Role and Applications of Promethium Nanoparticles in Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors Treatment
Keywords:Promethium nanoparticles, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), 3D finite element method (FEM), Heat transfer equation, Optothermal, Heat distribution, Thermoplasmonic, Promethium nanorods, Human cancer cells, Tissues and tumors treatment, Simulation, Synchrotron radiation, Emission, Function, Beam energy.
Promethium nanoparticles absorb energy of descendent light and generate some heat in the particle. The generated heat transferred to the surrounding environment and leads to increase in temperature of adjacent points to nanoparticles. Heat variations can be obtained by heat transfer equation. When Promethium nanoparticles are subjected to descendent light, a part of light scattered (emission process) and the other part absorbed (non–emission process). The amount of energy dissipation in non–emission process mainly depends on material and volume of nanoparticles and it can be identified by absorption cross section. At the other hand, emission process which its characteristics are depend on volume, shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles explains by scattering cross section. Sum of absorption and scattering processes which lead to light dissipation is called extinction cross section. In optothermal human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment, the descendent laser light stimulate resonance of surface Plasmon of metallic nanoparticles and as a result of this process, the absorbed energy of descendent light converse to heat in nanoparticl. The produced heat devastates tumor tissue adjacent to nanoparticles without any hurt to sound tissu. Regarding the simplicity of ligands connection to Promethium nanoparticles for targeting cancer cells, these nanoparticles are more appropriate to use in optothermal human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment. In the current paper, thermoplasmonic characteristics of spherical, core–shell and rod Promethium nanoparticles are investigated. To calculate the generated heat in Promethium nanoparticles, COMSOL software which works by Finite Element Method (FEM) was used.