and Myers (2013) 'reformation of human capital theory stressed the significance of education and training as the key to participation in the new global economy. Whenever human capital or human resources are appropriately developed through relevant trainings, the intended outcome is assured. Organization experts assert that planned human resources development programme through training is essential in any organization in terms of increased productivity, heightened morale, reduced costs and greater organizational stability and flexibility to adapt to changing external requirements (Uyeri, 2016). But inappropriate trainings can become a serious wastage of scarce resources on the part of the spending government, organization or individual. This is an area where most third world countries have fallen victim, because they embark on training programmes that are not based on needs assessment.

2.3. Research Methodology Research Design

The survey research design was used for the study. according to Orji (2016) ‘descriptive design is the type of design which is meant to get responses from a sample of respondents and this is obtained through the administration of relevant data collection instruments for the purpose of collecting primary data on a portion of the population known as sample. The descriptive design often focuses on collecting data relating to an area of interest for the purpose of finding relationship among variables.

2.4. Area of Study

The area covered by this study is the Nigeria. Nigeria often referred to as ‘The Giant’ of Africa is a Federal Republic with the largest population on the continent. It is found in in West Africa between latitudes 5°N and 15°N of the equator and longitudes 18°E and 30°E of the Greenwich meridian. It is bounded by the Republic of Benin and Niger Republic on the West; Cameroon on the East; Republic of Niger and Chad Republic on the Northern and Atlantic Ocean/Gulf of Guinea on the South.

2.5. Population of the Study

The population of this study consists of all the academic staff members of the one hundred and forty (140) colleges of education in Nigeria, including the federal, state and privately owned colleges of education.

2.6. The Sample and Method of Sampling

This study adopted a sampling method known as purposive sampling technique. In the words of Orji (2015) ‘purposive sampling technique is a method of sampling in which the researcher chooses certain sample composition and size which he considers convenient, appropriate, relevant and adequate for the study. Based on this technique,-the researchers divided Nigeria into six (6) geopolitical zones and selected a sample size of five thousand, eight hundred and two (5,802) academic staff members. This sample is made up of nine hundred and sixty seven (967) subjects from each geopolitical zone. It is equally composed of four hundred (400) from federal, three hundred and forty (340) from state and two hundred and twenty seven (227) from private colleges of education. Below shows the composition of the sample:

Table-1.  This shows the selected sample of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria through purposive sampling technique..
Nigeria’s Geopolitical Zones
Federal
State
Private
967
North-Central
400
340
227
967
North-East
400
340
227
967
North-West
400
340
227
967
South-East
400
340
227
967
I
South-South
400
340
227
967
South-West
400
340
227
967
Sample Size
2,400
2,040
1,362
5,802

Source: Field survey, month of August, 2017.

2.7. Instrument for Data Collection

The researchers constructed relevant questionnaire titled Impact of Manpower Development on Productivity as Perceived by Academic staff members of Colleges of Education in Nigeria (IMDPASMCEN), and it was used to collect relevant primary data. The questionnaire is structured into (2) parts; these include: part A which contains the (personal data of respondents) and section B which contains 30 questionnaire items relevant to access staff willingness to key into available manpower development programmes and to ascertain the effect of manpower development on productivity and college performance. The expected responses include: Strongly Agreed (SA) = 4 points, Agree (A) = 3 points. Disagree (D) = 2 points and Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1 point.

2.8. Validation of Instrument for the Study

Copies of the structured questionnaire titled Impact of Manpower Development on Productivity as Perceived by Academic staff members of Colleges of Education in Nigeria (IMDPASMCEN) were certified for face and content validity by 3 research experts. These experts were from the Department of Science Education (Measurement and Evaluation), Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka; Department of Science Education (Measurement and Evaluation), Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli and Department of Educational Psychology, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe. Thus, their observations, corrections and suggestions helped in the production of the final draft of the questionnaire.

2.9. Reliability of Instrument for the Study

Test-retest method was adopted in calculating the reliability test for the questionnaire used. The researchers and their assistants administered the instrument to 50 lecturers, and 25 of them were from the universities in Nigeria while the other 25 were from Colleges of Education. The questionnaires were reproduced and re-administered to the same 50 lecturer after 3 weeks.  Thereafter, the responses were collected; organised and analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and the result revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.84 which was considered satisfactory.

