With the rapid proliferation of products in the market, mere consumer satisfaction is insufficient to remain competitive, thus it brings the need to build a strong emotional bond with the consumer. Brand personality and brand love are widely researched constructs in the journey of building consumer brand relationships. In an era where the paradigm of marketing is gradually shifting from transaction to relationship, it brings a vital importance to study the two variables concerned to sustain amidst the intense rivalry. This study focused on examining the influence of brand personality on brand love referring to personal care products. Furthermore, the mediating effect of brand attitude on the relationship between brand personality and brand love is investigated. The sample was limited 265 respondents, and both inferential and descriptive statistical tools were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that there is a positive relationship between brand personality and brand love. Intangible associations of a brand are strengthened through brand personality where it is evident empirically that consumers tend to project themselves to the society by the consumption of brands. The five dimensions brand personality was deductively framed in this paper. Adding to that, the mediating effect of brand attitude on this relationship has proven to be significant. In making a purchase decision, consumer’s evaluation on the brand affects to make stronger memories to the consumers. This study contributes to marketing managerial aspects on the means of building a successful consumer brand relationship in the course of building strong brands.

Keywords: Brand love, Brand personality, Brand attitude, Personal care products, Sri Lanka, Consumer brand relationships.

JEL Classification: M31.

DOI: 10.20448/802.71.45.58

Citation | Y.R.K. Bandaranayake; A.S. Wickramasinghe (2020). Influence of Brand Personality on Brand Love for Personal Care Brands: With Reference to Sri Lankan Context. International Journal of Economics, Business and Management Studies, 7(1): 45-58.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

History : Received: 3 December 2019/ Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published:17 March 2020.

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • This study focused on examining the influence of brand personality on brand love referring to personal care products.
  • The findings revealed that there is a positive relationship between brand personality and brand love.


In the competitive market place, with the rising needs and wants of the consumer, there is a proliferation of products. Satisfaction is the necessity to ensure purchase of any product. The studies prevalent suggest that in the current competitive market, it is needed to think beyond customer satisfaction (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006). Previous researches suggest the foremost objective for any brand is to understand the deep emotions of customers as it is a solid measure to ascertain the strength of attachment to any brand (Pawle & Cooper, 2006). Therefore, the paradigm of marketing has moved away from a transactional based marketing to relationship-based marketing. In understanding the emotional bonds of consumers, brand personality and brand love are widely researched constructs (Bairrada, Coelho, & Lizanets, 2018). Carroll and Ahuvia (2006), brand love as ―”emotional and passionate feelings for a trade name”, and brand personality has been defined as “the set of human characteristics associated with a brand” (Aaker.. 1997).

Experiential consumption is a result of connecting with consumers emotionally; thus there is a shift from rational buying to irrational. In consumer brand relationship, brand love is a vital construct (Batra, Ahuvia, & Bagozzi, 2012; Huber, Meyer, & Schmid, 2015). But there is a limitation in research studies that have determined the depth of such relationships in terms of drivers and consequences (Albert & Merunka, 2013; Fetscherin, 2014; Grisaffe & Nguyen, 2011) . Constructs such as brand personality, perceived value and quality, trust, equity, brand reputation, satisfaction are suggested to be examined further as the variables are assumed to have a positive correlation (Unal & Aydın, 2013). Also, it was witnessed that brand personality and brand love are correlated (Bairrada et al., 2018). But still the need for further study is illustrated. Conclusively there is an empirical gap which persists to investigate pertaining to brand personality and brand love (Albert & Merunka, 2013; Dissabandara & Dissanayake, 2019; Dissanayake..., Ismail, & Pahlevan, 2017; Fetscherin, 2014) .
Additionally, the study further examines brand attitude as a mediating factor in the relationship between brand personality and brand love.  Brand attitude is defined as “consumers’ overall evaluation of a brand whether good or bad”(Low & Lamb, 2000; Mitchell & Olson, 1981).

