Volume 3, Number 2 (2020) pp 76-85 doi 10.20448/8220.127.116.11 | Research Articles
This research aims to answer the questions as follows: 1) how are the procedures of the implementation of teacher performance assessment? 2) what aspects are assessed in the implementation of the assessment of teacher performance? 3) what are the supporting factors and impediments of assessment? The research used qualitative research with case study approach using documentation, observation, and interview as the data collection technique. Data resources in this research were 24 people from the aggregate of a school principal, teachers and school supervisor. This research had been done in Islamic Elementary School (SDI) of Lento and Catholic Elementary School (SDK) of Menge, Poco Rakana sub-district, East Manggarai, NTT, Indonesia. The research results showed that; first, the procedure of the implementation of teacher performance assessment at SDI Lento and SDK Menge included the phases that were plan, implementation, evaluation, and report. Second, the aspects that are assessed included the assessment of learning administration, the assessment of learning implementation and learning evaluation. Third, the factors that become a supporting success in implementing teacher performance assessment were the coordination and cooperation between the assessor and assessed teachers and supporting the infrastructure of the implementation of teacher performance assessment. Factors impeded the assessment of teacher performance, meanwhile, was the unsuitable educational background and the subjects that were learned. This findings recommend the importance of professional teacher performance assessments in an effort to improve teacher performance in schools.
Keywords: Teacher, Performance assessment, Professionalism, Competence, SDI lento, SDK menge.
Citation Karolina Sriwahyu Ningsi Masa; Suyatno (2020). The Assessment of Teacher Performance in Elementary School: Case Study of SDI Lento and SDK of East Manggarai, Indonesia. American Journal of Creative Education, 3(2): 76-85.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Funding : The researchers would like to thank the Universitas Ahmad Dahlan for supporting the research.
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
History : Received: 20 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020 .
Publisher: Online Science Publishing
Highlights of this paper
In reality, education as quality improvement of human resources has the full orientation of competency and professionalism that educators must have. On the other words, the presence of educators become fundamental in the achievement of qualified and dignified education level. Educators or teachers as a front liner in educational development to release the humankind from the foolish shackles are required to have good competency and professionalism. Therefore, the essence of teacher presence lies in primary and multitasking as educators, instructors, and trainers. As an educator, the teacher has the duties and responsibilities in the coaching and development of students' affectors. Meanwhile, as an instructor, the teacher has a role in guiding and developing students' knowledge. Furthermore, as a trainer, have a duty in cultivating and developing students' skills (Danim, 2010). Teachers are required to be as an example for students especially in developing the knowledge (cognitive), attitude and value (affective), and skills (psychomotor) (Suyatno, Pambudi, Mardati, & Nuraini, 2019). The importance of competent and professional teachers in improving the quality of education is affirmed in the law number 14 of 2005 that stated: "Teacher is a professional educator with the primary task of educating, teaching, guiding, directing, training, assessing and evaluating students on early childhood education of formal education, primary education and secondary education". The regulation of teachers' competency strongly prioritizing the creativity in selecting and determining the model of the approach used to be established and the guaranteed teaching and learning activities are optimal, smooth and productive.
Phenomena occurred in SDI Lento and SDK Menge showed that the atmosphere of brotherhood and kinship also good relation and communication among school principal and teachers, teachers and teachers, also teachers with students can be bound up well and harmoniously. Also, the atmosphere and condition of enjoyable school environment also learning approach that emphasizes the emotional aspect of the students become the hallmark of an institution. On the other hand, the role and responsibility of school principal in delivering a motivation to all of the school residents can be able to give a positive impact on conducive work environment also effective and efficient learning activities. Meanwhile, on the other hand, the stage of the teacher's performance assessment in both schools has a well-structured planning procedure, the implementation stage conducted every three months and the evaluation stage to improve the professional performance of the teacher is well implemented.