2.10. Administration of Instrument

The services of 30 research assistants were secured, and were trained on the ethics for approaching and addressing respondents for the purpose of administering the questionnaires! They were divided into 6 groups made up of 5 assistants who traveled to the different locations of the sampled colleges in the Six-Geopolitical Zones, and administered the instruments. The strategy adopted was exercise patience for the respondent to answer the questionnaire and then retrieve immediately. Hence, the 5,802 questionnaires were fully retrieved.

2.11. Technique for the Analysis of Data

The study adopted Mean (X) and Chi-square (X2) as instruments for data analysis. Mean (X) was used to analyse the research questions while Chi-square (X2) was used to address the null hypotheses. However, the result(s) of X2-calculated was compared against X2-critical based on 5% significant level (alpha level) at a derived degree of freedom.

Decision rule for Mean(X): Using the critical Mean (X) value of 2.5, accept any questionnaire item which its calculated Mean (X) is greater than or equal to the 2.5. If not, do not accept the item.

Decision rule for Chi-square (X2): Reject null hypothesis, if the X2-calculated is greater than the X2-critical value. But, if the X2-calculated is less than the X2-critical value, do not reject null hypothesis.

3. RESULTS

Research question 1: To what extent are the academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria availing themselves of the various staff development programmes?

Table-2. Mean rating of academic staff members on the extent to which academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria avail themselves of the various staff development programme of TETFund.
Question items
Sf
SFx
X
Decision
Participate if my discipline is involved
5802
15492
2.67
A
Participate rarely
5802
16420
2.83
A
Participate intermittently
5802
15317
2.64
A
Participate maximally
5802
14157
2.44
NA
lave not participated actually
5802
17522
3.02
A
Participate in privately sponsored training
5802
13693
2.36
NA
Participate only if being compelled
5802
18740
3.23
A
Participate mainly for allowances accruable
5802
16362
2.82
A
Participate mainly for pleasure
5802
12880
2.22
NA
Participate if hosted in my environment
5802
18740
3.23
A

Dec=decision, S=summation, F=sample size, X=scale rating, X’=Mean, A=accepted NA=not accepted.

Table 2 revealed that 7 out of the 10 questionnaire items were accepted while 3 were not accepted. Worthy of note from the above is the fact that academic staff members on average do not participate maximally in all the training programmes available to them from TETFund.

Research question 2: Why are academic staff members of colleges of education not taking maximum advantage of staff development programmes offered by TETFund?

Table-3. Mean rating of academic staff members on why academic staff members of colleges of education do not take maximum advantage of staff development programmes of TETFund.
Question items
ΣF
ΣFX
X
Decision
Not being aware of when TETFund trainings are available             
5802
13461
2.32
NA
Tight schedule and high workload in the college  
5802
17638
3.04
A
Selections for participation are biased and politicized 
5802
20539
3.54
A
Unhealthy bureaucracy in processing documents for participation  
5802
16478
2.84
A
Most training programmes do not relate to my field of specialization
5802
15781
2.72
A
There exist much delay in remitting of fund to participants 
5802
14853
2.56
A
Inadequate insurance provisions in case of necessity 
5802
16652
2.87
A
Most trainings are  not practical rather theoretically based
5802
16884
2.91
A
Allowances are mostly not fulfilled 
5802
14215
2.45
NA
Family-based reasons such as husband/wife refusal etc
5802
19321
3.33
A

Dec=decision, Σ=summation, F=sample size, X=scale rating, X’=Mean, A=accepted NA=not accepted.

Table 3 shows that 8 out of the 10 questionnaire items considered are accepted while 2 are not accepted. It is worthy of note from the findings above that most available TETFund human capital development programmes are being politicized and selections based on unhealthy sentiment.

Research question 3: What are the effects of staff development programmes on the productivity and performance of colleges of education in Nigeria as perceived by the academic staff members?.