According to  Kim (2000) the relationship between brand personality traits and brand attitude is proved with future claims. Positive brand attitude and experiences results in closer affinity to a brand, which would ultimately develop brand love (Joji & Ashwin, 2012). Supportively, empirical studies are found proposing to carry out research studies across product categories to explore the role of product category in these constructs; where there are limited studies found pertaining to personal care products which brings in the opportunity to investigate further. Fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector demands competitive promotions and branding activities (Dissanayake., 2007) whereas brand equity related strategies are to set as per the industry specific consumer behaviors (Gunawardane, Munasinghe, & Dissanayake, 2016). Brand love and brand personality had been found as a future research claim with whilst FMCG sector is a highghted scope within (Bairrada et al., 2018; Huber et al., 2015). This highlights the practical gap that is relevant to the study focusing on toothpaste, skin cleansing soap and shampoo products. Empirically, studies are conducted in developed countries such as USA, thus it is suggested to examine how the aforesaid constructs vary based on brands in different contexts (Rageh & Spinelli, 2012) where the current study focuses with reference to consumers in Sri Lanka.

1.1. Research Objectives

The paper attempts to examine the influence of brand personality on brand love with reference to personal care products in Sri Lanka. Secondly the study examines influence of brand personality to brand attitude. Also, the paper evaluates the impact of brand attitude to brand love. Followingly, the study analyzes how brand attitude mediates the relationship between brand personality and brand love. Finally, the paper attempts to recommend strategies that would develop brand love with reference to products in personal care category through brand personality and brand attitude.

1.2. Significance of the Study

The study aims to evaluate and understand the relationship between brand personality and brand love for personal care products. As personal care category is diverse portfolio in Sri Lana, the focus of the study is narrowed down to three main product categories such as oral care, skin cleansing and hair. Furthermore, the study intends to improve the existing research knowledge based on the determined construct focusing on local consumers.

The studies on consume brand relationships are vital to establish deeper emotional/psychological bonds with consumers, where it is evident through the interest of companies (Bairrada et al., 2018; Roy, Khandeparkar, & Motiani, 2016). Brand love and brand personality are widely studied topics by practitioners and academics in this arena (Bairrada et al., 2018).

Personal care products affect a consumer at innate levels. Companies in Sri Lanka invest lump sum amounts of money mass and digital media communications and on ground to digital activations, yet it is needed to build brands strategically to withstand the intense competition rising in the market.

The paper brings in value to Sri Lankan personal care sector as it aims to directionally provide guidance in strategizing for brand development. The findings assist the brand team and agencies to determine effective branding decisions. Thus, with reference to consumer choices, brands are essential to reflect the personality of the consumer, which would be a self-reflection. The strong emotional attachment brings in solidity and longer endurance to consumer brand relationship. Therefore, to immerse in consumer journey, it is important that brand teams provide an emotional connect through products that reflects one’s own self and not merely focus upon the functional value.


2.1. Brand Personality

Personality reflects the inner values of an individual and are uniquely to everyone. The theories of animism state that brands too can have their own personality. Furthermore, for humans to interact with the intangibles, humans tend to personify the objects around them (Bairrada et al., 2018). According to Aaker (1997) human characteristics that consumers can be associated with brands are termed as brand personality. Azoulay and Kapferer (2003)  define  this construct  as ―”the  set  of human personality traits that  are  both applicable and relevant to brands”, whereas Ferrandi and Valette-Florence (2002) have further defined as ―”all personality traits used to characterize the individual and associated with a brand”. According research work on consumer behavior, brand personality is  known to be a vehicle of consumer self-expression. Brand personality is considered to assist consumers to express who they are, i.e actual self; the person that they wish or desire to be, i.e. (ideal self) and to convey the intrinsic values within them (Belk, 1988; Swaminathan, Stilley, & Ahluwalia, 2009). According to Caprara, Barbaranelli, and Guido (2001) personality can  be  defined  as  ―a  viable  metaphor whose latent idea lies in the fact that a consumer creates affinities towards brand based on his or her personality.

Most often, the product intrinsic functions express the functionality or the utilitarian function and the personality is a symbolic expression (Keller, 1993).

In the year 1997, Aaker has introduced the brand personality framework with five dimensions as Sincerity (Wholesome, Honest, Genuine and Cheerful), Excitement (Daring, Spirited, Imaginative and Up-to-date), Sophistication (Charming, Glamorous, Upper Class and Romantic), Competence (Intelligent, Success, Efficient, Reliable) and Ruggedness (Tough, Masculine, Strong). These five dimensions are through a factor analysis which was conducted through data collected from a sample of American citizen and 60 brands utilizing the survey method.