Listening to the problem above, researcher interests to study in-depth about "Teacher Performance Assessment". According to the researcher, the activity assessment of the teacher's performance becomes a breakthrough to return a spirit and creativity in the learning process. The teacher's performance assessment can be a communication media in the work environment to increase self-understanding, conduct a discussion related to obstacles in work also make clear work contexts (Torgerson, Macy, Beare, & Tanner, 2009). In essence, the urgency of the teacher's performance assessment is so that each teacher can know the work achievement that has been achieved, the effort that must be pursued in the next step. By conducting performance assessments, teachers are expected to increase their creativity, competence and professionalism (Castle & Shaklee, 2006). This study contains several objectives, first, to describe the fundamental thoughts about the teacher's performance assessment. By elaborating these fundamental thoughts, teachers are expected to have a broad insight and understanding of the assessment of their performance. Second, as a provision and evaluation material for SDI Lento and SDK Menge to improve and achieve effective, efficient and optimal work performance.
According to the found background, the problems that were examined in this research can be formulated as follows:
Teacher performance assessment is a tool for decision making by the school principal that aims to find out the shortcoming, potential, objectives, plans and career development as well as in decision making identification, education and training program needs, recruitment, selection, positioning, promotion of career development and various other aspects of the entire management process effectively (Gallant & Mayer, 2012). Based on the regulation of the Minister of administrative reform and bureaucratic reforms number 16 of 2009, it confirmed that teacher performance assessment is the assessment of teacher primary task devoted to the coaching career, rank and position. The teacher performance assessment has relationships with leadership. In this case, a leader must give full attention and be a listener to the teachers that have been led. “The leader seems to share both actions and experiences in the exceptional situation with others in leading positions as well as with listeners”(Kosonen & Ikonen, 2019).
Teacher performance assessment is a process that was done to determine the competency and success of teachers in implementing tasks of teaching professionally. The competency is related to technical, practical, emancipatory interests, as asserted by Rennert-Ariev (2005) that "There are three impacts to teachers and students in the implementation of authentic teaching and assessment: technical, practical, and emancipatory interests. The technical impact makes the students smart in decisions making; the practical impact shows the high-level reflection of the students; while the emancipatory impact provides students with the ability of critical thinking and action”.
As stated by the Ministry of National Education/Kemendiknas (2010) teacher performance assessment divided into several aspects: namely, aspect of planning, aspect of evaluation, and aspect of evaluation.
The aspect of the planning of teacher performance assessment includes arranging annual programs, semester programs, syllabus and Learning Implementation Plan (RPP).
In the learning implementation that is assessed is time allocation, class management, use of tools and media, methods and conveyance of subjects. Learning implementation is a process of teaching and learning activities in class and out of class. A learning plan is a standard and source for teachers in the learning process that mas be done especially something related to what and how teachers must teach in the class. The capacity and capability also teacher creativity in managing a class can create a conducive and enjoyable learning atmosphere for students. In applying the learning methods used, teachers need to adapt the learning method to the situation and condition of the students so that the results of the learning are easy to understand. A teacher is certainly required to have high creativity in carrying out learning activities so that teachers are able to create a fun and unboring situation for students.
The assessment of students' learning results is the methods that aim to know the achievement of learning purposes. In this step, teachers must have an ability to conduct the evaluation such as managing, arranging the evaluation tools and processing evaluation results. The evaluation of the implementation and the evaluation of competency that is owned by teachers is appropriate with Permendiknas number 16 of 2007 about academic standard qualification and teacher competency.
The implementation of teacher performance assessment is done based on the regulation of the Minister of Administrative Reform and bureaucratic Reformation number 16 of 2019. The results of teacher performance assessment are included in the work target of civil servants (SKP). The teacher performance assessment should be conducted regularly and planned every year, at the beginning and end of the school year. According to Priatna and Sukamto (2013) there were several steps of procedures of implementation of teacher performance assessment such as planning step including a technique of mastering the implementation of teacher performance assessment plan and range of implementation time. In these steps, an assessor prepares the documents needed before the assessment is done.