Table-4. Mean of academic staff members on the effects of staff development programmes on the productivity and performance of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria.
Question items
ΣF
ΣFX
X
Decision
Improvement in efficiency and effectiveness
5802
16768
2.89
A
Improvement in human relation and approaches
5802
14679
2.53
A
Improvement in the understanding of work ethics
5802
15839
2.73
A
Improvement in stress management
5802
17580
3.03
A
Reduction in hazardous and risky decisions and actions
5802
14621
2.52
A
Trainings make lecturers versatile and adaptive to situations
5802
17000
2.93
A
Improvement in lecturers’ entrepreneurial and business skills
5802
16304
2.81
A
Improvement in creativity, mental alertness and discoveries
5802
16072
2.77
A
Improvement in research and development
5802
18682
3.22
A
Improvement in responsibility and attitude towards work
5802
19321
3.33
A

Dec=decision, Σ=summation, F=sample size, X=scale rating, X’=Mean, A=accepted NA=not accepted.

On the Table 4, it is found that the 10 questionnaire items are not rejected as the effect of TETFund human capital development programmes on the academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria. A closer observation above shows that the various averages are greater than 2.5, hence the acceptance.

Ho1: There is no significant evidence that academic staff members do not make maximum use of the staff development programmes available to colleges of education in Nigeria.

Table-5. Analysed responses of academic staff members on whether or not academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria make maximum use the various staff development programmes of TETFund.
X2-cal
X2-critica
df
Alpha level
Decision
848.41
40.11
27
0.05
Reject

Source: Summarized output from data analysed on SPSS, 23rd September, 2017.

Table 5 shows that the null hypothesis 1 is rejected on the basis that X2-cal (848.41) is greater than X2-critical (40.11). Therefore, there is significant evidence that academic staff members do not make maximum use of the staff development programmes available to colleges of education in Nigeria.

Ho2: There is no significant evidence that staff development programmes influence the productivity and performance of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria.

Table-6. Analysed responses of academic staff members on the influence of staff development programmes on the productivity and performance academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria.
X2-cal
X2-critica
df
Alpha level
Decision
798.93
40.11
27
0.05
Reject

Source: Summarized output from data analysed on SPSS, 23rd September, 2017.

Table 6 revealed that null hypothesis 2 is rejected based on the fact that X2-cal (798.93) is greater than X2-critical (40.11). Hence, there is significant evidence that staff development programmes influence the productivity and performance of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria.

4. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

On Table 2, the extent to which academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria avail themselves of the various staff development programmes was analysed. It revealed that academic staff members do not take full advantage of the available manpower development programmes of TETFund. This shows that the extent of their participation is dependent on compulsion, accruable allowances, discipline being involved as well as the training being hosted within the immediate environment. Hence, they rarely avail themselves of the training opportunities since such afore-mention conditions may not be the case. However, colleges of education cannot be effective in the pursuit of their objectives and goals unless the lecturers are willing and ready to make the most effective use of manpower development efforts of TETFund. Unfortunately, the finding is undoubtedly part of the issues that culminate in low standard of education being experienced in colleges of education and beyond. This is why most lecturers have fallen short of work ethics and other virtues that could be refreshing through the TETFund personnel development programmes.

Table 3 dealt with the reasons why academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria do not maximize the opportunities in TETFund manpower development programmes. It was found that such reasons included: tight schedule and high workload in the college, biased selection processes, unhealthy bureaucracy, training not in field of specialization, delay in fund release, and lack of insurance provisions, trainings being theoretically based and family-related decisions. This finding is a wake-up call to ensure that all issues affecting unending participants are holistically addressed, especially delay in release of fund. In the same vein, Nwankwo in Madubueze (2015) lamented that public servants rarely take training serious as a result of inability of parastatals to post personnel to jobs that are directly related to their training. On the other hand, Orji (2015) noted that selection and release of staff for manpower development programmes is affected by bureaucracy and non-merit criteria such as political ethnic balancing and the geographical spread of training opportunities.

On Table 4, the effects of staff development programmes on the productivity and performance of colleges of education in Nigeria, was addressed. Its findings revealed that human capital development programmes bring about improvement in staff efficiency and effectiveness, dynamic human relation approaches, understanding of work ethics, stress management, reduction in hazardous and risky decisions and actions, improved lecturers versatility and adaptability, improved lecturers’ entrepreneurial and business skills, creativity, mental alertness and discoveries, research and development as well as improvement in attitude towards work. In tandem with this finding, Pitfield (2012) opined that the objectives of training are to: provide the skills, knowledge and aptitudes necessary to undertake required job, and efficiently develop the workers so that if they have the potentials, they would make progress, increase efficiency by reducing spoilt work, misusing of machines and lessening physical risks.