2.2. Brand Love

The foremost empirical studies pertaining to brand love are contributed by many scholars; Ahuvia, Batra, and Bagozzi (2009);

Carroll and Ahuvia (2006) and Albert., Merunka, and Valette-Florence (2008). In consumer brand relationships, brand love is considered one of the vital constructs (Batra et al., 2012; Bergkvist & Bech-Larsen, 2010; Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006) . Brand love is the ultimate goal in customer–brand relationship (Karjaluoto, Munnukka, & Kiuru, 2016). This correlates with the main objective of brand management which is to establish strong bonds with consumers (Esch, Langner, Schmitt, & Geus, 2006). Fournier (1998) in her studies has established that consumers experience brand love which results in developing strong relationships with brands. Also, Shimp and Madden (1988) who are considered to be pioneer authors in studies related to brand love have examined the relationship between the customer and object.

Various authors have defined brand love in different ways. Brand love is a ―deeply felt affection for a brand‖ (Bergkvist & Bech-Larsen, 2010). According to Ahuvia. (2005) brand love is considered a ―real emotion, more than a feeling‖. Also, brand love is defined as ―passionate and emotional feelings for a trade name‖ by Carroll and Ahuvia (2006). Rationalized brand love as the strongest emotional bond between the brand and the customer.

2.3. Brand Attitude

Aaker (1991) defines ―brand associations as anything linked in memory to a brand. Brand attitude, brand image and perceived quality are the three constructs that are linked in memory related to a brand. In associating emotionally and to build up stronger memory, brand attitude is important. Brand attitude is defined  as  ―consumers'  overall  evaluation  of  a  brand   whether  good  or  bad  (Mitchell & Olson, 1981).  Brand evaluation is influenced by stimulus that leads brand relationship behaviors (Koththagoda & Dissanayake, 2017). Furthermore, Brand attitude is defined as -relative enduring, uni-dimensional summary evaluation of the brand that presumably energizes behaviors‖ (Spears & Singh, 2004) whilst they have further defined brand attitude is a -judgmental concept that is based on customer evaluation about brands.

2.4. Relationship amongst Brand Personality, Brand Love and Brand Attitude

Based on the studies conducted by Ahuvia et al. (2009)  ―love is nonetheless a psychological process that can be applied to people, ideas, activities, and objects. Supportively, in bringing association and relevancy of brands to consumer lives to ensure the right choice of brands, antecedents of brand love explored by Batra et al. (2012) has identified brand personality as an experiential or symbolic attribute (Rauschnabel, Krey, Babin, & Ivens, 2016).

However, several arguments put forward to describe the possible influence of brand personality on brand love can be summarized. Firstly, as cited through literature, constructs depend mainly through the brand associations. Attachment theory states that brand love is a result of accessible network of the memory (Park, MacInnis, Priester, Eisingerich, & Iacobucci, 2010) and strengthened through the brand associations (Keller, 1993). Also, brand personality is formed with the direct and indirect association of the brand (Aaker.. 1997). Secondly, brand love assists in determining the quality of brand relationships (Thomson, MacInnis, & Park, 2005). The intrinsic and qualitative factors help in determining strong brands over the marketing or advertising spends incurred (Keller. & Lehmann, 2003) the main factors that form the brand relationships are the emotional and self expressive benefits of a brand which reflects the brand personality (Chang & Chieng, 2006). Next, Brand personality and brand love have an impact on brand loyalty, positive word of mouth (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006) willingness to pay (Kim., Kim, Jolly, & Fairhurst, 2010) and the purchase intention (Vlachos & Vrechopoulos, 2012) which are post purchase behavior parameters.

Brand loyalty, dependability, and trustworthiness (Moorman, Zaltman, & Deshpande, 1992; Villegas, Earnhart, & Burns, 2000) dimensions are expected to have a direct influence on brand personality dimensions which can be further examined.

Brand personality is expected to result in positive brand evaluation resulting in brand (Aaker, 1991; Rageh & Spinelli, 2012) where this brings the mediating role of brand attitude on how evaluations on a brand would be conceived. Meanwhile, brand love is one of the dimensions that is used for brand evaluation (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006; Dissanayake.. & Ismail, 2015). This signifies possible mediating effects of brand attitude to the main constructs of the study, thus creating need and significance to further undertake the study empirically.