The implementation step is meant that the teacher performance assessment needs to be done through observation of the assessor who performs the assessment. The assessor who assesses the result must involve directly into school to observe the implementation of learning activities. Several steps of teacher performance assessment that must be observed by the assessor is before, during and after the observation.
In general, evaluation activity is a process of the activity that is done systematically by collecting and processing the information used as a basic implementation and development also exact decision making. Thus, the evaluation can be understood as an attempt to assess the performance of a person based on the analysis and comparison of the facts and the outcome of the performance. This stage of self-evaluation aims to generate conclusions about the value, benefits and effectiveness of the implementation of learning in the effort of achieving maximal teacher performance profession. Self-evaluation identifies the advantages and disadvantages of teachers' performance to plan the development and improvement also strength and possibility in guaranteeing the educational quality.
The type of research used is qualitative research with a case study approach. Qualitative research is performed by collecting data and analysing qualitatively (Creswell & Poth, 2016). Qualitative methods in this study are used to obtain data in-depth or data containing meaning. A meaning is actual data, while certain data is a value behind the visible data.
This research was conducted in SDI Lento and SDK Menge, Sub-district PocoRanaka, East Manggarai, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), Indonesia. In this research, the researcher chose two schools as a research place based on two reasons; firstly, teacher qualifications that support increasing students’ academic achievement every year. Secondly, the teacher performance assessment program is implemented every three months to improve teachers' performance discipline. To conduct this research, the researcher needs 2 months; July to August 2019 to obtain the actual data and information related to teacher performance assessment.
The number of the research subject is 24 people included school principal and teachers of SDI Lento and SDK Menge, Sub-district PocoRanaka, East Manggarai, NTT, that occupied about 3 years in that school. The consideration is since the school principal and homeroom guardian have understood the condition at that time also fulfil research criteria, furthermore, it eases the researcher in collecting data and obtain the actual results.
Data in this research were collected through in-depth interview and observation (Bungin, 2011). The role of researchers was seen as the main instrument of research (Sugiyono, 2012). In order to research directed and intended into research purposes, researchers are guided by the interview guidelines and observation guidelines previously developed according to outlined theoretical frameworks. Before the instruments used, research guidelines were consulted to both experts. Furthermore, after the instruments considered well and the experts approved, the researcher is going to the field to collect the data.
The collected data is analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques that include; firstly, data reduction. One of the qualitative approaches is data analysis conducted from the beginning until the study ended. This means that the data obtained is typed or written in detail, neatly, systematically. Therefore, these reports need to be reduced by choosing the basic things according to the focus of the research. Secondly, data presentation. Data presentation means data presented in various forms such as matrix or chart according to the elements studied. The goal for researchers is to master the data and not to sink with much data. Thirdly, decision making and verification. At this stage, researchers conduct a test of the correctness of every meaning appeared from the data obtained.
The implementation of the teacher's performance assessment at SDI Lento and Menge is a school routine conducted in 2018 and 2019 and contains goals as an effort of the development as well as the improvement of teacher professional performance. In the initial meeting of both schools, the institution stipulated that the teacher performance assessment as an obligation to be carried out every three months, as confirmed by the principal of SDI Lento, YN, that:
"Usually, we conducted an assessment of teacher performance every three months. Also, usually, before the evaluation, I saw that the teachers are busy to prepare the assessment materials. Thus, I feel that the teachers are very responsive and enthusiastic to be assessed by their performance."
Meanwhile, according to MJ, teacher performance assessment conducted within three months more precisely by the middle of the third month. He said:
“The teacher's performance assessment here, we always do it at three months and usually we do it in the middle of the third month, so that the teachers have time to prepare all the learning material”.
The implementation of teacher performance assessment at both schools has been conducted and implemented well and regularly. This is certainly supported by the awareness of the teachers who want to update and evaluate as well as improve their performance in their duty and responsibility as educators.