On Table 5, it is revealed that there is significant evidence that academic staff members do not make maximum use of the staff development programmes available to colleges of education in Nigeria. It is to be recalled that some respondents on Table 2 lamented that delay in remitting of fund to participants, biased selection criterion and non-payment of accrued training allowances discourage them from making the use of training programmes. In line with the finding, Chukwunenye and Nnenna (2011) remarked that a non-achievement criterion (such as nepotism) as often used in selecting workers for training as well as inability of management to increase the remuneration of the employee that has received training make it difficult for maximum participation in human resource development.

Table 6 reported that there is significant evidence that staff development programmes influence the productivity and performance of academic staff members of colleges of education in Nigeria. This finding is in consonant with human capital development theory. According to Becker who propounded the theory in 1964, 'education or training raises the productivity of workers by imparting useful knowledge and skill'. The finding is also in line with Peretomode and Chukwuma (2005) that manpower development enhances lecturers' productivity irrespective of gender, faculty and type and institution and that both lecturers in Colleges of Education and Universities engage in similar manpower development programmes.

5. CONCLUSION

From the findings above, it is obvious that manpower development programmes of TETFund, especially to colleges of education in Nigeria remain commendable. This is because training is found to be an influencing factor of both organizational and individual productivity and performance. It is unfortunate that most academic staff members are not maximally making the most of such training opportunities. The willingness and commitment to participate in human capital development programmes among academic staff members are reported to be affected by biased selection process, family disagreements, inadequate financial motivation and tight schedule. Whatever the challenge may be, it is important to recall that the benefits in personnel development will always outweigh the doubts, if the process is well managed.

6. RECOMMENDATIONS

The researchers make the following recommendations based on the findings of the study:

  1. TETFund administrators should be objective and less stringent in selecting academic staff members for training.   Selection should be unbiased but based on merit resulting from thorough assessment and screening of the would-be participants.
  2. The money   meant   for the   sponsorship   of participants   should   be appropriately and timely released and remitted. This will bring about undistracted participation in training programmes both locally and outside the shores of Nigeria.
  3. The issue of insurance, safely and security of the participants should be taken more serious because life is precious. Efforts should be geared towards ensuring that the training environment is safe and free from threats.
  4. There should be immediate and periodic assessments and reports on the trained academic staff members to ascertain how well such training is impacting on their performance in related areas.
  5. Training programmes should be more practical oriented. This makes it easier for people to participate actively without feeling bored. Practical oriented trainings result into innovations unlike theory based trainings.

REFERENCES

Amuno, J., 1989. The effect of training on the on-the-job performance of graduates of the centre for management development in Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan.

Becker, G., 1964. Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education. New York: Columbia University Press.

Chukwunenye, I.O. and B. Nnenna, 2011. Training, manpower development and job performance: Perception and relevance among civil servants in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Economics and international Finance, 3(6): 399-406.

Harbison, F. and C. Myers, 2013. Education, manpower and economic growth, strategies of human resources development. New York: Macmillan Company.

Madubueze, M.C., 2015. Manpower development and utilization in Nigeria's local government system: A study of ayamelum local government area, Anambra State. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(8): 105-122.

Orji, F.O., 2014. Youths, the light to better leadership. Radiant Magazine. pp: 1-3.

Orji, F.O., 2015. Perception of school administrators on the use of ICT in the administration of NOCEN. Unpublished Masters Dissertation, National Open University of Nigeria.

Orji, F.O., 2016. Effectiveness of instructional materials in teaching and learning: Educational implications. Saarbrucken, Deutschland/Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Peretomode, V. and R. Chukwuma, 2005. Manpower development and lecturers productivity in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. GYANODAYA-The Journal of Progressive Education, 5(1): 18-28.

Peretomode, V., F. and O. Peretomode, 2001. Human resource management. Lagos: O and O Publishers Ltd.

Pitfield, R.C., 2012. Effective human resource development. California: Jossey: Bass Inc. P Publishers.

Uyeri, A.O., 2016. The relationship between manpower development and lecturers' productivity in colleges of education in delta state. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 16(10): 64-78.

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About the Authors

G.O. Eneasator
Department of Educational Administration, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra Statem Nigeria.
Ken A. Azubuike
Department of Educational Administration, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra Statem Nigeria.
Orji, Friday Oko
Department of Educational Management and Policy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Corresponding Authors

G.O. Eneasator

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