3.1. Conceptual Framework

Figure-1. Conceptual framework: Independent variable- Brand Personality, Dependent variable- Brand Love and Mediating variable- Brand attitude.

3.2. Development of Hypotheses

Consumers perceive brands as humans where they tend to extend certain personalities to brands which in return results in strong relationships with brands that inherit strong characteristics (Aaker 1997).

Brand personality results in strong bonds and is considered essential to build links like people form with one another (Bouhlel, Mzoughi, Hadiji, & Slimane, 2011). If a brand perceives a positive personality, consumers tend to feel a brand love (Bairrada et al., 2018; Gómez, Yagüe, & Villaseñor, 2014).

Based on these, the below hypothesis can be developed;

H1- Brand Personality has a significant influence on brand love.

There are five main dimensions that would be further studied as hypothesized below as appearing on Aaker.. (1997) model as below;

H1a – Sincerity dimension has a positive influence on brand love H1b - Excitement dimension is effective on brand love.

H1c- Competence dimension has a positive correlation on brand love H1d- Sophistication dimension has a positive impact on brand love.

H1e- Ruggedness dimension will have a positive influence on brand love.

Emotional and cognitive connection strengthen the bond consumers develop between the brand concerned and themselves (Park et al., 2010). Thus, the attitude portrays the evaluative judgment of the consumer towards a brand as positive or negative.

H2- Brand personality has a positive effect on brand attitude.

Behaviours such as intention to purchase, consideration for the brand, branch choice and the purchase behavior is a result of consumer’s favourable attitude (Park et al., 2010). Thus, through likeability, positivity and favourability, consumers will develop brand judgements which comprise brand attitude, and will result in conducive consumer brand relationship, thus can be hypothesized as;

H3 Brand attitude positively influences brand love.

In bringing association and relevancy of brands to consumer lives to ensure the right choice of brands, antecedents of brand love explored by Batra et al. (2012) has identified brand personality as an experiential variable that is required to foster consumer self-related brand relationships.

Furthermore, according to Faircloth, Capella, and Alford (2001) brand attitude is an important determinant of brand equity which strengthens the need to study the mediating effect of brand attitude in fostering brand love through brand personality dimensions. Hence the researcher hypothesizes the relationship as follows;

H4 Brand attitude mediates the relationship between brand personality and brand love.

3.3. Research Strategy

To conduct the study, researcher has followed a deductive approach. The hypothesis, constructs and the research study were developed based on literature. A quantitative research study was opted, and the research instrument is a structured questionnaire survey. Variables and indicators were operationalized in line with empirical evidences. Brand Personality has five variables as Sincerity, Excitement, Sophistication, Competence and Ruggedness itemized with the empirical evidence (Aaker., Benet-Martínez, & Garolera, 2001; Roy et al., 2016; Srivastava & Sharma, 2016; Sung & Kim, 2010) and a five-point Likert scale is used. The items of Brand Love was justified based on the contribution of Carroll and Ahuvia (2006) and Unal and Aydın (2013) while Brand Attitude items were cited based on studies by Batra. and Stephens (1994); Dissanayake.. and Ismail (2015) and Garretson and Niedrich (2004). The validity of the measures was justified using face validity with reference to the past research studies conducted. Normality was tested by employing Kurtosis and Skewness tests (Byrne, 2010). Both descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze demographic data and test the hypotheses.

The average monthly expenditure incurred for personal care products by Western Province accounts to the highest in comparison to the other provinces as per 2016 statistics produced by the Department of Census and Statistics. Thus, a convenience sampling strategy was followed with 265 respondents representing the Western Province of Sri Lanka.


4.1. Analysis of Sample Profile

Table-1. Summary of demographic statistics.
Percentage Value
Female: 59%
Age Distribution
18-25: 52%
26-43: 32%
Level of Education
Ordinary/Advanced Level: 20%
Bachelor’s Degree:50%
Professional Qualification:12%
Undergraduate: 45%
Professional: 43%
Rs 0- Rs 10,000: 23%
Rs 10,001- Rs 25,000: 34%
Rs 25001- Rs 30,000:6%
Rs 30,001- Rs 50,000: 13%
Rs 50,001- Rs 100,000:18%
Rs 100,001 and above: 6%

Source: Survey data, 2018.