The implementation of teacher performance assessment is conducted in several ways, firstly, initial meeting stage, the matters discussed related to the preparation of semester and annual program, the evaluation of school program of the previous year, the division of teaching tasks, drafting of RPP (learning implementation plan) and syllabus as well as teacher performance assessment programs. the early meeting is directly led by the school principal and attended by all of the educators and educational staffs in both of school. In addition to the early meeting, school principal informed about the procedures of the implementation of the teacher performance assessment included the examination of RPP (learning implementation plan) and syllabus also the implementation schedule of teacher performance assessment.
Secondly, there are three stages to implement the teacher performance assessment at SDI Lento and SDK Menge’ before observation, The assessors first held an initial meeting with the teacher to be assessed relating to all learning devices. This information is obtained based on an interview with AJ explaining that:
"Before conducted the observation, school principal first as the assessor was conducted the early meeting with the teachers to be assessed. In the meeting, it was discussed about the readiness to implement the learning in the class and school principal also checked the administration from those teachers".
The observation in the class can be conducted during the process of teaching and learning activity that is going on without interfering teaching and learning activity. In addition, in completing the instrument of teacher performance assessment, an assessor must follow the format that is in the employee's work target instrument (SKP). During the observation process, an assessor also has to adjust the learning activities with the RPP (learning implementation plan) that the teacher has compiled. After doing the observation, the assessor re-conducts the meeting with the teacher assessed to evaluate the findings during the learning activity.
Thirdly,the evaluation stage at SDI Lento and SDK Menge was conducted in another form of value confirmation. All of the observation and monitoring results at SDI Lento and SDK Menge were adjusted by the indicators in the evaluation form that become a base for the assessors to give the results toward the achievement of the learning process that was conducted by the teachers assessed. It is necessary to avoid subjective judgments.
Fourthly, the reporting stage of teacher performance assessment implemented in SDI Lento and SDK Menge is generally conducted and implemented well. Teacher performance assessment routinely conducted once in every three months also teachers' enthusiasm to evaluate their performance showed that the teachers in both schools have the awareness toward their duty and the responsibility especially to grow and evolve towards a competent and professional person in their professional assignments.
The results of the research above following the opinions of Priatna and Sukamto (2013) stating that the teacher performance assessment procedure includes several phases of planning, implementing, evaluating and reporting. Several stages were embodied in the form of the early meeting discussed the division of teaching task, the arrangement of RPP (learning implementation plan) and syllabus also the program of teacher performance assessment. The stages of teacher performance assessment in both schools showed that the teacher performance assessment was conducted and applied well and by the teacher performance assessment procedure. This indicates that the stage of implementation consisted of before observation, during observation and after observation. Furthermore, this stage of self-evaluation aimed to provide and generate conclusions about the value, benefits and effectiveness of implementation in the teacher performance assessment as an effort to achieve maximum performance and the reporting of assessment results.
In the assessment of administrative aspects, the research team examined learning documents such as RPP, Syllabus and learning material as the main guideline to deliver the learning materials in the class. The examination of the learning implementation plan (RPP) was important because RPP becomes the main guideline in teaching, as stated by RA:
"RPP is the main guideline for me to teach the material in the class. RPP that was I arranged included three main points; beginning activity such as perception, main activity such as learning materials and the last closing activity such as feedback".
Meanwhile, according to BN at SDK Menge, it was stated that
“RPP was an important thing for me so that what I teach was not deviate far from the material that had been prepared, furthermore, with the help of RPP, the way I deliver the learning material became more structured".
Learning activity in the class also involved active participation from the school principal who was directly monitoring and supervising the implementation of teacher performance assessment. It aimed for the teachers could be able to improve and implement the order and discipline aspects in the learning process that were routinely conducted. Learning implementation covered three primary activities such as beginning activity, main activity and the end of the activity. In the learning implementation at SDI Lento and SDK Menge, it indicated that the learning activities have been conducted well. This is very reasonable because the implementation of the learning is in accordance with RPP. Also, the teachers in both schools have the structured learning methods that included the activity of the apperception, active participation from the students, learning methods that suitable with the materials and giving stimulus, motivation and advice to the students.
The learning evaluation was a part of the learning process that was conducted by evaluating the learning activity. In the evaluation stage or learning evaluation, phases that must be understood was looked at on how big the students' ability in accepting and understanding learning materials. HT at SDI Lento said that the advantages from the evaluation that
"In the evaluation activity, I always gave the students tasks and exercises, the materials I gave to the students after all of the learning materials were conveyed. I also conducted exam maximally twice in a month. It aimed to measure the ability of student understanding toward the material that I had been taught.".
Meanwhile, according to interview results with ML at SDK Menge, he stated that:
"For me, the evaluation was important because by conducting the evaluation, I knew how far the material I had been taught also how far the students understood the material I had been delivered. By conducting the evaluation, I knew and realise that if the method I had been used so far could improve student learning achievement or in the future, I need to change my learning methods if it did not achieve the expected learning outcomes”.
The success of learning would be seen in the evaluation of the learning itself. Teachers who have carried out the evaluation or assessment of learning likely allow them to have no difficulty in the next learning process.
Learning results are the most important element in measuring a teacher's performance. Learning outcomes and are understood as interactions between the learning and teaching process. This indicated that learning outcomes become one of the criteria for conducting an assessment of the teacher's performance. Every student certainly has a unique ability, especially in understanding and applying the knowledge, actualize attitudes and personality as well as skills in realizing his potential, The achievement of student learning is not only fixed in the aspect of knowledge but also includes behaviours, talents or skills and relationships with both students and teachers.
The teacher performance assessment has the meaning and purpose that teachers as professional educators are required to have the ability and creativity in educating, teaching, guiding, directing, training and assessing and evaluating learners. Therefore, the teacher's performance assessment should be done as a way to move forward and improve the quality of education. The teacher's performance assessment refers to the assignment aspects and main roles that include planning, implementing and evaluating the learning process. Therefore, the implementation if teacher performance assessment must be conducted validly, reliably, and practically so that it could obtain the correct and exact result of the assessment and also could be accounted for according to the provisions, based on documents, implemented consistently, objectively, fairly, accountably, transparently and has the orientation to the goal and the process of improving performance to the fullest and professional.
The implementation of teacher performance assessment at SDI Lento and SDK Menge generally had been done and implemented well. Several factors become support and impedance of the implementation of teacher performance assessment in both schools.
Educational management has never been separated from the personality factors of educator power. In this case, an important role to educate the students is that educators are also required to have a personality and integrity. On the other words, the teachers are not only merely transferring the knowledge that has been owned by the students, however, give a good and correct example and exemplary as an effort to mature students’ behaviour. The role of the teacher includes not only the fulfilment of student cognitive needs but also the area of personal attitudes and behaviours that make themselves an example for the coaching and student’s self-development.
As a motivator, the school principal has a certain strategy to motivate other teachers. To carry out the professional task, motivation is highly needed by the teachers in order to always spirit to conduct their duty. In this case, the school principal needs to give and attention toward the teachers to improve their shortcoming in implementing the learning. Motivation in work creates a workplace that is conducive and full of sense of brotherhood so that it can encourage to support each other, strengthen and appreciate teacher performance. As a result, with teacher motivation, it is important to maintain their professional routine to achieve quality and dignified educational objectives.
In addition, the openness aspect is a basic element that becomes a foundation oachieve and guarantee a harmonious relationship. The results of observations, the researcher saw that school principal of SDI Lento was very open towards school residents especially in the school management. It created a comfortable ambience for the teachers so that it enable the teachers to love their profession. In addition, the communication and interaction among the teachers at SDK Menge were adequately well. With a good interaction and communication between school principal and teachers, teachers and fellow can certainly create the opportunities and space to improve teacher performance.
The improvement and development of teacher profession at SDI Lento and SDK Menge certainly based on teachers' needs. The results of teacher performance assessment are very useful as an effort to improve the development of teachers ' profession that is not optimal highly. The development of teacher profession is done both personal and groups through educational programs such as training. The way the principal has to influence the teacher's performance is to include teachers in training, monitoring and supervision and facilitating teachers in the planning of the Learning program.