The total number of respondents that involved in the research accounts to 265. Based on the categorization according to gender of the respondents involved in the study, it was evident that a majority of the respondents were Female accounting to 59% and Male respondents accounting to 41%. The age group of the study consisted of four main groups. 18-25 represented a majority, next 26-34 accounting to 32% and following by the age groups 35-44 and 45 and above respectively. The highest mid year population in 2016 is from Western Province based on the report produced by Central Bank of Sri Lanka namely “Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka” thus the respondents of the study was  mainly recruited from Western Province for a better representation. Accordingly Colombo district represented 51%, Gampaha 33% and Kalutara 16%. The majority represents individuals holding a Bachelor’s Degree, based on the education level. As per the respondents of the study, 45% represented undergraduates and 43% represented professionals representing the employed individuals. Also, Based on the income distribution of the respondents, a majority of the respondents were categorized into Rs 10,001- Rs 25,000 followed by Rs 0- Rs 10,000 and Rs 50,001 and Rs 100,000.

4.2. Results of Normality, Reliability and Validity

Normality test was conducted to examine the normality of each construct. The data was considered satisfactory as the skewness is less than 3 and kurtosis is less than 10 (Kline, 2011). Multicollinearity test results measured the tolerance and VIF which indicated the  degree to which one independent variable is described by the other independent variables. The data is found acceptable as VIF values are less than 10 and tolerance figures are closer to 1 (Field, 2009; Sekara & Bougie, 2013).  Kaiser Meyer Olkin sample adequacy test reported a figure of 0.821, p value less than 0.01 indicating the factory analysis is appropriate (Malhotra, 1993). Additionally, the acceptable reliability score is one that is 0.7 and higher (Nunnally, 1978). According to Sekara and Bougie (2013) a score above 0.8 is considered to be strong. All items show reliability scores above 0.7 ensuring the consistency of data, where Sincerity, Ruggedness, Brand Love and Brand Attitude scored above 0.8 illustrating a strong internal consistency of data.

4.3. Descriptive Statistics of Data

Mean value is one of the main measures in descriptive data. Among the five dimensions of Brand Personality, highest mean value is reported from Sophistication. Brand.

Love which is the dependent variable has a mean value of 3.88 and brand attitude has a mean value of 4.15

4.4. Hypotheses Testing

Table-2. Summary of pearson correlation.
Pearson Coeffient
H1 Brand Personality  Brand Love
H1a Sincerity  Brand Love
H1b Excitement    Brand Love
H1c Competence    Brand Love
H1d Sophistication  Brand Love
H1e Ruggedness  Brand Love
H2 Brand Personality  Brand Attitude
H3 Brand Attitude  Brand Love

Notes: Two tailed **p<0.01, *p<0.05.

Based on the results of Pearson Correlation, it is evident that H1 is supported accounting 64.3%. This depicts a strong relationship between Brand Personality and Brand Love. But H1e, Ruggedness seems to be weakly influencing Brand Love. The resulting coefficient is 0.158 at a significance of 95%. Also, H2 possesses positive yet a not that significant effect between the variables brand attitude and brand personality with a coefficient value of 0.318 at a confidence level of 99%. H3 is supported at 99% confidence level with a correlation coefficient of 0.532.

4.5. Multiple Regression Analysis

Table-3. Summary of regression analysis.
Brand Personality   Brand Love
Sincerity  Brand Love
Excitement  Brand Love
Competence   Brand Love
Sophistication  Brand Love
Ruggedness  Brand Love
Brand Personality  Brand Love
Brand Attitude    Brand Love

Notes: *p<0.01.

Based on the results, Sincerity (β= 0.277, p < 0.01), Sophistication (β = 0.221, p < 0.01) and Competence (β= 0.396, p <0.01) are positively related to Brand Love, thus supporting H1a, H1c and H1d. However, it is evident in this study that Excitement (β= -0.015, p > 0.01) and Ruggedness (β= - 0.04, p > 0.01) do not relate to Brand Love, thereby rejecting the hypotheses H1b and H1e respectively. Furthermore, H2 examining the relationship between Brand Personality and Brand Attitude is supported (β= 0.357, P< 0.05). As predicted, Brand Attitude is positively influencing Brand Love (H3) (β= 0.648, p<0.05).