Thus, the development and improvement of teacher profession is a step for improvement and development of teacher performance towards professionalism also period. On the other words, the activity of teacher development profession aims to stimulate, nurture and improve teacher competency in solving the problem of education and learning that impact on improving the quality of student learning that further improve the quality of education. Teacher profession development includes coaching of pedagogic competence, personality, professional, and social as well as career development including assignment, promotion, and rise of position.
Primarily, the activity of teacher performance assessment can motivate the teachers to do their learning task with full of responsibility and professionalism. The teachers can always teacher better after a process of assessment of their performance while reflecting all the shortcomings and advantages gained from the results of the teacher's performance. This activity expects that all advantages will continue to be maintained and enhanced so that the shortcomings found will be an evaluation and improvement material to incline the process and outcomes of qualified learning.
That becomes a supporting factor in the implementation of teacher performance assessment at SDI Lento and SDK Menge is that there is direct coordination from supervisor and school principal about the activity of teacher performance assessment, and influence from school principal especially in supporting, giving a spirit, motivating, advising and solving the problems in dealing with the problems relating to the duties and the teacher's occupations. The headmaster facilitated the activity of teacher performance assessment especially in the form of KKG or recommendation of sustainable professional training also facilities and infrastructure as well as learning media that can support teacher performance assessment such as the laboratory of mathematics, Indonesian language, library, reading space, and subject books.
Additionally, that became an impeding factor of teacher performance assessment was a discrepancy between basic education and subjects taught by a teacher as stated by YN that My difficulty when conducting the performance of academic teachers assessed that the teachers to be assessed taught the subject that did not suitable with the background of their education. Because of the bustle of the school principal as the assessor team that is sudden also the lack of socialization, it is very important to conduct in-depth assessment toward teacher performance.
According to data analysis that has been done, there are three conclusions as follows; firstly, the procedures of teacher performance assessment at SDI Lento and SDK Menge includes several phases 1) planning stages conducted in the form of early meeting that was included in which it contained the elements of the division of Teaching duties, preparation of RPP and syllabus as well as discussion on the implementation of the teacher performance assessment. 2) Stage of implementation conducted in the form of Evaluation of the RPP (administrative), assessment of learning implementation that aimed to know the ability of teachers in explaining and applying learning materials that can certainly bring the alteration to the development, progress, outcomes and students’ learning achievement. 3) Evaluation stage was the confirmation stage of the value that was arranged objectively based on indicators in the valuation format. This stage of evaluation aimed to achieve the conclusions of the results, benefits as well as effectiveness to upgrade and improve the teachers’ performance professionally. 4) Reporting stage toward implementation result of teacher performance assessment which was designed as the school's official document as well as become an evaluation in the subsequent process and learning activities.
Secondly, the aspects assessed in the implementation of the teacher performance assessment at SDI Lento and SDK Menge included a learning administration assessment aspect conducted by checking and measuring the completeness of documents and materials and other supporting resources. The next aspect is the assessment of the implementation of learning conducted in class and outside the classroom. In the assessment of learning implementation, teachers were required to have creativity in developing learning methods effectively, efficiently and attract students’ interests and attention. After conducted the assessment of the implementation aspect, the next learning was the aspect of learning evaluation conducted to measure the outcomes and students’ learning achievements applied in both written and oral in which the evaluation aspect includes attitudes, knowledge, and skills.
Thirdly, the factors that supported the success of teacher performance assessment were that there were coordination and cooperation between the assessor and teacher assessed, also a facility and infrastructure was supporting the implementation of teacher performance assessment. That became an impeding factor of teacher performance assessment was the unsuitability of educational background with the subject taught. There were certain situation and condition that suddenly came, therefore, the implementation of the teacher performance assessment did not conduct appropriate with early year program and also the lack of socialization toward the importance and the urgency of the implementation of the teacher performance assessment had an impact on sustainable professional improvement.
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