The sobel test was conducted to examine the mediating effect of Brand Attitude; a (β) = Coefficient that determines the relationship between Brand Personality and Brand Attitude.

Sa = standard error of a.

b (β) = Coefficient that determines the relationship the Brand Attitude and Brand Love (when the Brand Personality is also a predictor of the DV).

Sb = Standard error of b.

Table-4. Calculation of b(β) and Sb.
Unstandardized Coefficients
Std. Error
Brand Personality

Dependent Variable: Brand Attitude

Table-5. Calculation of a(β) and Sa.s
Unstandardized Coefficients
Std. Error
Brand Personality

Dependent Variable: Brand Love

Based on the Table 4 and Table 5, the following variables were calculated to determine the mediation effect.

Sa = 0.065

b (β) =0.443

Sb = 0.054

4.6. Results of Mediation

Figure-2. Sobel test for mediation.

Source:"Interactive Mediation tests", 2018.

The results of the sobel test conducted reflects that p value is les than 0.1, this there is mediating effect by the variable brand attitude on the variables of the study brand personality and brand love.


In the research study Competence, Sincerity and Sophistication dimensions were proved whereas Ruggedness and Excitement dimensions were rejected in examining the influence on Brand Love. Based on the uniqueness found in different cultures, products and specific contexts, studies suggest that there is a possibility for brand personality to be varied (Srivastava & Sharma, 2016). Thus, it can be visible how the five dimensions have functioned differently with reference to the category under scrutiny of the study, which is personal care brands found in Sri Lanka. Excitement dimension is absent across personal care product categories in Sri Lanka with reference to the context of the study. According to Aaker. et al. (2001) it is evident that Ruggedness dimension is specific to cultures in concern. This evident the fact that Sri Lankan culture being feminine oriented and possessing soft attributes, Ruggedness is not significantly found or evident in Sri Lankan consumer. The mediating role of Brand Attitude on the relationship between Brand Love and Brand Personality has been confirmed.


The findings of the research study is expected to support branding teams to craft emotionally convincing strategies to be impactful and to create stronger consumer and brand associations. As empirically suggested, a brand that possesses a unique and strong personality is capable of attracting consumers and building strong associations due to the uniqueness of the brand (Bairrada et al., 2018). Sincerity, Competence and Sophistication dimensions of Brand Personality have a strong effect on Brand Love.

In the Sri Lankan context, an essential dimension for practitioners to mainly focus on is sincerity. The importance for the dimension is relied upon the soft attributes within the Sri Lankan culture/ Furthermore the Sri Lankan culture is feminine oriented. Due to the competitive and cluttered media prevalent, sincerity is essential for purpose and equity driven communication strategies. Also, with the proliferation of variety of products, consumers have a plethora of choices. Yet the consumers choice is determined based on a stronger reason to believe along with the brand relevance. This brings the importance of the competence dimension. Global brands need to be investigated on how country of origin (COO) is perceived in different countries with reference to brand related responses (Wegapitiya & Dissanayake, 2018). Thus, marketing mix should be examined to unveil how consumer respond to brand evaluations including brand love whereas multinational brands are a specific context when adaptation is applied.

Furthermore, there are many other constructs such as brand trust, brand image, brand associations and brand identity which are influential constructs for brand love and suggested to be further examined. Research can further examine the means by which the associations between the constructs brand love and brand personality can be further strengthened to result in equity. It is evident that through studies there are multiple mediating factors that could affect the relationship between Brand Personality and Brand Love, thus it is important future research are conducted to examine such factors. Further, studies may examine the concept of brand love with sensory marketing applications in different sectors including services (Dissabandara & Dissanayake, 2019). For instance, restaurants, hotels, fast food outlets and coffee shops heavily apply sensory marketing for brand related motivations. Thus, paper highlights such sectors to be examined with brand love and brand personality. The study is focused upon personal care category. In Sri Lanka, there are other influential industries that drive the economy such as tea, apparel and service based industries such as banking, telecommunications, hospiality which the research could be extended to ascertain the relationship between the variables.


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